The Chinese discovered kaolin clay and figured out how to shape and fire it into porcelain by the 8th century, but they guarded the secrets of making fine china from the West. As a result, Europeans fumbled around for centuries making soft-paste or “artificial” porcelain out of white clay, crystalline quartz, and sand. It wasn’t until the early 18th century that kaolin was discovered in Germany outside Colditz and Aue, and European potteries set about experimenting with making their own true hard-paste porcelain dinnerware.

Following in the footsteps of German potteries like Meissen, Danish chemist Franz Henrich Mueller founded the Royal Copenhagen porcelain factory in 1775 under the protection of Queen Juliane Marie. The company adopted three waved lines—which represent Denmark’s three straits, Øresund, Store Bælt and Lille Bælt—as its trademark.

Royal Copenhagen struggled financially as it experimented with porcelain making until the absolute monarch King Christian VII took over the company in 1779 to guarantee its survival. Most of the porcelain at the time was painted with cobalt blue, as that was the only underglaze color that could tolerate the 1400-degree Celsius firing.

The first dinnerware pattern produced by Royal Copenhagen in 1775 was called Blue Fluted, which is still produced and hand-painted today. It features a floral pattern similar to those of Chinese porcelain sets, but it eventually became a pattern synonymous with Danish porcelain. Another 1770s pattern known as the Bird Service was produced for the Queen. In 1779, the Blue Flower pattern debuted, flaunting a more distinctive European style, with naturalistic flowers.

It wasn’t long before porcelain dinnerware became a status symbol among the royal family and other aristocrats, who would commission coffee and tea services, as well as enormous detailed vases, for prices that would be the equivalent of millions today. The royals gave them as gifts to enhance their country’s reputation and used them to serve on when entertaining prestigious foreign visitors. Royal Copenhagen and other porcelain potteries would decorate these wares with a rich multicolored overglaze and hand-molded embellishments.

The most famous and ambitious of these commissions was the Flora Danica dinner service. It is believed that the Danish king, Christian VII, ordered it in 1790 as a gift for Catherine the Great of Russia, requesting a service beautiful and delicate enough to be worthy of a spot in her prized porcelain collection. However, the Empress died in 1796, years before the service was complete, and, instead, it stayed in the Danish royal family, now belonging to Queen Margrethe II.

The service is based on “Flora Danica,” a 51-volume taxonomy of Danish flowers that is heralded as one of the great works of the Age of Enlightenment. The color copperplate print...

Production of Flora Danica was revived in 1863 as a gift honoring the marriage of Princess Alexandra of Denmark to Edward VII, the future king of England, and this dinnerware pattern has been made ever since. One of its most unique items is the 28-centimeter “ice dome,” which requires 16 different processes over the course of one month to produce.

Surviving the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Copenhagen factory flourished again in the mid-19th century, thanks to artistic director G.F. Hetsch. He brought flower painter J.L. Jensen, known for his gorgeous colorful overglaze paintings inspired by foreign styles, to the firm.

Around the same time, Royal Copenhagen lost one of its top creative minds, artist Frederick Wilhelm Grøndahl, who joined retailers Harald and Jacob Bing to form Bing & Grøndahl. Unfortunately, Grøndahl died in 1855, just two years after the company was established. However, another former Royal Copenhagen employee, F.A. Hallin, joined Bing & Grøndahl and developed a revolutionary way of painting plates known as relief painting.

Relief painting involves carving the artwork into a mold, which is then used as a model for other molds. The production of the plates requires more than one mold because each mold can only be used to make 20 to 30 plates before it absorbs too much water from the drying porcelain. This new method allowed for subtle shadings in the traditional cobalt blue.

In 1867, the state sold Royal Copenhagen to A. Falch, as well as the rights to the “royal” name. In 1882, Philip Schou, owner of faience factory Alumina, bought Royal Copenhagen and ran both companies.

Royal Copenhagen released its first collectible commemorative plate for the 1888 Scandinavian Fair in Copenhagen. At the time, the only way to make multiples was through stenciling, a process in which an artisan puts a stencil on a white plate and dabs it with paint using a sponge.

The Scandinavian Fair plate, featuring a crown with three wavy lines underneath it, was displayed on each corner of the Royal Copenhagen Factory booth. Queen Louise let it be known that she would like one of her own, and these plates soon become all the rage with the Danish aristocracy.

From then on, the factory made plates to honor royal events, anniversaries, and all sorts of special occasions. For example, in 1906, the company introduced the Flora Danica Silhouette Portrait plates, designed by Arnold Krog. These 4.5-inch-by-3.5-inch plates are decorated with the shadow profile of a royal family member in the center and his or her national flag and colors on the border. Each of the 15 is topped with a gilded crown.

Meanwhile, the designers at Bing & Grøndahl had not been idle. Using their relief-painting technique, they produced the world’s first Christmas plate in 1895. Royal Copenhagen quickly jumped on this idea, making its own Christmas plate every year employing this new relief-painting technology.

In the early days, collecting commemorative plates was a hobby exclusive to Danish royalty and aristocrats. However, the trend spread to the rest of Europe with industrialization, and Royal Copenhagen produced Christmas plates in the French, English, German, and Czechoslovakian languages.

Royal Copenhagen’s Christmas plates are 7 inches in diameter, and those from 1908 to 1952 are usually inscribed with the year and “JUL” or “Julen,” which is “Christmas” in Danish. The Royal Copenhagen Christmas plates made after 1953 feature only the year. Rarer plates are inscribed with the word “Christmas” in other languages: “Weihnachten” (German, 1908-1944), “Noel” (French, 1909-1944), “Vanoce” (Czechoslovakian, 1909-1943), and “Kerstmis” (Dutch, 1931 and perhaps 1932).

A smaller Christmas plate from 1911, called the “thief plate,” was found in Aarhus, and rumor has it that it was never meant to be sold. Another small Christmas plate featuring ducks was produced in small quantities in 1927 in various languages. For three years during World War II, the general of the German Air Force in Denmark requested a special Christmas plate with the words “General der luffwaffe in Denmark” inscribed on it. Possibly only two of these were made each year between 1941 and 1943. Perhaps the rarest Christmas plate finds, though, are the trial and proof plates for each year.

It wasn’t until after World War II that Christmas plates hit the United States, as soldiers returning from the war brought home the holiday keepsakes marked with the year. The oldest dealer’s price list known to be distributed in the U.S. is from 1952. In the ’60s and ’70s, the popularity Christmas plates skyrocketed, and Royal Copenhagen churned them out. However, in the late ’70s, the market became saturated with cheaply made “limited edition” commemorative plates that diminished the value of such items.

Other famous commemorative Royal Copenhagen plates include those to honor Children’s Help Day in Denmark. A doctor named Johan Carlsen founded the organization, the Danish equivalent of the Help the Children Foundation, in 1904 to raise funds for needy kids—Royal Copenhagen put out a series of plates showing happy kids at play from 1910 to 1940.

Over the last 100 years, Royal Copenhagen has attempted many different commemorative series, including Mother’s Day plates and Portraits of Old Copenhagen (1970s) by the famous illustrator Mads Stage. In the 1950s and ’60s, Royal Copenhagen produced the Plaquette series picturing iconic buildings, antique cars, and U.S. Presidents including George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, and John F. Kennedy. In the ’70s, the Compass Series, featuring old-world Danish compasses, was produced in limited numbers.

The newest series include Nature’s Children, Young Adventurers, and the Millennium series. The 1990s’ Christmas in Denmark series, also known as the “Dear Family,” was the company’s only full-color plate series. Aside from plates, Royal Copenhagen also made mugs to commemorate each year, starting in 1967.

Some Royal Copenhagen items have been sold as “seconds,” identified by a single perpendicular scratch in the trademark’s waves, which is sometimes easier to feel than see. Plates might have been marked as second-quality thanks to holes in the glaze or cracks in the porcelain under the glaze. Sometimes the seconds are “out-of-round,” meaning the plate does not lie perfectly flat when placed face down on a table.

If a dinnerware item has two or more scratches in the trademark waves, these are considered third or fourth quality. Sometimes, they are actually flawless pieces that employees purchased from the factory, but they were marked as low quality to discourage the workers from selling them. If the plate is truly third or fourth quality, it will be obviously flawed.

Outside of dinnerware, Royal Copenhagen became known in the Art Nouveau period for its naturalistic art pottery, featuring figurines and animals painted with delicately colored glazes.

The company also produced a number of antique porcelain signs, which exploded in popularity in the late 19th century. Older signs were hand-painted using over- and underglaze, while newer signs were usually produced using transferware techniques.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

The Bowes Museum: Ceramics

The Bowes Museum: Ceramics

This gallery showcases highlights from the 5,000 items in the museum's ceramics collection dating from 1500-1900. I… [read review or visit site]

Ceramics at The V&A

Ceramics at The V&A

A great reference on ceramics from the Victoria and Albert Museum. Learn about different ceramics techniques and st… [read review or visit site]

Most watched eBay auctions    

Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace - 4 Sundae/fruit Dishes 1/638 - Lovely!12 Plates #1087 - Blue Fluted - Royal Copenhagen - Full LaceRoyal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain - Extremely Rare 1775-80 Chocolate Pot!!!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace - 5/6 Cup Teapot 1/611 -1924/34 -lovely!6 Dinner Plates #1084 - Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted - Full Lace - Second SortAntique Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace. Pierced Plate Mint!6 Dinner Plates #1084 - Royal Copenhagen - Blue Fluted - Full Lace - First SortRoyal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace - Butter Box 1/707 -pre 1923 -lovely!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain - 8 1/4"bowl 305 - 1894/ 1900 - 1st Quality!6 Large Teacups & Saucers 1142 - Blue Fluted - Royal Copenhagen Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace 5 5/8" Individual Coffee Pot W/ Lid 508Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Full Lace Small Comport 1/1023 - Pre 1923 - Lovely!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain - Milk Jug / Creamer - Pre. 1894 - Superb!1949 Royal Copenhagen 7 1/2" Blue Fluted Half Lace 1/573 Side Plates X 42 Serving Plates/trays #269 - Royal Copenhagen - Blue Fluted - First SortRoyal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace 5 1/2 Inch Oil Cruet With Lid 1179Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain - 6 X 7 1/2 Side Plates - Pre.1894 - Superb!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain - Cup & Saucer - Pre. 1894 - Just Superb!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Full Lace Sugar Bowl 1/1113 - 1968 - Just Superb!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain Teapot 2nd Quality, 1/257Royal Copenhagen 4 Blue Fluted Half Lace Side Plates 576 1. Quality SortRoyal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain - Large Coffee Pot 1/48 -1970s- 1st Quality!Vintage Pair Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted #15 Lion Candlesticks 9" Lion Motif Antique Royal Copenhagen #38 Blue Fluted, Pot With Wooden Handle. Very Rare!!!Antique Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace. Pierced Plate #1098 1. Quality.Antique Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace. Pierced Plate 1098 1. QualityRoyal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace - Pair Open Salts 755 -pre 1923 -lovely!4 Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace Cup & Saucers 1/756Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted 6 1/2" Oval Plate / Under Plate Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace -cruet Set -pre 1923 -lovely!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain - Lidded Sugar Bowl - Pre. 1894 - Lovely!Antique #1098 Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace. Pierced Plate 1. Quality.Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace 9 3/4" Plate 1/577 - Pre 1923 - Lovely!Royal Copenhagen Denmark Blue Fluted Lace Pierced Vases Set 4pc Lot EucRoyal Copenhagen Full Lace Blue White Dinner Plate 1084 FlutedVintage Royal Copenhagen Amager Girl Knitting Model No.1314 By Lotte BenterRare! 1908 Royal Copenhagen Jardinière Midsummer Night's Dream Dragonfly HandlesAntique Royal Copenhagen 4 Blue Fluted Half Lace Side Plates 576 1. Quality SortRoyal Copenhagen Pierced Open Basket Or Bowl Blue #1054Royal Copenhagen 2 Blue Fluted Side Plates 576 3. Quality Dated 1924-1934Antique Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace. Pierced Plate 1098 1. QualityRoyal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain 4 3/4 Inch CreamerRoyal Copenhagen Boy & Puppy DogExquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Winecooler Large Collection ! Nr !!Rare Royal Copenhagen Blue Flowers Suger Bowl #1680 MintRoyal Copenhagen Porcelain Denmark Full Lace Candy Dish No: 1001Exquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Lunch Plate ! Nr !!Exquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Lunch Plate ! Nr !!Exquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Lunch Plate ! Nr !!Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace 8 1/2" Luncheon Plate 1/578 - 1924 -34!Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Denmark Full Reticulated Vase No: 1/1016Exquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Reticulated Lunch Plate Nr CollectionRoyal Copenhagen Full Lace Dish 1074Royal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Plain 4 Inch CreamerExquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Reticulated Lunch Plate Nr CollectionExquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Reticulated Lunch Plate Nr CollectionExquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Reticulated Lunch Plate Nr CollectionRoyal Copenhagen Blue Fluted Half Lace 16" PlatterExquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Lunch Plate ! Nr !!Exquisite Royal Copenhagen Flora Danica Coffee Cup & Saucer Large Collection Nr

Recent News: Royal Copenhagen China

Source: Google News

Works by Local Artists in 'Art of the Animal'
Litchfield County Times, June 29th

NEW MILFORD —A new exhibit, “Art of the Animal,” which opens June 27 and continues through Aug. 2 at the Gregory James Gallery, features works by ten established artists who live and work in and around Litchfield County and nearby New York State...Read more

New Milford: Gregory James Gallery presents 'Art of the Animal'
Torrington Register Citizen, June 24th

NEW MILFORD >> A new exhibit, “Art of the Animal,” which opens June 27 and continues through Aug. 2 at the Gregory James Gallery in the Park Lane section of New Milford, features works by ten established artists who live and work in and around...Read more

Garden Party
Gifts & Decorative Accessories, June 11th

Flora is enhanced through color, with a range of flowers for every season and occasion. $50-$450. Royal Copenhagen. 800.448.8252. Rose Cottage gift collection includes plates, cups and saucers, milk jug, sugar bowl, cake platter and ...Read more

Things to do in Copenhagen, Stockholm, Helsinki and Tallinn, May 29th

The Georg Jensen and Royal Copenhagen stores make for wonderful souvenir shopping. Visit the fairytale amusement park, Tivoli Gardens, especially at night with the millions of twinkling lights. Tivoli Gardens inspired Walt Disney to build Disneyworld...Read more

Ceramics and glass shatter price expectations at Crewkerne auction
Blackmore Vale Magazine, May 12th

Even a Royal Copenhagen pygmy hippopotamus looked friendlier than its ferocity suggested when it made £370. Strong results later in the sale included £1700 for a single green wine bottle with a heraldic seal, £1700 also for a single tiny Worcester...Read more

Royal Copenhagen's Annual Show of Magical Tablescapes
Architectural Digest (blog), December 19th

For more than 50 years, Royal Copenhagen, the esteemed Danish purveyor of hand-painted porcelain, has celebrated the holidays with a grand display of Christmas tables that show off the brand's timeless wares and capture the celebratory spirit of the ...Read more

A Modernist Mecca: Radisson Blu Royal Copenhagen Hotel
HotelChatter, July 25th

Few can deny that Danish architect Arne Jacobsen, creator of the Egg, the Swan and the Series 7 chairs, was one of the most iconic architects and designers of the modernist era. Could the Radisson Blu Royal Copenhagen be his finest achievement?...Read more

Fiskars acquires Royal Copenhagen, creating a consolidated portfolio of ...
GlobeNewswire (press release), December 12th

Fiskars is accelerating the international expansion of its Home business by acquiring the renowned Danish premium porcelain company, Royal Copenhagen. The acquisition enables Fiskars to consolidate a unique portfolio of leading Scandinavian dining ...Read more