In the art world, proofs are usually defined as prints made prior to an official production run. The goal of such proofs is to give artist and printer alike a sneak peek at the planned edition so they can fine tune colors, registration, and other crucial details. The resulting imperfect proofs are thus variants of the final product, although they are often collected as enthusiastically as prints in the final signed-and-numbered edition.

With U.S. coins, proofs are roughly the opposite. In fact, proof coins are not even considered a part of a coin’s overall production run since the methods used to create them are completely distinct from those used to make the coins themselves.

To begin, proof coins are struck with dies that have been carefully selected for their perfection. These dies are cleaned and polished throughout the production process. Similarly, the planchets or blanks that the dies strike are usually stamped out of highly polished metal sheets and then hand fed into the press. Proofs are typically struck twice so that their features exhibit sharp relief, from their edges to their portraits, often with mirrorlike surfaces, or fields, in between.

Although some proofs were struck prior to 1856, many of these coins are museum pieces, which is why most collectors focus their attention on proofs minted between 1856 and 1916, 1936 and 1942, 1950 and 1964, and 1968 until the present day. The date of 1936 is significant because that was when the Mint began to actively market proof sets to the public in addition to individual proof coins.

In general, there are three types of proofs. The most desirable kind is known as a frosted or cameo proof. Coins of this type have the classic mirrorlike fields, which are interrupted by portraits and other devices that have a frosted appearance, which makes the contrast within the coin especially dramatic. The surface of matte proofs appears to have been sandblasted, while the so-called “brilliant” proofs have mirrorlike fields and portraits, giving them an overall shiny look.

Of the late-19th-century coins, some proofs are actually less prized than regularly minted coins of comparable grade. Examples of this anomaly include most proof quarters struck in Philadelphia between 1866 and 1891, especially in the earliest years. For most pre-1936 coins, proofs are more sought-after by collectors than their uncirculated counterparts. Matte Buffalo nickels from 1913 to 1916 are a good example of the value placed on proof coins, as are most Barber dimes from 1892 to 1915.

World War I put the brakes on proofs, but it’s unclear why it took Mint officials 20 years to get the program going again. Whatever the reason—some blame bureaucratic inertia, ot...

Another world war halted the release of proof sets until 1950, when the Mint raised the price of a set from $1.89 to $2.10 while more than doubling production. Retail prices for the sets, which included the same five denominations as the 1936-1942 sets and were now packed in Pliofilm, held steady through 1964, but the Mint had noticed how buyers had been snapping up its sets and selling them for a fast profit. So, in 1968, it began to pack its proof sets in plastic holders and raised the price to $5.

Higher prices combined with radically increased productions runs (three million was not uncommon after 1961) conspired to suck the air out of the proof-set market. Especially hard hit were the top-of-the-line Prestige Sets, which in most cases are actually worth less today than what collectors paid for them when issued—the notable exceptions being the 1983S set with an Olympic dollar and the 1990S set missing an S cent. Proof sets that appear to have held their own include the five-piece state quarter sets issued since 1999 (that first set has proved most popular among collectors).

One final bit of terminology to pay attention to is the word prooflike, which describes a regularly minted, uncirculated coin with a mirrorlike surface. Some of the most dramatic examples of prooflike coins are Morgan dollars minted at the end of the 19th century. In some cases, the prooflike coin will have valuations well into five or six figures (the 1894 and 1901 Morgans, respectively), while proof coins from those same years can be picked up for four.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Legendary Coins and Currency

Legendary Coins and Currency

This online exhibition from the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History is a great way to get an overview… [read review or visit site]

Society of U.S. Pattern Collectors

Society of U.S. Pattern Collectors

Home to the Society of U.S. Pattern collectors, this well-organized site provides in-depth information on pattern c… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

2015 U.s. Marshals 225th Anniversary 3 Coin Proof Set Presale / Confirmed Order2013 W American Buffalo Reverse Proof, First Strike, Gold Coin Pr 70 By Pcgs! 2012 Us Mint Proof Set1863 Seated Liberty Half Dollar, Beautiful Civil War Issue Proof, ** Ultra Rare!1884 Seated Half Dollar Ngc Proof 62 A Superb Example !!!1880 Seated Half Dollar Extremely High Grade Proof-like Example1870 25c J-914 Bn (proof) Pattern Coin Pcgs Pf632014 W Gold Kennedy 3/4 Oz. Half Dollar Anniversary Proof Coin - W/ Coa Gorgeous1994-p $1 Pcgs Pr70 Dcameo American (proof Silver Eagle) - Pr70!!! Rare .999 XRare Unopened 1955 Proof Set Sealed In Box 90% Silver (py1950 Franklin Half Dollar, Key Date Proof, Flashy Pf! ** Very Deep Mirrors!1882-cc Morgan Dollar Exceptional Uncirculated Proof Like Rainbow2012 United States Mint Silver Proof Set 14 Coins In TotalRare U.s. 1938 5 Coin Proof Set: Silver Walking Liberty Half Dollar Mercury Dim1913 Proof Barber Dime Pcgs Pr63 Silver 10c 4 Proof Sets, 2 1956, 2 19591993-p $1 Pcgs Pr70 Dcameo (proof Silver Eagle) - Pr70!!! Rare .999 1oz ZSilver Proof Sets 2011 2012 2013 Us Mint 14 Coin With Coa And BoxBeautiful Original Boxed 1954 U S Mint Proof Set 90% Silver 50, 25,10 Lot 29412014 W Silver Kennedy 50th Anniversary Ngc Pf70 Reverse Proof Er Half DollarRare U.s. 1941 Proof Set P 5 Coins Silver Walking Liberty Half Dollar Mercury Et2012 Us Mint Silver Proof Set (14 Coins)1829 Capped Bust 5 Cents Outstanding Uncirculated Proof Like Rainbow2014 Us Mint Silver Proof Set2012 Us Mint Proof Set With Box And Coa2012-s Us Mint America The Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set With Box + CoaRare U.s. 1939 Proof Set P Coins Silver Walking Liberty Half Dollar Mercury Dime1893 Liberty Nickel Ngc Pf63 Proof! 2014 50th Anniversary Kennedy Half Dollar Gold Proof Coin Us Mint - First Strike1885 Cc Morgan Dollar Proof Like Cameo White Very ReflectiveRare U.s. 1940 Proof Set 5 Coins P Silver Walking Liberty Half Dollar Mercury EtSuper Rare 6 Coins 1942 U.s. Proof Set P Silver Walking Liberty 2 Nickels Uncirc2012-s Sacagawea Native American Dollar Pr70dcam Pcgs Proof 70 Deep Cameo1964 Kennedy Silver Half - Ngc Proof 68 Ultra Cameo Gem !!Toned 1942 Walking Liberty Half Dollar Pcgs Pr 65 ~ Proof 50c Beautiful Toning!Lot #27 - 4 Silver Proof Sets - 1956 1957 1958 19592014 W Silver Kennedy 50th Anniversary Ngc Pf70 Reverse Proof Er Half Dollar1891 Proof Liberty Nickel Pcgs Pr 63 (wr)1950 Us Jefferson Nickel Proof 5c - Ngc Pf66 Cameo2014 P Silver Kennedy 50th Anniversary Ngc Pf70 Er High Relief Proof Half Dollar1870 Pcgs Seated Liberty Half Dollar Proof Pcgs Pr 64 ** Fabulously Toned!Rare Old United States 1950 Proof Set 5 P Silver Proof Coins Uncirculated !1880 Seated Liberty Dime Proof, Remarkable Gem Proof! ** Only 1,355 Issued!1878-s $1 Morgan Pcgs Cameo Dmpl Bu Ms+++ Uncirculated Proof Like1956 Type 1 Silver Franklin Half Proof 67 By Ngc BeautifulRare 1942 U.s. Proof Set 5 Coin P Silver Liberty, Mercury Dime Uncirculated !Lot #28 - 4 Silver Proof Sets - 1956 1957 1958 19592014 W Kennedy 50th Anniversary Set Reverse Proof Pcgs Pr70 First Strike2014-p $1 Baseball Hall Of Fame Dollar Ngc Proof 70 Ultra Cameo Early Releases2014 Baseball Hall Of Fame Proof Silver Dollar. Pr70 Dcam! Glove Label. Flawless1955 Proof Set United States Philadelphia Set 90% Silver You Grade!2014 Us Mint Proof Set With Box And Coa1958 Cameo Franklin Half Proof 68 Cameo By Ngc Gorgeous1950 Franklin 50 Cents Exceptional Proof CameoPcgs 1883 Ms63 Dmpl ( Deep Mirror Proof Like ) Beautiful!Pcgs Complete Set Mint State And Proof Silver Roosevelt 1946-1964 Dimes2012 S United States 90% Silver Proof Full 14 Coin Set With Government BoxRare 5 Coin 1938 Proof Set W/ Silver Walking Liberty Half Dollar Mercury Dime !Lot #29 - 4 Silver Proof Sets - 1956 1957 1958 19592014-w Us Kennedy 50th Ann Silver Reverse Proof 50c - Ngc Pf70 - Early Releases

Recent News: US Proof Coins

Source: Google News

First-Day Coin Sales Net $1 Million For Museum
Times Record, January 30th

The biggest seller on Thursday was the silver dollar coin that features an old-time western Marshal holding a “Wanted in Fort Smith” poster. The US Mint reported selling 34,257 silver “proof” and “uncirculated” coins. The Mint also sold 21,861 copper...Read more

U.S. Marshals Commemorative Coin Goes On Sale
Times Record, January 29th

The three-coin set is on sale for $473. The $5 gold proof coin is being sold for $412.60, $1 silver proof is $46.95, and half-dollar copper-clad proof is $14.95. Prices for uncirculated gold, silver and copper-clad coins run a few dollars less. Prices...Read more

US Marshals coin set for sale
Arkansas News, January 28th

Each coin is encapsulated and each product option is packaged in a black velvet, satin-lined presentation case, accompanied by a Certificate of Authenticity. The price for the gold proof and gold uncirculated coins has not been determined but likely...Read more

2015 Proof Silver Eagle Coins Outpace other Silver Product Sales
Silver Coins Today (blog), January 22nd

2015-W Proof American Silver Eagle Coins sharply out-paced sales of all other numismatic silver products combined, U.S. Mint weekly sales charts show. In all, buyers picked up 20,275 proof Silver Eagles compared to just 4,675 in other silver products...Read more

Coin Profile – 1843 Proof Quarter Eagle, only five known
CoinWeek, January 21st

Before the Mint began its program of commercial proof set offerings in 1858, only a handful of proofs were struck each year to satisfy the needs of influential Treasury officials or well-connected collectors. Proof gold coins of the pre-1858 era are...Read more

US Mint Sales: Gold Coins Jump, 2015 Proof Silver Eagle Timid, January 15th

New U.S. Mint sales figures show stronger sales of gold coins and, unexpectedly, rather timid gains for the 2015-W Proof American Silver Eagle during its first full week of release. Sales of the 2015 Proof Silver Eagle started on Jan. 2 with orders...Read more

2015-W Proof American Silver Eagle Launches, January 2nd

It's the best of the best. There's no better seller for the United States Mint, and it's available early for less. Today, the Mint introduced its annually issued proof American Silver Eagle for $48.95. That's $4 cheaper and three weeks earlier than...Read more

Commemorative U.S. Marshals coins benefiting Fort Smith museum on sale Jan ...
Arkansas News, January 1st

According to a pricing schedule from the U.S. Mint, the proof silver-dollar coin will be available for purchase at $51.95, while an uncirculated silver dollar coin will be available for $48.95. The proof clad half-dollar coin will be available for $18...Read more