No one knows for sure, but some historians speculate that the word “sterling” is a corruption of “Easterlings,” the German silversmiths brought to England by Henry II to share their silversmithing knowledge with the British. What we do know is that the sterling standard of 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 alloy, which tends to be mostly copper, originated around 1300 in England with Edward I.

Ever since, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths and Silversmiths has enforced this standard. The Worshipful Company derives its authority from the Goldsmiths’ Hall, whose name is the origin of the word “hallmark.”

Because England used silver money until 1921, the crown relied on strict enforcement and heavy punishments to ensure the quality of British silver. Without these standards, silversmiths could debase currency by melting down coins, reducing their silver content, and then passing them off as pure. Hallmarks guaranteed a standard of quality, and the force of the law gave weight to the standard. Indeed, in 1757, those found guilty of imitating hallmarks were sentenced to death.

Each piece of British silver had at least four marks that told its story: the standard mark, town mark, date letter, and maker’s mark. These marks were stamped on finished pieces when craftsmen brought their products to the local assay office, where officials tested the metal content of each product.

The sterling silver standard mark guaranteed that the silver content of a piece was at least 92.5 percent. In 1300, this mark was a leopard’s head. In 1478, the head was modified to include a crown. In 1544, during a time of coin debasement under Henry VIII, the mark was changed to a profile of a lion walking left, known as lion passant. This mark was changed again in 1820 to an uncrowned lion head.

For a short interim starting in 1697, the crown required silverware to be 95.8 percent pure silver, rather than 92.5 percent. This requirement was known as the Britannia standard, and the goal of its implementation was to prevent silversmiths after the Restoration from melting down coins (which were sterling standard) and using that to make their wares.

Britannia silver bore the profile of a lion’s head in place of the sterling mark. This higher-quality silver was softer and easier to work with, but the standard was phased out i...

The town mark indicated the origin of a piece; a large number of different town marks are known today. London used a leopard’s head, but marks elsewhere were often inconsistent. Thus, unique or rare marks often make a piece more collectible.

The date letter mark was first used in London in 1478 and is still enforced by the Worshipful Company today. The date mark indicates the year the piece was assayed—usually but not necessarily the same year as it was produced—with a letter of the alphabet, which changed every year. On special occasions, like the 25th wedding anniversary of George V and Queen Mary in 1934 and 1935, silversmiths would sometimes add an extra mark to commemorate the event.

The maker’s mark became mandatory in 1363 to ensure that a buyer could trace a bad or faulty good back to its maker. Because literacy rates were so low at the time, this mark started out as a sign or symbol, but this was changed to the first two letters of the maker’s surname in the late 16th century. In the 1720s, the mark changed again to the maker’s first and last initial.

Aside from these four marks, pieces from 1784 to 1890 also included a portrait of the current ruler. This mark proved to the government that the piece’s duty had been paid—a most important consideration given England’s massive debt following the American Revolution. This duty was repealed in 1890, and the sovereign mark disappeared along with it. Additionally, silver imported from 1867 onward had an “F” in a shield stamped on it to indicate its foreign origin.

Although marks tell a great deal of information about a piece, collectors should beware of fake marks. Whereas silversmiths used steel dies to punch their marks, forgers often used brass instead, resulting in a blurry mark. These forged marks are sometimes known as soft punches.

Stylistically, British silver followed the trends of the art world around it. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, Baroque was all the rage, with heavily ornamented and elaborate pieces. From 1702 to 1727, styles shifted to the much more restrained and austere Queen Anne and Early Georgian styles.

From then until 1837, the Rococo style took hold, with its organic, asymmetrical, and curved designs. The year 1837 marked the ascendancy of Queen Victoria and the rise of the Victorian silver, which was extravagant and heavily ornamented. In the 1890s, the whiplash curves and organic, asymmetrical shapes of Art Nouveau began to replace the Victorian style, with Tiffany & Co. producing high-quality vases, pitchers, and other types of hollowware.

Art Nouveau itself gave way in the mid-1910s to Art Deco, with its more geometric, stylized designs. Since 1945, the design of decorative and functional silver objects has been mostly modern, incorporating sculptural, organic, and abstract shapes.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Chicago Silver

Chicago Silver

Paul Somerson's incredible reference on handwrought metalwork from the American Arts and Crafts movement of the ear… [read review or visit site]

Silver Marks Encyclopedia

Silver Marks Encyclopedia

An extensive reference guide to silver marks, hallmarks, trademarks and maker's marks found on antique and vintage … [read review or visit site]

Silver at the Victoria and Albert

Silver at the Victoria and Albert

This is a great reference site on silver, courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum. You can view silver items acc… [read review or visit site]

The Gilbert Collection

The Gilbert Collection

The late Sir Arthur Gilbert's collection of European silver, gold, enamel, and other items is now housed at the Vic… [read review or visit site]

Delight in Design: Indian Silver for the Raj

Delight in Design: Indian Silver for the Raj

“Delight in Design: Indian Silver for the Raj” was the title of a 2008 exhibition at Columbia University’s Mi… [read review or visit site]

TheStieffCompany.com

TheStieffCompany.com

Scott Perkins is an enthusiastic evangelist for The Stieff Company, a significant Baltimore silversmith and maker o… [read review or visit site]



Clubs & Associations

Discussion Forums

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Handsome Large English Antique Georgian L1828 Solid Sterling Travelling Inkwell1883 English Victorian Hm Sterling Silver Belt Buckle Bracelet Heavy Old Bangle1888 Antique Birmingham English N&h Sterling Silver Repousse Covered Jar Urn Box8 X Solid Silver Napkin Rings - English & Australian Total 201 G Scrap SterlingFine Genuine English Antique Art Nouveau B1904 Solid Sterling Silver Photo FrameEnglish Hallmarked Birmingham Sterling Silver Pig Pin CushionHigh Quality Antique English C 1910 Enamel Erotic Sterling Silver Cigarette CaseVtg Antique English Arts & Crafts Art Nouveau Sterling Silver Moonstone BroochAntique Vintage Large Huge English Sterling Silver Photo Locket Pendant OpeningVintage 1937 Sterling Silver Birmingham England Flower Hinged Bangle 51.6gFine Large Genuine English Antique B1912 Solid Sterling Silver Photo FrameEnglish, Sterling Silver Flask 1914 And Locket 1806 With 4 Additional ItemsSuperb Large Heavy English Antique B1956 Solid Sterling Silver Cigarette BoxEnglish Sterling Tea Caddy 1747 Samuel TaylorHandsome Large English Antique Victorian B1864 Solid Sterling Silver Snuff BoxOrnate Antique Sterling Silver Engraved Locket Birmingham England 1882English Sterling Cruet Set Stand Jos Angel 1823Lovely Decorative English Antique B1927 Solid Sterling Silver Cigarette CaseSuperb Heavy English Antique L1963 Solid Sterling Silver Hinged Bangle BraceletFine English Antique B1935 Solid Sterling Silver Cigarette Box Antique Dunlop Hole In One Golf Ball Souvenir Sterling England Hallmarked Vtg Antique English Arts & Crafts Art Nouveau Sterling Silver Chrysoprase BroochLarge Sterling Silver English Fusee Lever Pocket Watch 1894 Cleaned & WorkingFine Heavy Victorian English Solid Sterling Silver Albert Watch Chain. 1896Antique English Sterling Silver Cupid Embroidery Scissors * Hallmarked 1903English Sterling Teapot & Stand Manner Paul Storr 99 OzEnglish Sterling Tankard 1738 John Jones Bulgari CollectionLovely English Antique Edwardian 1902 Solid Sterling Silver Whist Marker Counter2 Vintage English Sterling Silver Thimbles * Circa 1920sAntique English Turquoise & Cobalt Blue Enamel & Sterling Silver Swallow BroochHeavy English Victorian Sterling Silver Coffee Pot, Elevation Of Silver To ArtStunning Large Heavy English Antique B1911 Solid Sterling Silver Wine GobletBeautiful Large Heavy English Antique B1924 Solid Sterling Silver Wine GobletAntique English Sterling Silver Child's Thimble * Size 1 * Hallmarked 1901Art Deco Vintage Painted Butterfly Wing Sterling Silver Pierced Earrings EnglandEdwardian English Solid Sterling Silver Long Link Albert Watch Chain. 1901Antique English Sterling Silver Mechanical Pencil W/ Carnelian Seal * Circa 18702 Sterling Silver Victorian Style Dip Pens Ari D Norman London EnglandConcorde British Airways Sterling Silver Key Ring Links Of London 20031696 King William Iii Sixpence (6d) Sterling Silver British Coin Job Lot-english Hallmarked Sterling Silver-226 Grams/8 Oz-too Good To ScrapAntique Georgian 1802 English Sterling Silver Wine Funnel W/ Strainer John EmesEnglish Sterling Match Safe, Age 1909, C.j. & Co. Cigarette & Vesta CasesSterling Silver - Links Of London England Button 18.2g - Cufflinks Mens Dg5661Art Deco English Hm Sterling Silver Guilloche Enamel Pill / Patch Box 1925 Atkin1884 English Victorian Sterling Silver Child Bracelet Old Aesthetic Slave BangleAntique Victorian Hm English Sterling Silver Top Cut Glass Perfume Bottle 18971898 Birmingham England Sterling Silver Master Salt? 47.4g Blue Glass Not ScrapAntique 1894 Birmingham England Sterling Silver Butterfly Floral Pin Brooch |g A19thc Antique 1891 English London Sterling Silver Shell Dish W/ Hallmark E.p.h.tVintage New England Motorcycle Dealers Association Sterling Laconia Medal 1952Superb Rare English Antique Solid Sterling Silver Embossed Bulldog Dish B1909English Hukin & Heath Sterling Silver Table Lighter - Birmingham C.18991903 King Edward Vii Maundy Two Pence Sterling Silver (92.5%) British Coin English Repousse Devil Faced Sterling Silver Pill Box No ReserveAntique Large English Sterling Silver Top Facet Cut Glass Hatpin Jar Bottle 1913Royal Mint Sterling Silver Proof 50mm Battle Of Britain 50th Anniversary Medal Antique Hm English Sterling Silver Pocket Watch William Mitchell Glasgow 1897Antique Rare English Hallmarked Sterling / Coin Silver Cartouche Charm Bracelet 1835 Early English Sterling Silver Ice / Sugar Serving Tongs * 66.4 Grams *

Recent News: English Sterling Silver

Source: Google News

20th-Century Art and Design
Maine Antique Digest, August 30th

With the recent addition of a silver and decorative arts department, specialist John Walcher brought Kalo and a variety of Arts and Crafts and early Mexican silver to play. A Kalo sterling coffeepot brought $2928 (includes buyer's premium), and a...Read more

Tennant: Ft. Churchill, Antique Link and Butterfly Bracelets
Reno Gazette Journal, August 29th

We like sauntering through antique shops. I bought a shimmering blue bracelet with tropical scenes, including six tiny palm trees painted on dime-sized pieces of reflective glass. The pieces are connected with sterling silver links with an original...Read more

Auction Calendar
Bureau County Republican, August 27th

1 – Three-day Labor Day Estate auction, primitive and antique furniture, primitives, antiques, decoy collection, hand and long guns, animal mounts, car, four wheeler, Sterling Silver, Longaberger, 10 a.m., 1635 N. Main St., (Tumbleson Auction Center), ...Read more

Brimfield Antique Show getting ready for September run
The Republican - masslive.com, August 26th

BRIMFIELD – It's the last call for the Brimfield Antique Show, which starts its final run of the year on Sept. 2. The shows – which also are held in May and July – bring thousands of antique dealers and visitors to the small town for six days at a time...Read more

San Antonio perfect locale for 'babymoon'
Burleson Star, August 25th

If you're traveling with children, they'll have the opportunity to try on replica bunker gear and hop aboard an old engine. The museum has only been open for a little ... Prices are decent – you can get sterling silver for a bargain. There are also...Read more

The Week in Healdsburg: August 24-31
Santa Rosa Press Democrat, August 23rd

The Healdsburg Museum and Historical Society holds the Antiques, Arts and Collectibles Fair in the Healdsburg Plaza 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Sunday. “The park will be filled with an eclectic mix of folk art, sterling silver, country furniture, Bakelite and...Read more

Event Spotlight: Antiques fair Sunday in Plaza
Santa Rosa Press Democrat, August 21st

The Healdsburg plaza will be filled with garden art, Persian rugs, pottery, antique prints and maps, vintage posters, sterling silver, country furniture, Bakelite and folk art. The Healdsburg Museum and Historical Society has upped their support for...Read more

The Locust Grove Antiques Market
Maine Antique Digest, August 13th

Silver was a natural item to see because of the Kentucky connection. The best pieces included a late 19th-century Gorham sterling silver 13" high agricultural presentation trophy having a design of two farmers and a horse-drawn plow, the base decorated...Read more