No one knows for sure, but some historians speculate that the word “sterling” is a corruption of “Easterlings,” the German silversmiths brought to England by Henry II to share their silversmithing knowledge with the British. What we do know is that the sterling standard of 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 alloy, which tends to be mostly copper, originated around 1300 in England with Edward I.
Ever since, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths and Silversmiths has enforced this standard. The Worshipful Company derives its authority from the Goldsmiths’ Hall, whose name is the origin of the word “hallmark.”
Because England used silver money until 1921, the crown relied on strict enforcement and heavy punishments to ensure the quality of British silver. Without these standards, silversmiths could debase currency by melting down coins, reducing their silver content, and then passing them off as pure. Hallmarks guaranteed a standard of quality, and the force of the law gave weight to the standard. Indeed, in 1757, those found guilty of imitating hallmarks were sentenced to death.
Each piece of British silver had at least four marks that told its story: the standard mark, town mark, date letter, and maker’s mark. These marks were stamped on finished pieces when craftsmen brought their products to the local assay office, where officials tested the metal content of each product.
The sterling silver standard mark guaranteed that the silver content of a piece was at least 92.5 percent. In 1300, this mark was a leopard’s head. In 1478, the head was modified to include a crown. In 1544, during a time of coin debasement under Henry VIII, the mark was changed to a profile of a lion walking left, known as lion passant. This mark was changed again in 1820 to an uncrowned lion head.
For a short interim starting in 1697, the crown required silverware to be 95.8 percent pure silver, rather than 92.5 percent. This requirement was known as the Britannia standard, and the goal of its implementation was to prevent silversmiths after the Restoration from melting down coins (which were sterling standard) and using that to make their wares.
Britannia silver bore the profile of a lion’s head in place of the sterling mark. This higher-quality silver was softer and easier to work with, but the standard was phased out i...
The town mark indicated the origin of a piece; a large number of different town marks are known today. London used a leopard’s head, but marks elsewhere were often inconsistent. Thus, unique or rare marks often make a piece more collectible.
The date letter mark was first used in London in 1478 and is still enforced by the Worshipful Company today. The date mark indicates the year the piece was assayed—usually but not necessarily the same year as it was produced—with a letter of the alphabet, which changed every year. On special occasions, like the 25th wedding anniversary of George V and Queen Mary in 1934 and 1935, silversmiths would sometimes add an extra mark to commemorate the event.
The maker’s mark became mandatory in 1363 to ensure that a buyer could trace a bad or faulty good back to its maker. Because literacy rates were so low at the time, this mark started out as a sign or symbol, but this was changed to the first two letters of the maker’s surname in the late 16th century. In the 1720s, the mark changed again to the maker’s first and last initial.
Aside from these four marks, pieces from 1784 to 1890 also included a portrait of the current ruler. This mark proved to the government that the piece’s duty had been paid—a most important consideration given England’s massive debt following the American Revolution. This duty was repealed in 1890, and the sovereign mark disappeared along with it. Additionally, silver imported from 1867 onward had an “F” in a shield stamped on it to indicate its foreign origin.
Although marks tell a great deal of information about a piece, collectors should beware of fake marks. Whereas silversmiths used steel dies to punch their marks, forgers often used brass instead, resulting in a blurry mark. These forged marks are sometimes known as soft punches.
Stylistically, British silver followed the trends of the art world around it. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, Baroque was all the rage, with heavily ornamented and elaborate pieces. From 1702 to 1727, styles shifted to the much more restrained and austere Queen Anne and Early Georgian styles.
From then until 1837, the Rococo style took hold, with its organic, asymmetrical, and curved designs. The year 1837 marked the ascendancy of Queen Victoria and the rise of the Victorian silver, which was extravagant and heavily ornamented. In the 1890s, the whiplash curves and organic, asymmetrical shapes of Art Nouveau began to replace the Victorian style, with Tiffany & Co. producing high-quality vases, pitchers, and other types of hollowware.
Art Nouveau itself gave way in the mid-1910s to Art Deco, with its more geometric, stylized designs. Since 1945, the design of decorative and functional silver objects has been mostly modern, incorporating sculptural, organic, and abstract shapes.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
Silver Marks Encyclopedia
Silver at the Victoria and Albert
The Gilbert Collection
Delight in Design: Indian Silver for the Raj
Clubs & Associations
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: English Sterling Silver
Source: Google News
Vintage clasp of Jessica Anderson from Savannah, GA. This Intergalactic Bead ...Examiner.com, May 29th
They had sterling silver rings with various gemstones. From Richmond, VA, their website is ... Studio in Savannah, GA. She had a lot of semi-antique jewelry parts like clasps and other interesting unusual things that are seldom found except at shows...Read more
Outdoor Antique Show Season Opens In NortheastHartford Courant, May 24th
china, sterling silver, art, estate jewelry, toys and more. Information: neantiqueshows.com. Newtown Antiques Market on June 27, in Newtown, CT, is an outdoor antique show featuring 75 exhibitors selling early American furniture, fine art, ceramics...Read more
Bargains still out there for knowledgeable, lucky collectorsLas Vegas Review-Journal, May 23rd
Cowles Syndicate Inc Mildred Watkins, a well-known Cleveland enamelist, made this sterling silver box set with the enameled picture of a ship. It sold at ... We explained that new sets have more tiles so old ones are not often used by those who play...Read more
Skill, a bit of luck needed to discover treasuresWausau Daily Herald, May 21st
Like any antique, the prices may go up or down and it usually takes about 25 years for the price of a collection to recover from a loss. ** *. Q: I have a small ... Sterling-silver bowl, scalloped, flower border, Gorham, 1898, 11 x 3 inches, $360...Read more
Howdy Doody memorabilia popular with collectorsazcentral.com, May 19th
her opinions about antiques and collectibles. A second possibility is Scott D. Gram, a member of the International Society of Appraisers. He has expertise in sterling-silver items and is user-friendly. Contact for Gram is firstname.lastname@example.org and 602...Read more
A Jewelry Collection Fit for a PrincessHoustonia Magazine, May 14th
"A two-year-old would rip it to shreds, but if someone just had a baby it's a lovely gift to give," says Smith. "This is kind of timeless—pearls, sterling silver—it's very refined but very hip. Everybody's doing a tassel from a long necklace, so why...Read more
Adorning a Creative LifeNew York Times, May 13th
And her earrings were more old-mine diamonds from the turn of the century that Jessica McCormack, whose Mayfair boutique is a favorite, had set in oxidized sterling silver and 18-karat yellow gold. Ms. de Gunzburg pointed out other favorite pieces to...Read more
Fine art, French furniture, sterling silver and more will be sold May 25th by ...ArtfixDaily, May 11th
A multi-estate auction featuring 521 lots of fine French period furniture, original artwork, sterling silver, antique clocks, decorative accessories and more will be held on Monday, May 25th (Memorial Day), by Edens Auctions, in the firm's gallery at...Read more