No one knows for sure, but some historians speculate that the word “sterling” is a corruption of “Easterlings,” the German silversmiths brought to England by Henry II to share their silversmithing knowledge with the British. What we do know is that the sterling standard of 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 alloy, which tends to be mostly copper, originated around 1300 in England with Edward I.
Ever since, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths and Silversmiths has enforced this standard. The Worshipful Company derives its authority from the Goldsmiths’ Hall, whose name is the origin of the word “hallmark.”
Because England used silver money until 1921, the crown relied on strict enforcement and heavy punishments to ensure the quality of British silver. Without these standards, silversmiths could debase currency by melting down coins, reducing their silver content, and then passing them off as pure. Hallmarks guaranteed a standard of quality, and the force of the law gave weight to the standard. Indeed, in 1757, those found guilty of imitating hallmarks were sentenced to death.
Each piece of British silver had at least four marks that told its story: the standard mark, town mark, date letter, and maker’s mark. These marks were stamped on finished pieces when craftsmen brought their products to the local assay office, where officials tested the metal content of each product.
The sterling silver standard mark guaranteed that the silver content of a piece was at least 92.5 percent. In 1300, this mark was a leopard’s head. In 1478, the head was modified to include a crown. In 1544, during a time of coin debasement under Henry VIII, the mark was changed to a profile of a lion walking left, known as lion passant. This mark was changed again in 1820 to an uncrowned lion head.
For a short interim starting in 1697, the crown required silverware to be 95.8 percent pure silver, rather than 92.5 percent. This requirement was known as the Britannia standard, and the goal of its implementation was to prevent silversmiths after the Restoration from melting down coins (which were sterling standard) and using that to make their wares.
Britannia silver bore the profile of a lion’s head in place of the sterling mark. This higher-quality silver was softer and easier to work with, but the standard was phased out i...
The town mark indicated the origin of a piece; a large number of different town marks are known today. London used a leopard’s head, but marks elsewhere were often inconsistent. Thus, unique or rare marks often make a piece more collectible.
The date letter mark was first used in London in 1478 and is still enforced by the Worshipful Company today. The date mark indicates the year the piece was assayed—usually but not necessarily the same year as it was produced—with a letter of the alphabet, which changed every year. On special occasions, like the 25th wedding anniversary of George V and Queen Mary in 1934 and 1935, silversmiths would sometimes add an extra mark to commemorate the event.
The maker’s mark became mandatory in 1363 to ensure that a buyer could trace a bad or faulty good back to its maker. Because literacy rates were so low at the time, this mark started out as a sign or symbol, but this was changed to the first two letters of the maker’s surname in the late 16th century. In the 1720s, the mark changed again to the maker’s first and last initial.
Aside from these four marks, pieces from 1784 to 1890 also included a portrait of the current ruler. This mark proved to the government that the piece’s duty had been paid—a most important consideration given England’s massive debt following the American Revolution. This duty was repealed in 1890, and the sovereign mark disappeared along with it. Additionally, silver imported from 1867 onward had an “F” in a shield stamped on it to indicate its foreign origin.
Although marks tell a great deal of information about a piece, collectors should beware of fake marks. Whereas silversmiths used steel dies to punch their marks, forgers often used brass instead, resulting in a blurry mark. These forged marks are sometimes known as soft punches.
Stylistically, British silver followed the trends of the art world around it. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, Baroque was all the rage, with heavily ornamented and elaborate pieces. From 1702 to 1727, styles shifted to the much more restrained and austere Queen Anne and Early Georgian styles.
From then until 1837, the Rococo style took hold, with its organic, asymmetrical, and curved designs. The year 1837 marked the ascendancy of Queen Victoria and the rise of the Victorian silver, which was extravagant and heavily ornamented. In the 1890s, the whiplash curves and organic, asymmetrical shapes of Art Nouveau began to replace the Victorian style, with Tiffany & Co. producing high-quality vases, pitchers, and other types of hollowware.
Art Nouveau itself gave way in the mid-1910s to Art Deco, with its more geometric, stylized designs. Since 1945, the design of decorative and functional silver objects has been mostly modern, incorporating sculptural, organic, and abstract shapes.
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Pedestal dish worth passing on to familyChicago Daily Herald, November 27th
Q. This is a photo of a sterling silver pedestal dish. ... Marked on the bottom are the words "Wallace -- Sterling -- Weighted. ... Sterling objects marked "Weighted" have bases that are reinforced with copper, lead or wax to provide stability or...Read more
Hong Kong jeweller Kasané, for versatile statement piecesSouth China Morning Post (subscription), November 26th
What's the story? A former gemologist at auction house Bonhams, Hong Kong-raised Karishma Sani studied jewellery design, computer-aided design and manufacturing at the Gemological Institute of America. After working as an antique and estate jewellery ...Read more
Shop local with our Tampa Bay area holiday gift guideTampabay.com, November 26th
Owner Francie Rogel creates jewelry and home art with fused glass, sterling silver, and pearls, including decorative tiles (up to $250), pendants (around $150), earrings ($65) and copper slave bracelets (around $50). Each item is one-of-a-kind and made...Read more
Thanksgiving at the White House: The Menu Changes More Than the SilverwareThe Atlantic, November 24th
These days, the owners of antique shops report an influx of customers selling the silver they inherit. “Younger people don't care about [sterling silverware],” the owner of a jewelry-exchange store told the Fort Worth Star-Telegram in 2013. “They want...Read more
20th-Century Art and DesignMaine Antique Digest, November 23rd
Demonstrating that buyers have become extremely selective regardless of provenance, English and Irish antiques from the Warshawsky collection brought as little as $218.75 for a late Georgian mahogany cabinet. “Buyers ... Silver and decorative arts...Read more
Antiques by Terry Kovel: Antique napkin rings were fashionableBuffalo News, November 20th
At first, porcelain rings were decorated with colored glazes or the silver was engraved with a name or design. But technology made it possible to plate a pewterlike metal and make an inexpensive napkin ring that looked like expensive sterling silver...Read more
Matt Keenan: Antiquing? Better get your storage unit firstKansas City Star, November 17th
Women love antiques. That's not an opinion. I'm talking sterling silver place settings, tea cups, porcelain teapots and anything made in England. I could list more “must haves” antiquities but this column has a word limit. There is a reason why Ebay...Read more
Appraiser puts a value on seniors? prized antiquesBend Bulletin, November 17th
Prineville resident Myrtle Farleigh, 89, is a long way from her family home, but every day when she's taking her meals in her own country home, she recalls the days of sterling silver place settings, crystal and china, on which formal meals were served...Read more