Antique and Vintage Chess Sets

Few board games can claim the same breadth of history as chess, which spans the globe, transcending borders and languages. It is taught to elementary school students, many of whom simply enjoy the shapes of the pieces, and also played by serious grandmasters, a title some say was first bestowed by Czar Nicholas II of Russia in 1914.

In many ways, the expansion of chess’s popularity has paralleled world events. The game required no common tongue, so when one empire conquered another, this war game was often passed from one army to another.

The game of chess as played in 6th-century India used a die to determine which figure would be moved. The pieces represented the king and his four military divisions: foot soldiers, cavalry, charioteers, and troops atop elephants. When the game later expanded into Persia, a wise man, which would later become what we now know as a queen, was added.

The Persian pastime soon spread to Arab nations, who checkmated the Persians in real battle in the 7th century. With the takeover came the appropriation of culture, including the passing of chess into the Arab world. The Arabs had a great deal of influence on the development of chess because of their strict Muslim beliefs that prohibited them from creating images of living things. Hence, the abstract designs of Arab chess pieces. Today, abstract design versus realistic representation is a major differentiator between collectible chess sets.

Middle Eastern chess pieces were normally carved from ivory, bone, or stone. Though they rarely come up for sale, a few of these 7th- and 8th-century chess sets still surface today. It wasn’t until the 10th century that chess boards were given dark and light squares.

Arab cultures introduced chess to the Western world. By the 16th century, rolling the die was a thing of the past, and the game essentially took the form it has today. Chess pieces from this period came in all shapes and sizes. Many were quite literal, depicting, for example, a king sitting on his throne or a knight riding a horse. Designers added even more variety by intricately carving the pieces from ivory, wood, and even glass.

While chess sets from the 18th century are prized by collectors, some of those from the 19th century are even more sought after. In 1849, Nathaniel Cooke designed the Staunton ch...

Staunton chess sets had semi-abstract pieces, though with ample differentiation between them—in the years leading up to the Staunton set, players often had trouble distinguishing rooks from knights. Capitalizing on Staunton’s fame, these sets quickly became the norm for tournaments, and most modern chess sets are modeled after them.

Jaques produced Staunton sets in both ivory and wood. The pieces came in various sizes, with the most common sets having a 3 ½-inch-tall king. While it is difficult to date many of these early Staunton sets, it isn’t too tough to ensure that a set is indeed a Staunton. The identifying marks are the small crowns stamped on the top of one of the rooks and knights of each color, indicating they are king-side pieces. Some of the kings also have an inscription reading “J. Jaques, London” on their bases.

Although the Staunton is the most famous chess set design (it is still used for tournaments today), it is by no means the only collectible type of set. Because chess is such a widely played game, collectors have a lot of choice. Some prefer ornamental sets, while others like to accumulate sets from a particular region of the world. Some go for sets made of one material, while others enjoy modern sets littered with pop-culture references.

Those who choose to collect by region have many options. You can collect Asian chess sets, which are almost exclusively made of ivory; fancier sets feature gold and silver. Some of the finest carved figures substitute Japanese samurai soldiers for knights and temples for rooks. Then there are the Indian sets, which have figures riding camels and elephants—an homage to the earliest form of the game played by its originators.

In the United Kingdom there have been dozens of memorable designs, such as the stone and ivory Calvert sets made between 1791 and 1840. Calvert sets were known for their pristine, sleek design and can be identified by their “Calvert 189 Fleet Stt” stamp. Another popular British style was St. George’s, which was common throughout the 19th century and featured ovals up and down the shafts of each piece.

Vintage chess sets from Germany, Austria, Poland, and the former Czechoslovakia also have their own styles, as do sets from the Philippines, locales in Africa, and various countries in Central and South America. Modern American and European sets, in contrast, are nearly identical, although there are slight variations—bishops are often jesters in France and runners in Germany.

In the 20th-century, the Cold War tensions between the United States and the USSR were played out on the chess board. Chess was a big deal in Eastern Europe long before the Cold War, and chess masters such as Boris Spassky, Anatoly Karpov, and Garry Kasparov were seen in the West as unassailable powerhouses—until Bobby Fischer appeared on the scene, the United States’ great chess hope. Fischer broke down the wall of Soviet chess dominance once and for all when he became the undisputed world chess champion from 1972 to 1975.

There is a wide variety of Russian and Soviet chess sets, often depending on the particular region where the set was made. In some sets, rooks are replaced by boats, while Russian sets in general are known for their spire tops. The Soviets were also pioneers in the use of plastic to make their chess pieces.

Today, most chess sets are plastic- and machine-made, but collectors look for sets whose pieces are made of porcelain, glass, stone, ivory, wood, and metal. In some cases, sets are hand-painted as well as hand-carved, making each piece a small work of art. In other cases, the relief on a piece is more functional, such as in sets that include Braille for unsighted players.

Another trend in contemporary chess sets is to use the game as a branding opportunity for entertainment franchises. There are wizarding chess sets based on images and events from the “Harry Potter” books and movies, as well as three-dimensional “Star Trek” chess sets.

If you love chess but aren’t in a position to collect chess sets, you can still marvel at their beautiful artistry. Various museums around the world that have numerous fine chess sets on display. These include the British Museum in London, The International Museum of Chess in Château de Clairvaux France, the Royal Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh, the L.A. Mayer Museum of Islamic Art in Jersusalem, and the Cleveland Public Library.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Chess Museum

Chess Museum

Many chess websites focus on the principles of the game and the tactics and strategies to help you win. Nicholas R.… [read review or visit site]

Museum of Talking Boards

Museum of Talking Boards

Prepare to enter the strange world of Ouija, the Wonderful Talking Board game, which captured imaginations en masse… [read review or visit site]

Elliot Avedon Games Museum

Elliot Avedon Games Museum

This in-depth University of Waterloo virtual exhibit showcases vintage games in a variety of categories, from class… [read review or visit site]

Electronic Plastic

Electronic Plastic

From Tomy to Coleco to Mattel and Nintendo, check out this collection of over 660 handheld and tabletop videogames … [read review or visit site]

Pong Story

Pong Story

David Winter's tribute to early video games, and to Ralph H. Baer, 'inventor of the video game.' Offers a detailed … [read review or visit site]



Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Antique English Chess Set Barleycorn / Ropetwist PatternAntique Hand-made Carved Wood Travel Gaming Gambling Kit Box - Chess Poker DiceOld Backgammon & Chess Set Board Poker Game Oak Wood Carved Presentation Box DwcDrueke Chessmen Deluxe Wood Box 2 1/2" King New Never UsedGreat Civil War Era Camp Wooden Chess Set In Slide Top Wooden BoxAntique 1800s / Early 1900s Indian Elephant Carving . Chess Piece ?Vintage Quality Chess Set By Drueke Pieces No. 33Vtg Staunton Carved Wood French Chess Set In Box Jeux D’echecs MintUnknown Brand Lacquered Wood Chess Set King 3" High 15x 15 Wooden Chess Board Double Sided With Pull For Storage. Druel Board?Vintage Staunton Chess Game Pieces In Wood Box 1912 Jacques & Son LondonVintage Dal Negro Brass Pewter Chess Set Treviso Italy In Original Plastic BoxClassic Wood Folding Chess Set - Inlaid Walnut Board Game Hand-carved Staunton No. 5 Tournament Chess Pieces Chessman W/ Wood Storage Box 3 1/2" KingThe Treviso Luxury Chess Set - Pieces Only - 4.4" King1953 Soviet Wooden Chess Clock Ussr Russian Vintage OriginalUniversal Monsters Chess Set RetiredVtg Drueke Wooden Double Sided Chess Board Set With Wooden Storage Box, ChessmenPeanuts Snoopy Charlie Brown Chess Set Sealed Red TinVintage Wood Cavalier Staunton Chess Set Made By Lardy Int. For Pacific Game Co.The Torino Luxury Chess Set - Pieces Only - 4.4" KingAncient Viking Stone Game Piece, Circa 1150 Ad Chess Game Of Tafl / Hnefatafl VfKarim Rashid Chess Set - 10047 - White/black - Brand New In BoxDc Eaglemoss Chess Set 1 - 32 Batman W/ Binders, Board, And Special PiecesJerger Schachturnieruhren Chess Clock Wooden AnalogFantasy Of The Crystal Chess Pieces Lot Of 13Hand Carved Imported Chessmen E.s Lowe Company 2 1/4" KingSolid Wood Chess Board 12x 12Wobble Chess Set By Umbra1958 Soviet Wooden Chess Set Full W. Board Ussr Russian Vintage OriginalMetal Chess Replacement Peices Italy Vintage Brass /silver 2”Vintage Oriental Chess Set In Original Case Folding Case 15" X 15"Hallmark Christmas Club Member Chess Set Santa Vs Polar Bears Lego Pirates Chess 857 Piece Set 40158 Brand New SealedJerger Chess Champion Clock Plastic Working32 Vtg 1959 Anri E S Lowe Renaissance Chess Pieces Complete W InstructionsAlabaster Chess / Checker Board - ItalyStaunton Boxwood Chess King 2 3/4" Tall Drueke Chess Men Wooden 2 3/4" KingGallant Knight Co 1946 Plastic ChessmenNew German Knights Ebonized Staunton Wooden Chess Set!!Fantasy Of The Crystal Chess SetVintage/ant. Folk Art Marbleized Slate Chess/checkerboard Game Board, FramedNew Rare Ebony Wood Intricately Handcarved Handmade Chess Set - Free Shipping!!!32 Metal Chess Set Pieces Pewter / Brass Color Alloy ? Complete1945 Vintage Lowe Travel Portable Chess SetChess BoardDrueke Chess Plastic Red And White Plastic Set Incomplete And Broken History Channel Lifetime Memb Civil War Game Set - Chess, Checkers, Backgammon Medievil Chess Set With Black And Silver BoardHowlin' Wolf: The Chess Box Set 3 Cd 32 Page Book 71 Track Unreleased RareThe Magnetic Chess Board Wooden Frame Horizontal Or Vertical Playing SurfaceCarved Granite Chess Set Great Condition Complete!Jerger Tournament Chess Clock (right Side Partially Functioning)The Middle Game Chess 2 Volume Set - Dr. M. Euwe & H. Kramer Lot Vtg 1 2 Vintage Hand Carved & Hand Painted Italian Chess Set W/wood ChessboardVintage Wooden Chess Pieces And Wood BoxUnique Wooden Chess Set 4 5/8 King Size Felted Bottoms Nice Look!3 Chess Sets:lowe Tournament , Staunton Chess Set W/ Wood Board, Football ChessUltimate Chess Pieces Ace 2100 & Mat