Holding a piece of sterling silver flatware in the palm of the hand is like holding a piece of moonlight. In fact, since ancient times, silver has been associated with the moon. Both capture the warm, full-spectrum light of the sun and reflect it back as a cool, lustrous gray. Silver knives, forks, and spoons, as well as silver tea services and serving utensils, almost seem to shimmer when set out upon a table. Yet for all its eye-catching properties, silver is comfortable with its largely utilitarian role in our domestic lives, offering a neutral backdrop for the feasts and fellowship that surround it.

Being a uniquely malleable and ductile metal—a single gram of the stuff can form a length of wire a mile long—silver was a chameleon when it came to style. Mid-18th-century rococo silver was as flamboyant as the courts of England’s George II and France’s Louis XV, with whom the style is associated. The Federal style popular during the founding years of the United States was classical and symmetrical—patriot and silversmith Paul Revere was this style’s greatest champion.

Victorian silver was heavily ornamented and the first silver to be created with the help of mass-production techniques, while Art Nouveau silver rebelled against the Industrial Revolution, focusing instead on natural motifs and flowing, asymmetrical curves. Arts and Crafts continued this aesthetic, although the ornamentation was toned down. And by the time Art Deco rose to prominence in the first half of the 20th century, silver objects followed suit.

Throughout these periods, silversmiths produced candlesticks and candelabra, hollowware ranging from bowls to goblets to tureens, teapots and tankards, snuff boxes and cigarette cases, jewelry and pocket watches, and, above all, flatware.

Sterling silver flatware was first produced in Sheffield, England in the 1200s. Wealthy people carried their own knives and spoons with them because most inns did not provide such basic necessities for their guests. Forks did not appear until about a century later, first in Italy in about 1360, and then in France a couple of hundred years after that. The first record of a fork in England is not until 1611.

Indeed, the appearance of the fork, along with the discovery of major deposits of silver in Nevada in 1859 and the advent of electroplating in the 1870s, were catalysts for the explosion of flatware that occurred in the 19th century. Just a few hundred years before, forks had not even had a place at the table. But in the 1800s, Gorham, Tiffany & Co., Unger Bros., Oneida, and Shreve & Co. were just a few of the companies producing forks in dizzying styles and sizes.

Sometimes they were parts of patterns with pretty names like Buttercup, Daffodil, and Narcissus. Other patterns were given important sounding monikers like Canterbury, Lafayette,...

There were large dinner forks, smaller place forks, and luncheon or dessert forks that were smaller still. Salad forks were chiseled at the ends of their tines, while the tines of fish forks were slightly wider. Pie forks often featured an extra-wide outside tine to help the user cut into a slice without dropping any precious, tasty crumbs.

Cocktail forks had smaller tines and longer handles, whereas the wide, spoon-like terrapin forks were made just for eating turtles. And if you were eating strawberries or lobsters, although presumably not in the same course, there were forks for those foods, too.

The lists of knives and spoons were similarly encyclopedic, but let’s switch to the servicing pieces, which is where sterling silver flatware gets really interesting. Most of us are familiar with ladles, but silversmiths made specific ones for bullion, cream, gravy, oysters, or punch.

Wide serving forks were produced to bring bacon from dish to plate, while forks for delivering baked potatoes to guests often had just two tines, each of which pointed in an opposite direction so that the utensil resembled the letter V. And did you know that there were spoons for nuts, berries, bon bons, claret, and chocolate? Collectors of sterling silver flatware do.

In addition to being the place where all this flatware got its start, Sheffield was also home the first plating techniques, developed in the 1740s. By 1770, silversmiths were making Sheffield plate from sheets of sterling silver that were fused to a sheet of copper, creating a metal sandwich that could be hammered and formed like a regular piece of sterling but for a fraction of the cost.

Electroplating was introduced in the 1840s. Because it required less silver and could use cheap nickel as its base metal, electroplating essentially put the Sheffield silver industry out of business.

Whether they were using plate silver or sterling (the standard for sterling silver is 92.5 percent pure silver and 7.5 percent alloy), 19th-century artisans had a field day with the material, employing a variety of techniques to create not just flatware but hollowware and decorative objects, too.

Raising was the most basic construction method. In raising, a sheet of silver (sterling or plate) is hammered over a block or anvil from its center to the rim. Hammering actually strengthened the silver, but it had to be periodically heated and cooled (a process known as annealing) to prevent the metal from becoming brittle.

In some pieces, particularly those made during the Arts and Crafts era, hammer marks were left in the piece because the patterns were considered handsome—it was also an acknowledgement of the way in which the piece had been crafted. Some hammered pieces were planished, which involved going over the small hammer marks with a wide-headed hammer to create a smoother surface.

For silver objects with intricate shapes, melting silver and pouring it into a mold for casting was a favored, venerable technique. More modern was the practice of cutting sheet silver into shapes that could be formed into cylindrical vessels and other objects—seams were soldered and then hammered or polished smooth. Sheet techniques were introduced in the late 1800s, as was stamping, in which silver sheet was pressed into shapes between two dies.

With the exception of casting, most silver production methods lent themselves to a variety of decorative techniques. Engraving involved using a sharp tool to remove material from a piece of silver’s polished surface. Bright-cut engraving was a variation in which carves were made at an angle, producing facets in the metal that glittered and caught the light.

Chasing looked like engraving, but no material was actually removed (a chased tray may reveal evidence of the technique on the tray’s other side, whereas an engraved tray generally will not). In embossing or repoussé, reliefs and patterns were hammered into a piece from behind. Matting was similar to chasing, except that instead of flowers and scrollwork, the most typical pattern was tiny dots to give the surface a dull, matte finish.

Other decorative techniques included enameling, in which colorful metallic glazes were fired onto the surface of a piece to create patterns and scenes. Guilloché was a fine, lathe-generated pattern that was sometimes enameled but was more often left bare. Niello gave the cut-out designs on the surface of a piece of silver a handsome black background. And piercing was an incredibly time-consuming and expensive process until the 19th century, when mechanical piercing was introduced.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Chicago Silver

Chicago Silver

Paul Somerson's incredible reference on handwrought metalwork from the American Arts and Crafts movement of the ear… [read review or visit site]

Silver Marks Encyclopedia

Silver Marks Encyclopedia

An extensive reference guide to silver marks, hallmarks, trademarks and maker's marks found on antique and vintage … [read review or visit site]

Silver at the Victoria and Albert

Silver at the Victoria and Albert

This is a great reference site on silver, courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum. You can view silver items acc… [read review or visit site]

The Gilbert Collection

The Gilbert Collection

The late Sir Arthur Gilbert's collection of European silver, gold, enamel, and other items is now housed at the Vic… [read review or visit site]

Delight in Design: Indian Silver for the Raj

Delight in Design: Indian Silver for the Raj

“Delight in Design: Indian Silver for the Raj” was the title of a 2008 exhibition at Columbia University’s Mi… [read review or visit site]



Scott Perkins is an enthusiastic evangelist for The Stieff Company, a significant Baltimore silversmith and maker o… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Discussion Forums

Most watched eBay auctions    

67pc Gorham Chantilly Sterling Silver Flatware Set, Service For 8 W/ Serving Pcs Emerald Encrusted Arts Crafts Sterling Silver 1880s Antique Jewelry Casket Box 68-pc Wallace Sir Christopher Sterling Silver Flatware Set, Service 12Excellent Condition Early Antique, Heavy Solid Silver Victorian Table Snuff Box.1866 Fusee Massey 111 Type Silver Cased Pocket Watch Jt&j Ollivant Manchester19thc Sazikov Сазиков Russian Silver Gold Gilt Cigar Case Original Wooden BoxFine Quality C1880 Solid Silver Anglo Indian Raj Era Snuff Tobacco Box Antique 1885 Silver Cased Waltham Hillside Pocket Watch In Working OrderRare Sampson Mordan Victorian Sterling Silver Fluted Scent Bottle London 1889Fine Art Nouveau Elkington Silver Plated Spirit Kettle Burner & Stand C.1915Rare Georgian Sterling Silver Bright Cut Snuff Box 1784Stunning Art Deco Sunburst Guilloche Enamel & Silver Cigarette Box.Nice Lot Of 7 Antique Chinese Silver Hat Finials Stands Happy Buddha Animals19thc Antique Austrian .813 Silver Judaica Sukkot Ritual Etrog Casket Box, NrArts & Crafts Antique Silver Travelling Church Communion Set Chalice Paten Jug Outstanding Hallmarked Spanish Solid Silver Cigarette Box In The Aesthetic Style Antique British Samuel Smith Sterling Silver 1890s English Tea Service Set Vintage Antonio Pineda Taxco Mexico 970 Sterling Silver & Onyx Necklace Bracelet1885 Heavy Victorian Sterling Silver Bracelet Old Chester Aesthetic Cuff BangleHm1912 Solid Silver English Epergne Table Centre Piece 3 Vases Trumpets Antique 2 Antique Russian Silver 84 Large And Heavy Trompe L'oeil Enamel Cups 260 GramsAntique 19thc Victorian English Silverplate Teaset & Tray, Hot Water Urn TeapotBeautiful Large Genuine English Antique 1897 Solid Sterling Silver Photo FrameAntique Solid Silver Desk Rule S Kirk & Son 97 Grams Russian Pair Cloisonne Enamel Salts & Spoons, C1898A Lovely Antique Solid Sterling Silver Cigarette / Cheroot Case Dates 1913.Indian Silver Fine Antique Teapot C1890 Elephant FinialRare, George I Solid Silver Hanovarian `rat Tail`, Table Spoon, 1715, 53gmMarvelous, Victorian Silver Bachelors Tea Pot, 1880, 246gmRussia 1900 Brooch Beetle Gold 56 August Khol'mstrem Faberge, Very Old & RareSuperb Georgian English Silver Chamberstick By J.wakelin & R.garrard C.1795 Fabulous Viners Of Sheffield Chased Silver Plated Serpentine Gallery Tray C.1920Hm1838 Antique Solid Silver Bodkin Needle Case Taylor & Perry Etui Sewing Tool1899 Lebedkin Moscow Art Nouveau Russian 84 Imperial Silver Enamel Beaker Cup BaFine Georgian Period Sterling Silver Vinaigrette London 1814.Superb, Victorian Silver Hip Fask, 1899Rare Imperial Russian Silver Goblet Fine Quality St Petersburg 84 Chased SceneAntique Imperial Russian 84 Silver 6 Spoons Set Niello Enamel 1848Shiebler? Homeric Sterling Silver Chatelaine Perfume Bottle Vinaigrette Antique No Reserve Hm1828 John Lawrence Georgian Silver Vinaigrette Vintage AntiqueAntique Solid Silver Art Nouveau Cigarette CaseFine Vintage Signed Arabic Silver Niello Decorated Pocket Case.6 Antique Wallace Violet Sterling Silver TeaspoonsVintage Kerr Sterling Etched Baby Birth Cup Sold By Bailey Biddle & BanksLovely Antique Victorian Solid Silver Engraved Propelling Dip Pen & PencilGreat Quality Victorian 1839 William Ker Reid Silver Entree Dish 2145 Grams Quality, George Iii Solid Silver Salver, 1812, 308gmSuperb Georgian Silver Vine Leaf & Grapes Caddy Spoon, Birmingham 1808 WillmoreAntique Sterling Silver American Mechanical Pencil Ruler Edward Todd 18971901 Silver Cased Trip Action Lever Pocket Watch H Samuel Manchester WorkingAntique German .835 Silver Jewish Judaica Spice Tower, 2.84 Troy, Nr12 Antique Scottish Victorian Silver And Agate BroochesRussian 916 Silver Cloisonne Enamel Soviet 2 Small Goblet Vodka Shot Cup 1957 Fish Fishing Sterling Silver English Antique Cigarette Card Case Pocket BoxA Victorian Sterling Silver Hip Flask Sheffield 1868 James Dixon & Sons 81 GramsReed & Barton Francis I Old Mark Sterling Silver Flatware Set For 12 + 6 ServersGiant Vintage 1158g Sterling Jewelry & Misc. Mixed Scrap LotImperial Russian Silver Broosh With Citrine Stone Faberge. 84 Hallmark Smart, Edwardian Silver Tea Caddy, 1903, 141gmExcellent Antique Solid Silver Sovereign Case Or Holder, 1904 - Dennison Case