Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872 by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.
While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).
In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.
Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.
The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.
Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.
In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
Old Telephones as Entertainment
The Telephone Archive
Clubs & Associations
- Antique Telephone Collectors Association
- Telephone Collectors International
- Telecommunications History Group
- Telecommunications Heritage Group (UK)
- Australasian Telephone Collectors Society, Inc.
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Western Electric Telephones
Source: Google News
Arundhati Roy: Is India on a Totalitarian Path?Toward Freedom, April 14th
They own mines, gas fields, steel plants, telephone, cable TV and broadband networks, and they run whole townships. They manufacture cars and .... But that—but, so, Modi started out as a worker for the RSS. He, of course, came into great .... The...Read more
Electronics manufacturing short circuited in IndianaIndianapolis Business Journal, April 11th
But he thinks last month's announcement that GE Aviation will break ground in Lafayette in June on a jet engine plant should be put into perspective. “That's a $100 million investment, and that's great,” Wallman said. “But there are bigger fish out...Read more
The Down and Out Make More Sense than Any BillionaireDissident Voice, April 10th
They own mines, gas fields, steel plants, telephone, cable TV and broadband networks, and they run whole townships. They manufacture cars and trucks, and own the Taj Hotel chain, Jaguar, Land Rover, ... The Martin Luther King Center for Nonviolent...Read more
Jamie FlemingFremont Tribune, April 8th
Then he went to work at Ash Grove Cement plant for 2 years. He also worked for Burlington railroad in the signal ... He began working at Western Electric where he was employed until retirement. On January 16, 1972 he married Joyce (Nicholson) in...Read more
Fleming, Jamie Robert (Bogie)Lincoln Journal Star, April 8th
Retired Western Electric. Member: United Methodist Church, Odd Fellows, American Legion Post #237. Survivors: wife, Joyce, married on Jan. 16, 1972; daughters, Barbara (Mark) Fjeld, Tari, (Martin) Rupp; sons, Steven, (Jennifer) Fleming, Kirk Fleming; ...Read more
Jay Brodie: Baltimore's tech history offers a guide for future growthBaltimore Business Journal, April 3rd
And as part of the American industrial technology of the later 19th and 20th centuries, there were numerous local examples: Bethlehem Steel, Maryland Dry Dock, Western Electric, Koppers, ASARCO (American Smelting and Refining Co), among many others...Read more
Two indicted for capital murder in beating death of Chalk Bluff manWaco Tribune-Herald, April 2nd
Gatesville attorney Sandy Gately, who represents Boykin with Waco attorney John Donahue, declined comment on the indictment. Donahue did not return a phone message to his office. Kilgo, a Waco native retired from Western Electric, enjoyed the outdoors, ...Read more
Death Notices for April 1Tulsa World, April 1st
Smith, Sapulpa. Snell, James Alvin, 81, retired Southwestern Bell Telephone Co. engineer, died Sunday. ... Fairfax, Jack Samuel Ward, 76, oil-field worker, died Sunday. ... Sand Springs,Denzil K. Hughes, 81, retired Western Electric Co. installer, died...Read more