Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872  by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.

While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).

In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.

Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.

The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.

Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.

In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.

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Recent News: Western Electric Telephones

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Angeline Marie Gurga
Escanaba Daily Press, April 18th

Later, after many years, Angie retired from Western Electric and they moved back to Gladstone. It was difficult for her to leave the vast numbers of friends that were cultivated during her working career and their personal family friendships. Angie...Read more

Esther I. Cline
digitalBURG.com, April 18th

After the war, she worked as an assembler at Western Electric for many years and retired in 1988 after 24 years. Esther then became a full time rancher. She was never without a job during her whole lifetime and always helped others who needed help...Read more

Harry Thetford: Memorabilia stirs up many war stories
Greensboro News & Record, April 18th

On a visit to Greensboro in 1951, an aunt suggested he apply for work with Western Electric, from which he retired 32 years later. After the death of his wife, the same aunt suggested he meet a nurse who worked at Friends Home. Jan and Bill Piper have...Read more

Developer wants to transform old Millard Lumber site with housing, commercial ...
Omaha World-Herald, April 17th

Russell, whose sons Joel and Mark also are involved in the business, moved Millard Lumber in 2008 to the former Western Electric cable plant building that they retrofitted at 129th and I Streets. It was the arrival of Western Electric in 1958 that led...Read more

Workers, Decorate!
New Yorker (blog), April 17th

By the nineteen-fifties, theories about color and the worker experience had infiltrated offices as well as factory floors. “The occupant of an orange office, for instance, will become ill at ease after a short time ... These tests found that changes to...Read more

Arundhati Roy: Is India on a Totalitarian Path?
Toward Freedom, April 9th

They own mines, gas fields, steel plants, telephone, cable TV and broadband networks, and they run whole townships. They manufacture cars and .... But that—but, so, Modi started out as a worker for the RSS. He, of course, came into great .... The...Read more

Fleming, Jamie Robert (Bogie)
Lincoln Journal Star, April 8th

Retired Western Electric. Member: United Methodist Church, Odd Fellows, American Legion Post #237. Survivors: wife, Joyce, married on Jan. 16, 1972; daughters, Barbara (Mark) Fjeld, Tari, (Martin) Rupp; sons, Steven, (Jennifer) Fleming, Kirk Fleming; ...Read more

Two indicted for capital murder in beating death of Chalk Bluff man
Waco Tribune-Herald, April 2nd

Gatesville attorney Sandy Gately, who represents Boykin with Waco attorney John Donahue, declined comment on the indictment. Donahue did not return a phone message to his office. Kilgo, a Waco native retired from Western Electric, enjoyed the outdoors, ...Read more