Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872 by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.
While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).
In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.
Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.
The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.
Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.
In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.
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Montana: A to ZThe Missoulian, January 26th
He teamed up with two other investors – one a suddenly unemployed ACM engineer like himself – and bought this old physical plant from Arco. “We didn't know any different, and we didn't have a choice,” Liebetrau says of himself and partners Robert...Read more
Historically, this week in January's been interestingBurlington Times News, January 24th
A survey showed that the old Rayon Plant between Burlington and Haw River was suitable for manufacturing military aircraft. ... That plant became Western Electric after the war and was one of the major factors in our economy for several decades thereafter...Read more
Mills Violano Virtuoso antique music machine brings $34100 at Stanton's Nov ...ArtfixDaily, January 23rd
Between 200 and 250 people attended the auction in person over the course of the three days, while many others submitted bids via phone and e-mail. Participation wasn't limited just to the United States, as bids came in from Europe, Australia...Read more
Vibe CU (MI) Raises Rates on 48- And 60-Month CDs To Competitive LevelDeposit Accounts (blog), January 22nd
Retirees of Michigan Bell, SBC, Ameritech, AT&T, or Western Electric qualify for membership, as do any relative of a current Vibe member or non-relative living in the same household. Joining Vibe Credit Union and/or opening a CD can be done online, or...Read more
Death Notices for Jan. 16Tulsa World, January 15th
Gilmore, Ruby Alice, 89, retired University of Tulsa book store clerk, died Saturday. Visitation ... Bell, Harold Lee, 65, lawn and tree service maintenance worker, died Wednesday. Service 2 ... Eirwin, Geraldine, 90, Western Electric secretary, died...Read more
Dorothy Ginocchio, 90SILive.com, January 13th
During World War II, she worked at Western Electric as a corresponding secretary. She also worked at the Ritz Theater in Port Richmond and at the former Korvette's department store in New Springville for 10 years. She retired in 1980. Mrs. Ginocchio...Read more
John C. NuttleBaltimore Sun, January 5th
John Clagett Nuttle, a retired Rouse Co. executive who worked to build the Village of Cross Keys and Columbia, died of heart failure Dec. 31 at the Blakehurst retirement community. The former Ruxton ... After the war, Mr. Nuttle joined the old Western...Read more
Marion Eichholz, last known survivor of Eastland disaster, dies at 102Chicago Sun-Times, December 29th
She and her parents, Anna and Fred Eichholz, a worker at the Western Electric plant in Cicero, boarded the “Speed Queen of the Lakes” to enjoy a company cruise to Michigan City, Indiana. Many of the more than 2,500 passengers were Czech, German, ...Read more