Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872  by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.

While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).

In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.

Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.

The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.

Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.

In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.

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Recent News: Western Electric Telephones

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ACC names its distinguished alumnus for 2015
Burlington Times News, May 28th

He went to work at Western Electric, where eventually he became installation supervisor. After he retired from Western Electric in 1980, McIntyre went to work at UNC-Chapel Hill to administer contracts for a computerization project, and moved into ...Read more

CHRISTOPHER COURSEN: Internet no telecommunications monopoly like Ma ...
Washington Times, May 28th

While the late-afternoon news dump and decision was predictable, it is no less disappointing that the Internet will soon be subjected to 20th century telephone monopoly-era regulations. To stave off ... There were strict rules put in place to prohibit...Read more

Mel Mason had to assert his own humanity. He also champions the humanity of ...
Monterey County Weekly, May 28th

In 1968 he helped organize workers for Western Electric and other Santa Clara Valley companies, which caught the attention of the Black Panther Party. The group's ... Today's NSA phone surveillance program looks like the old COINTELPRO. Black Lives ...Read more

North Western Electric Co-op urges opposition to EPA
The Bryan Times (subscription), May 27th

North Western Electric Cooperative Inc.'s leadership this weekend urged annual meeting attendees to lobby against the closing of coal power plants and against other pending EPA regulatory actions regarding power plants. The primary reason given for...Read more

A/V Systems at Indianapolis Motor Speedway Mix Old and New
Sports Video Group (blog), May 26th

For years, the hundreds of speakers atop poles ringing the infield were ancient Western Electric horns, narrow-band transducers whose truncated frequency range of roughly 300 Hz-3 kHz was perfectly matched to the range of the human voice, giving them...Read more

Retiring Albany drug unit director hanging up six-shooter
The Albany Herald, May 24th

#Now 63, Berry said that as a young man he'd worked for the phone company in Birmingham, then transferred to Macon before Western Electric laid him off. As he asked around for work, a friend suggested law enforcement and Berry's real career was ...Read more

Sacrifices never forgotten
Burlington Times News, May 24th

Boone retired from Western Electric in Burlington after 38 years of service where he worked as a quality inspector. Thomas' brother Vaughan Boone, 98, currently lives in Winston-Salem. Vaughn also served in World War II as a member of the U.S. Army...Read more

New trade pact not likely to restore middle class
Chicago Tribune, May 11th

A view down 22nd Street of the Western Electric complex that once paid wages high enough to enable workers to buy the tidy bungalows for which Cicero is famed. (Tribune Archive Photo ... But during World War II, it was part of a sprawling industrial...Read more