Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872  by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.

While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).

In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.

Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.

The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.

Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.

In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.

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Recent News: Western Electric Telephones

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Farm recalls produce used in Costco salad linked to E. coli
Chicago Sun-Times, November 26th

Seeking a job with better pay and benefits, she applied at the old Western Electric plant in Cicero. She learned .... He taught at Howard University and worked for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company...Read more

Voice of the Fighting Christians still strong
Burlington Times News, November 26th

EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is a column written in 1983 by the late Times-News sports editor Bill Hunter. ... » Read more. X. His dream gone, Varner does pro job at PA. EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is a column written in 1983 by the late Times-News ...Read more

As 'Right To Work' Rears Its Ugly Head Again, Let's Hear From The Ghost Of ...
Plunderbund, November 25th

In the days when it was landline only these offices were the location for each telephone exchange. In 1947, Dad was working in the Canton/Akron region for Western Electric/Bell when they went on strike. Dad was in his 20s, 6'4?, a bit of a brawler and...Read more

'The Evolution of Everything,' by Matt Ridley
New York Times, November 25th

On Feb. 14, 1876, Elisha Gray, a co-founder of the telegraph-equipment manufacturer Western Electric, filed with the United States Patent Office a memo describing “Instruments for Transmitting and Receiving Vocal Sounds Telegraphically” — the telephone...Read more

Omaha volunteer group to end work because of dwindling funds
Omaha World-Herald, November 24th

A volunteer group that has served the Omaha area for more than 35 years says it is ending its efforts. The Heartland Council of Pioneers/Volunteers, originally started by AT&T workers at the old Millard Western Electric plant near 120th and L Streets...Read more

Steel Days: On a Modest Resurgence in Bethlehem
Pacific Standard, November 23rd

In places like Youngstown, Ohio, and Lackawanna, New York—the former home of another Bethlehem steel plant—entire ways of living were eradicated overnight—it was the end of tens of thousands of blue-collar jobs that promised middle-class income...Read more

Exide Technologies Celebrates 40 Years In Fort Smith
Times Record, November 20th

In 1975, Western Electric opened the manufacturing facility that would become GNB to produce network power backup batteries for AT&T and Bell Telephone systems. Capabilities of the Fort ... Koelsch said a “dominant position” in the railroad industry...Read more

Western Flying Club still soaring after 60 years
Burlington Times News, November 8th

Nine worked at the former Western Electric plant in Burlington, and most of them had been World War II pilots. They started with one plane: a 1946 Taylorcraft with a rebuilt engine that cost $850. Charter member and long-time President Joe Nicks, the...Read more