Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872 by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.
While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).
In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.
Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.
The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.
Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.
In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.
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In places like Youngstown, Ohio, and Lackawanna, New York—the former home of another Bethlehem steel plant—entire ways of living were eradicated overnight—it was the end of tens of thousands of blue-collar jobs that promised middle-class income...Read more
Exide Technologies Celebrates 40 Years In Fort SmithTimes Record, November 20th
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STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. -- It's hard to believe that the town of Tottenville was once overrun with farms and shipyards. A place where mom-and-pop business thrived, Tottenville is currently home to numerous shopping plazas and chain stores, such as Target, ...Read more
Vintage radio hobby turns eBay business for ex-petroleum engineerNewsOK.com, November 9th
Since 1998, Collings, 65, and a retired petroleum engineer, has completed 95 percent of his sales for nearly 12,000 listings and grossed more than $300,000. In the last 12 months, more than 600 eBay buyers ... Four years after Collings handed a...Read more
Robertson, Lee and Main ready to begin termsThisWeekNews, November 9th
Main noted the village needs to start preparing to become a city in 2020 and re-evaluating its charter in 2018. Main was employed by Western Electric, AT&T and Lucent Technology in a variety of accounting and supervisory positions. He retired after 32...Read more
Western Flying Club still soaring after 60 yearsBurlington Times News, November 8th
Nine worked at the former Western Electric plant in Burlington, and most of them had been World War II pilots. They started with one plane: a 1946 Taylorcraft with a rebuilt engine that cost $850. Charter member and long-time President Joe Nicks, the...Read more
Florina G. “Flo” (Normand) Basiliere, 100, Former Western Electric WorkerWHAV News, September 4th
Basiliere worked as an assembler for the former Western Electric, North Andover, for 25 years until her retirement in 1980. She was a former member of Sacred Hearts Church and the Telephone Pioneers of America. She loved all outdoor activities, was an ...Read more