Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872  by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.

While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).

In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.

Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.

The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.

Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.

In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.


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Recent News: Western Electric Telephones

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The Coming Death Of The Middle Class: Your Biggest Opportunity
Forbes, December 16th

My late father would tell me about how, in New York in the early 1960s, he toiled at a desk in Western Electric, as one engineer sitting at a desk in a sea of desks staffed by white-shirt clad engineers. (Feeling insecure as the only non-white person...Read more

The future has arrived: Now you can dial! (video)
AMERICAblog (blog), December 14th

It's to teach people who to correctly use this new-fangled thing called the “dial telephone.” now-you-can-dial-the-pghone. Here's the description from the ... It documents the shift between operator-based connections (which were on the way out) and...Read more

Doris Mae (Lefebvre) Smith, 85
WHAV News, December 9th

Smith was employed at Western Electric and retired from Lucent Technologies after 20 years. A devoted wife, mother, and grandmother, Smith lived for her family and cherished their time spent together. The widow of Stewart Smith who died in 1975, she is ...Read more

All Politics Is Customizable: The Pitfalls of Micro-Targeting
RealClearPolitics, December 8th

Brand differentiation was limited so as to facilitate production. Well into mid-20th century, the home telephone was rarely any color other than black, and Western Electric—the de facto sole source of telephone equipment—provided few models from...Read more

First phone franchise was granted in Highland in 1881
Belleville News Democrat, December 3rd

“Highland's first telephone franchise was awarded to Central Union Telegraph Co. in 1881 by Highland's Board of Trustees. Central Union sought the privilege of erecting poles and stretching wires in Highland for the new telephone service. It was...Read more

Chattanooga History Center vault: Kirkman High School switchboard
Nooga.com, November 27th

The first item to be featured is a Bell Systems Western Electric 555 telephone switchboard from Kirkman High School in Chattanooga. The school existed from 1928 to 1991, and was a technical and vocational high school. Kirkman trained high school...Read more

Cornelius F. 'Neil' Lynch Jr., 96, Western Electric Worker
WHAV News, November 8th

Cornelius F. “Neil” Lynch Jr., 96, died Thursday, Nov. 6, at the Wingate Nursing Home in Haverhill, surrounded by his loving family, after an extended illness. He was the beloved husband of the late Alice “Pat” (Brown) Lynch who died in 2004...Read more

Sylvia (Britton) Muldowney, 79, Western Electric Worker
WHAV News, October 22nd

Muldowney was employed at the former Western Electric and retired from Lucent Technologies in North Andover after 20 years. In addition to her career she also was a full time homemaker, mother, grandmother and great grandmother. An avid sports fan, she ...Read more