Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872  by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.

While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).

In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.

Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.

The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.

Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.

In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.

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Recent News: Western Electric Telephones

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Tarlton Managing Construction Of 700 Market For The Koman Group
STLtoday.com, July 24th

Tarlton and HOK recently collaborated on another historic renovation project, @4240 for Wexford Science & Technology LLC, transforming a former Western Electric telephone factory into a state-of-the-art office-lab building in the CORTEX District in St...Read more

Lynn D. Sorf, AT&T retiree
Cape Gazette, July 22nd

Lynn graduated from Scotch Plains-Fanwood High School in 1962 and upon her graduation went to work for Western Electric in Union, N.J. and retired 32 years later from its successor organization AT&T and remained a life member of the AT&T Pioneers...Read more

Vickroy: Lifelong friends 'all in' for monthly poker get-together
SouthtownStar, July 16th

John Griffin, a retired Chicago police detective, remembers the day in 2009 when he picked up his son, Jimmy, at Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama, and drove like a madman to get back in time for the game. “We're driving back through Indiana...Read more

David Jones
Times Record, July 16th

He returned to Little Rock, where he found a job with Western Electric, and was sent to Fort Smith to work on dial tone. In 1958, Wiley Bohart hired him for Southwestern Bell, where he retired after 33 years of service. He was a life member of AT&T...Read more

Bicyclist who died on trail identified as Lehigh University police employee
The Express-Times, July 14th

The U.S. Army veteran previously worked for Western Electric, AT&T, and Lucent and retired as a supervisor in 2002. Services are scheduled to follow visiting hours 9:30 to 11 a.m. Wednesday at Connell Funeral Home, 245 E. Broad St., Bethlehem. Burial...Read more

Virgil PF Denzer, 86, of Huron
Plainsman, July 2nd

HURON — Virgil P. F. Denzer, 86, of Huron, died Friday, June 27, 2014, at his home. His body has been cremated and a private memorial service for family and friends will be held at a later date. Burial of the cremated remains will be at Fort Snelling...Read more

C is for Colstrip: A town where power plants bring a hive of activity
Helena Independent Record, June 30th

A town awash in coal money? Yes, though not so much as in the flush days. The median household income here pushes $75,000. Western Energy Co. alone paid the state $28 million in taxes in 2012 on its Rosebud Mine, where they dig the coal that powers ...Read more

Mobile web siphoning revenue from US cities as landlines fade
Stillwater News Press, June 28th

The pace of change has outstripped tax structures created for an era in which telephone service meant a trusty rotary-dial Western Electric 500 plugged into the wall. Phone companies in the U.S. had 140.9 million phone lines at the end of 2012, down...Read more