Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872  by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.

While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).

In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.

Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.

The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.

Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.

In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.

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Recent News: Western Electric Telephones

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Burl Fennell
Times Record, March 1st

Burl Wynn Fennell, 84, of Fort Smith passed away Friday, Feb. 27, 2015. He was born April 12, 1930, in Sugar Grove to the late Oby and Ethel Horton Fennell. He retired from Western Electric and served a tour in the Army. He was preceded in death by his ...Read more

DOE and micromanagement crippling LANL
Albuquerque Journal, February 28th

AT&T senior executives from Bell Laboratories and Western Electric were assigned to Sandia Corporation on leaves of absence to serve in senior management positions including president or laboratory director. AT&T assignees who retired while at Sandia ...Read more

Baton Rouge businessman's devotional book inspired by scenery
The Advocate, February 27th

He attended college to learn about the brand-new technology of automated electronics and built a successful engineering and testing firm, Gulf Western Electric, that he sold a few years ago. He and Sandy were attending Parkview Baptist Church in 1989...Read more

Clara Travis
Lexington Dispatch, February 27th

Mrs. Travis was born Jan. 13, 1923, in Pittsylvania County, Va., to Flossy Ann Doss Barbour. She was retired from Western Electric, attended the Salvation Army church services and was a Pioneer at Western Electric. She was preceded in death by her...Read more

Death Notices for Feb. 27
Tulsa World, February 26th

Buckley, Thomas H., 82, retired University of Tulsa history professor, died Tuesday. Service 10 a.m. Monday, TU Sharp Chapel. Stanleys. Bushyhead, Byron Gene, 81, KJRH-TV building manager, died Wednesday. Services pending. Moore's Memory. Carter ...Read more

Progress Lee's Summit : How our city grew over 150 years
Lee's Summit Journal, February 26th

1957 Western Electric announces it will build a $20 million factory for vacuum tubes in Lee's Summit, if the city can provide sufficient utilities. The property has since changed owners and became Summit Technology Campus which today houses data and...Read more

Businesswoman Flo Hyman: 1934-2015
Florida Times-Union, February 25th

In September 1966, Miss Hyman was profiled in Western Electric's employee magazine, distributed to more than 160,000 employees nationwide, because of her community service. In this case, it was an effort to spread the dangers of ... Not only did it...Read more

How Wall Street Siphons Billions From Retirees — And Gets Away With It
ThinkProgress, February 23rd

Phil Ashburn started working at Western Electric in 1972 and stayed there for 30 years, even after the company split up. Eventually he ended up at a phone company called Pacific Bell. “It was a great company to work for. The company took care of you...Read more