Western Electric, the equipment division of the Bell System, was the major manufacturer of telephones and telephone-related equipment in the United States for almost a century. Incorporated in 1872 by Elisha Gray and Enos M. Barton (who got their start together in 1869 in Cleveland), the Chicago-based company manufactured a wide range of electrical hardware, including telegraph equipment, bells, signal boxes, and fire alarms. In 1877, the firm shifted gears to produce telephone equipment for Western Union, but that alliance lasted only two years, halted by a patent-infringement lawsuit filed by the Bell Company. Western Electric tried to get back into the telephone business though the majority purchase of a Bell manufacturer called Gilliland Electric Co., but by 1882, the Bell Company itself had become the majority owner of Western Electric, which, in 1925, spun off all its non-telephone hardware products as Graybar, named in honor of Gray and Barton.
While Western Electric supplied Bell with a variety of wooden wall phones and candlestick styles from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries, its first major innovation was the model A1, introduced in 1925. The A1 had a round brass base, an aluminum-alloy cradle and plunger, and a handset made partly of Bakelite and featuring both an earpiece and voice transmitter. Although this type of handset technology had been around since the turn of the century and was particularly popular in Europe, the A1 was the first major U.S. cradle phone to incorporate it. In 1927, the company introduced an improved version of its cradle phone called the B1, which was produced in a 102 version (a sidetone handset, in which both the caller's voice and the recipient's voice was routed into the earpiece) and a 202 version (an anti-sidetone phone with more sophisticated circuitry).
In 1930, the company introduced its oval-base D1 model, which is usually referred to as the 202 since the anti-sidetone version of the phone was so common. The 202 was Western Electric's workhorse telephone throughout the 1930s, and many families relied on them through World War II due to limitations on new consumer products (manufacturers like Western Electric retooled to support the war effort). For those customers, Western Electric frequently swapped out the old E1 model handsets on their 202 phones for newer F1 handsets, which were designed by Henry Dreyfuss in 1936 for an entirely new telephone model, the 302.
Initially produced in heavy pot metal and painted black, the 302 was the first widely available telephone to feature a ringer and anti-sidetone hardware housed within the phone’s central mechanism. In 1941, Western Electric switched from pot metal to a lighter thermoplastic body due to metal shortages caused by the war, and in 1942 production of 302 was suspended altogether. After the war, production of plastic phones in ivory, green, pink, red, and blue (the rarest color) resumed until 1954.
The 302 was updated by Henry Dreyfuss in 1949 to create the sleeker 500 model, which was the first phone to incorporate a coiled handset cord, a development possibly adapted from cords used in airplane cockpits. In another breakthrough, the 500 also allowed the user to control the volume of the ringer. As with the 302, the 500 was originally sold only in black but was eventually produced in a range of hues, from ivory to golden yellow to pink, with ads that read “Pick a phone from this garden of colors!” Due to parent company AT&T’s near telephone monopoly, the 500 became the standard American telephone for the next 30 years, when more than 100 variations of its design were made. In 1951, Western Electric was forced to license the model's design to other companies, further extending the phone’s ubiquity in American households.
Western Electric launched its line of Princess phones in 1959, which featured a smaller oval-shape, lighted dials, and a pastel-hued body designed to appeal to female customers. Its Trimline phone debuted in 1965, and imitated the popular Princess model with its slender body, lighted dial, and series of bright colors. However, the Trimline's dial was mounted on the center portion of the handset, a move that further simplified the act of making a call.
In 1984, Western Electric was divided into various components of AT&T. In 1995, the parent company dropped the Western Electric brand entirely.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
Old Telephones as Entertainment
The Telephone Archive
Clubs & Associations
- Antique Telephone Collectors Association
- Telephone Collectors International
- Telecommunications History Group
- Telecommunications Heritage Group (UK)
- Australasian Telephone Collectors Society, Inc.
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Western Electric Telephones
Source: Google News
Recipe helpColumbus Dispatch, July 30th
Years ago at the Western Electric plant on E. Broad Street, the company made their own chocolate chip cookies. They featured chunks of chocolate and could be ordered for meetings in the front office building shared with Bell Labs. We used to get...Read more
Tarlton Managing Construction Of 700 Market For The Koman GroupSTLtoday.com, July 24th
Tarlton and HOK recently collaborated on another historic renovation project, @4240 for Wexford Science & Technology LLC, transforming a former Western Electric telephone factory into a state-of-the-art office-lab building in the CORTEX District in St...Read more
Lynn D. Sorf, AT&T retireeCape Gazette, July 22nd
Lynn graduated from Scotch Plains-Fanwood High School in 1962 and upon her graduation went to work for Western Electric in Union, N.J. and retired 32 years later from its successor organization AT&T and remained a life member of the AT&T Pioneers...Read more
Vickroy: Lifelong friends 'all in' for monthly poker get-togetherSouthtownStar, July 16th
John Griffin, a retired Chicago police detective, remembers the day in 2009 when he picked up his son, Jimmy, at Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama, and drove like a madman to get back in time for the game. “We're driving back through Indiana...Read more
David JonesTimes Record, July 16th
He returned to Little Rock, where he found a job with Western Electric, and was sent to Fort Smith to work on dial tone. In 1958, Wiley Bohart hired him for Southwestern Bell, where he retired after 33 years of service. He was a life member of AT&T...Read more
Bicyclist who died on trail identified as Lehigh University police employeeThe Express-Times, July 14th
The U.S. Army veteran previously worked for Western Electric, AT&T, and Lucent and retired as a supervisor in 2002. Services are scheduled to follow visiting hours 9:30 to 11 a.m. Wednesday at Connell Funeral Home, 245 E. Broad St., Bethlehem. Burial...Read more
Vincent E. CalifanoCape Coral Daily Breeze, July 3rd
He worked at Western Electric/AT&T and retired from Lucent Technologies in 1996. He moved to Cape Coral in 1999 where he volunteered at Lee Memorial's Cape Coral Hospital, Cultural Park Theater and he was a member of the AT&T Pioneers. Survivors ...Read more
James Robert Stockner of Naperville, Ill.The Carroll News, June 30th
James Robert Stockner, a 57-year Naperville resident, died peacefully with his family at his side Friday, June 27, 2014 at Edward Hospital in Naperville, IL. He was born February 17, 1927 in Havaco, West Virginia, the son of Raymond Early and Alma (nee ...Read more