All clothes protect our bodies from the elements, but dressing with flair and style is a way of announcing one’s taste and standing in society. As Charles Dickens put it, “any man may be in good spirits and good temper when he's well dressed.”

Accessories are literally the flair—the final touches that decorate an outfit. While we tend to think of women as the gender given to accessorizing, adorning themselves with jewelry, scarves, elaborate hats, stiletto heels, and glamorous handbags, men have nearly as many accessories at their disposal, including ties, belts, cufflinks, and fedoras.

Some of the most common accessories today—ties with Windsor knots, purses, belt buckles, silk scarves, cufflinks, and sunglasses—only came into fashion within the last hundred years or so. Before the last century, early Victorian fashion demanded touches like elegant canes, delicate hand fans, châtelaines, pocket watches, and suspenders.

These days, canes are primarily used as aids for those who have difficulty walking on their own. However, canes and walking sticks have a long history of being elegant fashion accessories, must-haves for well-dressed gentlemen and ladies. In fact, at one point, it was considered quite improper to lean on a cane for support. Canes also doubled as containers for everything from maps and weapons to alcohol and perfume. In the Victorian Era in particular, canes were invented to hold every device imaginable, from microscopes and barometers to horse measures and fishing poles.

Another accessory that has mostly fallen by the wayside is the hand fan, used by Victorian women as a means of flirtation and rejection, as much as a tool to stay cool. These beautifully decorated objects had leaves made of everything from ostrich feathers and ivory to silk, paper, and celluloid.

For men, belt buckles—originally plain, utilitarian devices—have long been worn to indicate power or status, particularly in the military. However, it wasn’t until the 1920s, when the waists of pants were lowered, that belts became common accessories for men and women. That beloved Hollywood creation, the Western film, brought back the idea of the big, ornate buckle, a.k.a the cowboy belt buckle, reflecting a man’s status as an alpha male.

Ties, meanwhile, have their roots in a time when wealthy and powerful men proudly wore lace and other frilly fabrics, known as cravats, around their necks. This look evolved into...

Cufflinks, designed for shirts with French cuffs, were also the height of men’s fashion in the late 1800s. They were often made of 14-karat gold and set with onyx and agates in the shapes of lions’ heads, as well as with ancient Roman coins. After World War II, cufflinks experienced a surge in popularity—a sophisticated gentleman had both an array of cufflinks and a collection of ties to choose from.

For women, perhaps the most coveted accessory is the purse, which emerged out of the 19th-century trend of attaching châtelaines to waistbelts. These fasteners were replaced with small, decorative bags that served the purpose of pockets. Early purses were often beaded, embroidered, or embellished with tassels. Meanwhile, handbags, which were sturdier than purses and had more compartments, evolved from luggage.

Around the turn of the 20th century, purses and handbags were adapted to the style of the era, whether it was Art Nouveau or the Belle Epoque. In the 1920s, flappers in little black dresses wore the smallest purses possible, which hid elaborately decorated compacts that were designed to hold little more than powder, lipstick, a handkerchief, and perhaps cab fare.

Huge shoulder bags came into fashion in the 1940s, thanks to the practicality of World War II-era fashions. During the prosperous postwar years of the 1950s, when Americans first starting using credit cards, wallets as we know them today came into fashion for men and women.

Since then, top fashion houses like Louis Vuitton and Coco Chanel have produced matching purse-and-wallet sets for women, often with their logos displayed prominently in the design. Men’s wallets have ranged from high-end leather ones to novelty wallets bearing likenesses of pop-culture characters like Hopalong Cassidy and Superman.

Modern sunglasses first appeared in the 1920s, when Americans and Europeans took to the beaches for their vacations. The sunglasses craze exploded when designers like Persol and Emilio Pucci made high-fashion shades for the likes of Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly, Audrey Hepburn, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.

Men favored wire-framed Ray-Ban "aviator" sunglasses, which featured an innovative anti-glare polarized-lens technology, developed by Polaroid Corporation in 1936. Thanks to their air of mystery, dark shades became a symbol of cool detachment for beatniks, hippies, and jazz and rock musicians. Ray-Ban’s chunky 1952 Wayfarer style became a standard look among the young and the hip, while the Beatles' John Lennon made small tinted “teashades” popular in the ’60s.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Anna Checcoli's homage to the beauty and art of hand fans ('ventagli,' in Italian). Use the left-hand nav to browse… [read review or visit site]

Dr. David Fleishman's comprehensive spectacles site (over 3500 images), in collaboration with museums around the wo… [read review or visit site]

Most watched eBay auctions    

Unusual 19th Century Berlin Woolwork Carpet Bag, Gladstone HandbagAntique Sterling Handle Cane, Nautical Maritime Seashell Oyster Crab Starfish ++Antique Victorian Steel Blue Tinted Lens Sports Glasses Spectacles SunglassesRare Small Antique Chinese Cantonese Carved Sandalwood Export Fan 清朝 道光帝 Ca 1845Vintage Men's Fur Felt 1940s 1950s Cavanagh Fedora Size 7 3/8Vintage Christian Dior Paris Floral Design Hand Rolled 100% Silk ScarfVictorian Carved Bone Needle Case Parasol Umbrella Figural C1890Beautiful Salvatore Ferragamo Elephant Thailand Motif 100% Silk ScarfChinese Brise Fan Eventail Qing Dynasty Perfect ConditionVintage Metal Grey 7-1/4 Fedora Felt Hat Mallory Of New York With Box StetsonBlack 5022 Wayfarer B&l Ray Ban Usa L2008 Ytas Sunglasses Vintage With Orig Case Vintage 1960s Real Fur " Silver Blu " Mink Stole/ Wrap/ Shrug Superb Fur1990's Ray Ban Chromax Explorer Brow Bar Caravan B&l Usa W1699 & CaseGorgeous Antique Pink Piano Shawl Canton Shawl Manton De Manila, Silk, EdwardianAntique Art Deco Glass Beaded Purse With .800 Silver HandleRay Ban Folding Wayfarer Celebration Flash Lens Rb4105 601-s/4k 50mmSuperb Victorian Carved Bone Ladies Fan Chinese For Export 1800sVintage 1930s 7-3/8 Stetson No. 1 Quality Boss Raw Edge Cowboy Western Hat1990's Ray Ban Wayfarer Ii, 54mm Lens, B&l Usa L1725 (sun)Hermes Dies Et Hore Astrologie Silk Scarf - Surteint Dip Dyed VersionVintage Rhinestone Jeweled Czech Era Dance Vanity Gold Filigree Compact Purse Vintage Stetson Open Road Western Cowboy Hat W/ Box 7 1/490's Ray Ban Outdoorsman 58mm Aviator Large Metal B&l Usa L0216 & CaseRay Ban Wayfarer Rb2140 902 50mm & CaseVintage Ray Ban Bausch Lomb Aviator Deep Freeze Double Gradient SunglassesBorsalino Fedora Hat Size 7 1/8, Olive Green Felt, Made In Alessandria, Italy 5890's Ray Ban Wayfarer Bl5022 Tortoise B&l Usa (sun)Vintage Signed Wiesner Black Birdcase Purse - With RhinestonesTucci. Fabulous Italian Cashmere / Silk Classic Paisley Pashmina / ScarfLouis Vuitton Canvas Suitcase Authentic 24 X 18 X 8 InchesVintage Authentic Ray Ban Aviator Glasses Leather Olympic GamesGenuine Crocodile Alligator Skin Suit Case Overnight Bag C1930sGlasses Vintage Elsa Schiaparelli Cat Eye 40's 50' Must Romance Santos 61-18 Large Aviator Gold+plati.frames SunglassesVintage Authentic HermÈs Paris "les Tambours" By Joachim Metz 100% Silk ScarfRay Ban Polarised Clubmaster Rb3016 51mm Lens & CaseArmani. A Superb Shimmering Silk Devore Vintage Silk Scarf / ShawlVintage A. Sulka & Company Paris Ebony Ivory Foldable Walking Stick CaneRay Ban Wayfarer Meteor Special Series Rb4168 50mm & CaseVintage Ray Ban Bausch And Lomb With CaseVintage 1930s Studded Jeweled Leather Western Cowboy Biker Belt Workwear 32Vintage B&l Ray Ban The General 50th Anniversary 62[]14 Aviators Sunglasses Usa Vintage B&l Ray Ban Timberline Aviator Ski Sunglasses Mirror Amber Blue Tan 80s90's Ray Ban Traditionals Style A Cats 5000 Aviator B&l L1670 Sunglasses & CaseAmazing Vintage 1940-50s Tan Italian Borsalino Alessandria Fedora -unworn 7-1/8Vintage Ray-ban Bausch & Lomb U.s.a 50 Tortoise Shell Wayfarer Rb-50 Sunglasses Vintage The Original Box Bag By Enid Collins Of Texas FlowerVintage Sterling Silver Elephant Head Cane Handle-196gr-glass Eyes! Ex!Vintage Bausch & Lomb Ray Ban Aviator Shooting GlassesMetropolitan Museum Of Art. Pretty Little William Morris Vintage Silk ScarfVery Rare Antique Regency Jane Austen Era Cupids Arrow Brise Fan Eventail 181590's Ray Ban Gatsby Style 4 Rb-3 Lens B&l Usa W0931 + CaseVintage B&l Ray Ban Wayfarer Ii Sunglasses L1742 Uvas Made In UsaRay Ban Large Wayfarer Rb2140 902 54mm & CaseAntique Vintage Purse Hand Bag Art Deco Victorian Beaded Silver Toned Metal Ray Ban New Wayfarer Rb2132 902 52mm & Case90's Ray Ban Signet Deluxe B&l Usa W1305 Sunglasses & Case Saldarini For Liberty. A Striking Monochrome Abstract Design Vintage Silk Scarf90's Ray Ban Round Metal B&l Usa W1293 Sunglasses + CaseSize 7 1/4 + Vintage '50s Stratoliner Clone Fedora Hat Jcp Marathon