All clothes protect the body from the elements, but dressing with flair and style is a way of announcing one’s taste and standing in society. As Charles Dickens put it, “any man may be in good spirits and good temper when he's well dressed.”

Accessories are literally the flair—the final touches that decorate an outfit. While we tend to think of women as the gender given to accessorizing, adorning themselves with jewelry, scarves, elaborate hats, stiletto heels, and glamorous handbags, men have nearly as many accessories at their disposal, including ties, belts, cufflinks, and fedoras.

Some of the most common accessories today—ties with Windsor knots, purses, belt buckles, silk scarves, cufflinks, and sunglasses—only came into fashion within the last hundred years or so. Before the last century, early Victorian fashion demanded touches like elegant canes, delicate hand fans, châtelaines, pocket watches, and suspenders.

These days, canes are primarily used as aids for those who have difficulty walking on their own. However, canes and walking sticks have a long history of being elegant fashion accessories, must-haves for well-dressed gentlemen and ladies. In fact, at one point, it was considered quite improper to lean on a cane for support. Canes also doubled as containers for everything from maps and weapons to alcohol and perfume. In the Victorian Era in particular, canes were invented to hold every device imaginable, from microscopes and barometers to horse measures and fishing poles.

Another accessory that has mostly fallen by the wayside is the hand fan, used by Victorian women as a means of flirtation and rejection, as much as a tool to stay cool. These beautifully decorated objects had leaves made of everything from ostrich feathers and ivory to silk, paper, and celluloid.

For men, belt buckles—originally plain, utilitarian devices—have long been worn to indicate power or status, particularly in the military. However, it wasn’t until the 1920s, when the waists of pants were lowered, that belts became common accessories for men and women. That beloved Hollywood creation, the Western film, brought back the idea of the big, ornate buckle, a.k.a the cowboy belt buckle, reflecting a man’s status as an alpha male.

Ties, meanwhile, have their roots in a time when wealthy and powerful men proudly wore lace and other frilly fabrics, known as cravats, around their necks. This look evolved into...

Cufflinks, designed for shirts with French cuffs, were also the height of men’s fashion in the late 1800s. They were often made of 14-karat gold and set with onyx and agates in the shapes of lions’ heads, as well as with ancient Roman coins. After World War II, cufflinks experienced a surge in popularity—a sophisticated gentleman had both an array of cufflinks and a collection of ties to choose from.

For women, perhaps the most coveted accessory is the purse, which emerged out of the 19th-century trend of attaching châtelaines to waistbelts. These fasteners were replaced with small, decorative bags that served the purpose of pockets. Early purses were often beaded, embroidered, or embellished with tassels. Meanwhile, handbags, which were sturdier than purses and had more compartments, evolved from luggage.

Around the turn of the 20th century, purses and handbags were adapted to the style of the era, whether it was Art Nouveau or the Belle Epoque. In the 1920s, flappers in little black dresses wore the smallest purses possible, which hid elaborately decorated compacts that were designed to hold little more than powder, lipstick, a handkerchief, and perhaps cab fare.

Huge shoulder bags came into fashion in the 1940s, thanks to the practicality of World War II-era fashions. During the prosperous postwar years of the 1950s, when Americans first starting using credit cards, wallets as we know them today came into fashion for men and women.

Since then, top fashion houses like Louis Vuitton and Coco Chanel have produced matching purse-and-wallet sets for women, often with their logos displayed prominently in the design. Men’s wallets have ranged from high-end leather ones to novelty wallets bearing likenesses of pop-culture characters like Hopalong Cassidy and Superman.

Modern sunglasses first appeared in the 1920s, when Americans and Europeans took to the beaches for their vacations. The sunglasses craze exploded when designers like Persol and Emilio Pucci made high-fashion shades for the likes of Ava Gardner, Grace Kelly, Audrey Hepburn, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.

Men favored wire-framed Ray-Ban "aviator" sunglasses, which featured an innovative anti-glare polarized-lens technology, developed by Polaroid Corporation in 1936. Thanks to their air of mystery, dark shades became a symbol of cool detachment for beatniks, hippies, and jazz and rock musicians. Ray-Ban’s chunky 1952 Wayfarer style became a standard look among the young and the hip, while the Beatles' John Lennon made small tinted “teashades” popular in the ’60s.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Anna Checcoli's homage to the beauty and art of hand fans ('ventagli,' in Italian). Use the left-hand nav to browse… [read review or visit site]

Dr. David Fleishman's comprehensive spectacles site (over 3500 images), in collaboration with museums around the wo… [read review or visit site]

Most watched eBay auctions    

Authentic White Caviar Leather Chanel Crossbody Clutch Wallet Chain Shoulder BagVtg 40s Cavanaugh Mens Fur Felt Fedora Hat Wide Brim Film Noir Size 7 1/819 C Antique Hand Made Point De Gaze Lace Wedding Handkerchief Original Box YqzAuthentic Vintage Gucci Tote Bag Made In Italy Dark Blue Pvc 28158Rare Antique Vintage Estate Burl Wood Tobacco Pipe Cane Walking StickRay Ban B&l Vintage Ambermatic Outdoorsman 62mm Sunglasses W/ Case2 Superb Vintage Hand Painted Waldybag Handbags. N. Peal, Burlington Arcade BoxVintage Stetson Open Road Hat 7 1/8 1950-60s Classic GrayFine Antique Carved Cow Bone & Sterling Silver Cane Belonging To John HigginsExquisite Antique Victorian Carved Cow Bone & Gold Cane Walking Stick Circa 1880Superb Unused Vintage Black Crocodile Waldybag Handbag In Pidduck BoxB&l Ray Ban Usa Vintage Wayfarer Sunglasses #5022Antique University New Hampshire College Fraternity Folk Art Carved Cane W/ CatVintage U.s.a Rayban Wayfarer 5024 B&l Lenses Brown Acetate Sunglasses 1970Authentic Vintage Gucci Boston Bag Made In Italy Browns Pvc 28161B&l Ray Ban Usa Wayfarer Olympic 92 Sunglasses / PartsNos 80's Blonde Frost, B-15 Lens, Bl5022 *wayfarer* B&l Ray Ban Usa & CaseAuthentic Vintage Gucci Boston Bag Made In Italy Browns Pvc 28160Vintage Retro Black W Silver Confetti Lucite Pocketbook Clear Lucite Floral TopPatricia Of Miami Vintage Yellow Lucite PursrAntique Carved Antler Lion Head Handled Walking Stick-cane-1800's Ebony ShaftAuthentic Burberry Burberrys Handbag Bag Brown VintageStunning Vintage Silk Top Hat, Uk Size 6 7/8, Over 6 Inches Tall, No Reserve!Lot (2) Antique Canes Walking Sticks Engraved Gold Cap Carved Name Great PatinaAntique Silk Nude Pink Embroidered Piano Shawl Scarf Chale Soie Brode - 45"x 49"Vintage 1980's Rayban Wayfarer Green B&l Lenses Folding Sunglasses Vtg. 1950's Era Lucite & Wicker Purse, Paris Motif, By; Suki OriginalsFine Antique Greek Carved Horse & Horseman Cane Walking Stick Corfu GreeceQuality Antique Victorian Crocodile Skin & Sterling Silver Wallet - F Webb 189927 Lot Antique Pince Nez Eye Glass Vintage Spectacles Steam Punk Eyeglasses YqzT-1-2 Antique Horn & Sterling Silver Cane/walking Stick Handles1990's B&l Ray Ban L1725 Wayfarer Ii, 54mm Lens & Dkny CaseVintage Rayban Tortuga Photochromic Outdoorsman Aviator Sunglasses With B&l LensRare Near Mint Cartier Rimless Gold Plated Sunglasses With Case - No ReserveRare! Antique 1936 Berlin Olympics Olympische Spiele Enamel Belt Buckle SouvenirVintage Tooled Leather Train Case Mexican MadeVintage Silver Lady Handle Walking Stick-cane-nice Decorative Cane - Pretty LadyVintage 30s 40s Black Sculptural Felt Tilt Tip Hat With Red Feather Near Mint!Antique Carved Dog Head Cane Walking Stick Riding Crop Woven Shaft 35 "Black Kid Leather Opera GlovesLot Of 3 Vintage Enameled Metal Mesh Bags Purses - Whiting Davis, Etc. JkFabulous Vintage Folk Art Carved & Painted Seven Snakes Cane Walking Stick90's B&l Ray Ban Round Metal W0608 Sunglasses & CaseRay Ban *clubmaster Light Ray* Rb8056 154/71 51mm Lens & CaseRetro Leather Steampunk/motorcycle Sunglasses Goggles & CaseStunning Vintage Antique Silk Top Hat, Uk Size 7 3/8, No Reserve!Stetson Men's 'the Open Road', Beige Western, 4x Beaver Hat W/ Box, 7 1/8 Iconic & Rare "vintage/original" Oliver Peoples Tortoise Mp-2 Frame Antique-vintage Horn Crook Handled Walking Stick-gold Collar-fantastic CaneVintage Persol Ratti 09181 Honey Celluloid Sunglasses - Eyeglasses Rim / In BoxAuthentic Sunglasses Ray Ban Rb3447 Gold Round Metal 001 50 21 3n Free ShippingGorgeous Vintage 1960's Tan Leather Snakeskin Framed Hand Bag - Uo S31B&l Ray Ban Usa Wayfarer Olympic Sunglasses For PartsAntique Welsh Sailors Wallet Pocket Book - Captain Robert Roberts - Nefyn 1824Vtg Art Deco Whiting & Davis Mesh Enamel Bag Purse With Mirror Purse Handbag Groovy Retro Spiral Telephone Cord Bag Purse Black White Design Wow Factor!40's Flair....blk Felt Tilt Hat W/tall Crown, Saucer Front Brim & Faux Bird90's Mirrored Lens B&l Ray Ban Round Metal W2247 Sunglasses & CaseB&l Ray Ban *wayfarer Max Ii* Yellow Tortoiseshell W1274 Sunglasses19th C Victorian Gentleman's Dress Cane W Gold Filled Knob ~ Ebony Walking Stick