When Minton & Company of Staffordshire exhibited a new line of ceramics at The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the firm called it Palissy ware. The name came from a 16th-century Frenchman named Bernard Palissy, whose vividly colored, high-relief, lead-glazed plates, platters, and pitchers had inspired Minton’s new, French-born art director, Léon Arnoux.
The word majolica was also used to describe the ware, since it had some commonalities with the tin-glazed 16th-century Spanish and Italian earthenware of the same name. But even though Palissy ware was a more accurate description of Minton’s new line, the work quickly became known as majolica.
Before long there was a majolica renaissance in Europe and the United States. A great deal of it was made in Italy by firms such as Ginori and Cantagalli. In Germany, the Royal Porcelain Manufactory was known for its majolica.
What these companies shared was a vocabulary of images and style that was at once exuberant and uniform. All used bright colors splashed on reliefs of plants and animals. This was fun ware for the common man, and it sold as quickly as Minton and others could produce it.
Naturally Wedgwood and other Staffordshire stalwarts wanted a piece of this action, even though Minton had about a 10-year head start. Predictably, Wedgwood majolica was more formal than Minton’s and used humor with restraint. While some potteries were producing teapots in the shapes of cauliflowers, Wedgwood stuck mostly to basket-weave patterns and relief foliage on the outsides of its standard shapes.
In the United States, a similar fascination with majolica took hold around the same time as the Minton debut. As in England, potteries coated their ware with clear glazes, so that the pieces positively shined. Griffen, Smith & Hill was one prominent Pennsylvania manufacturer, who sometimes marked its pieces with “G.S.H.” or labeled them as “Etruscan Pottery.”
Other American companies known for their majolica in the second half of the 19th century were Morrison & Carr, Chesapeake Pottery, and Edwin Bennett. They produced relish dishes,...
One of the most popular majolica forms was the pitcher, which was sometimes designed to appear as if it had been formed from vertical slices of wide bamboo, with more slender bamboo branches employed for the pitcher’s handle. Other pitchers resembled ears of corn, while syrup containers were routinely festooned with fat sunflowers or clusters of lily leaves and flowers.
There were platters and plates, or course, with leaf-shaped plates being a collectible subcategory all its own (begonia leaves were especially popular). Sardine boxes and cigarette holders were also produced—many were topped by African-American figurals, known then as now as blackamoors. And animals from bulldogs to pigs were deemed the perfect shapes within which to store tobacco.
If there was a dark side to the sunny look of majolica it was the process of making it. In 19th-century America, young girls did much of the painting, usually earning as little as 25 cents for a 12-hour day. This was well before child-labor laws, so the idea that these children were expected to work long hours and handle lead glazes was not seriously questioned until the first part of the 20th century. Not surprisingly, the difficult conditions produced work that was often sloppy, as anyone who has seen a majolica vase with colors radically out of register or running down the side can attest.
By the 1890s, the majolica craze was ending in the United States—the technique looked a bit too baroque compared to the ascendant Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau styles. While majolica persisted in Europe, pieces from the 20th century are generally thinner and feature less dramatic relief than those from the century before, which makes them less interesting to collectors.
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Precious Objects From Vanishing Estates on Long IslandNew York Times, August 28th
The exhibition, re-creating a portion of the dining room, displays an Italian walnut bench from about 1700; Asian copper-and-brass plates on a lotus blossom theme from the mid-19th century; 18th-century majolica plates; and other diverse artifacts...Read more
The Role of Décor in Hitler's LifeNew York Times, August 27th
The journalist and novelist William George Fitz-Gerald praised Hitler's “cozy but modest” rooms, furnished with bouquets of flowers, cactuses in majolica pots and books on “history, painting, architecture and music.” Ms. Stratigakos said that her study...Read more
St. Augustine dig open for city's 450th anniversaryUniversity of Florida, August 27th
Past excavations have revealed evidence and artifacts — such as the sherds of pottery pictured above, a Spanish majolica called Puebla Polychrome — dating to the 17th century, suggesting the structure is likely the church commissioned in 1677 by...Read more
Eat (From) Your Greens With Collectible Vegetable WaresWall Street Journal, August 24th
Vegetable-shaped tableware was also popular in Portugal. The nation's best-known maker is Bordallo Pinheiro, a pottery founded in the 19th century that became famous for its majolica vegetables. Its contemporary collection includes tableware in the...Read more
COLUMN: A morning at the Berry archaeological siteStatesville Record & Landmark, August 15th
Only a handful of Spanish artifacts have so far been found: olive jar shards, a knife blade, chain mail pieces, part of a majolica ware apothecary jar, lead spume and a Spanish nail or spike. To experts these man-made objects tell a story; the hunt for...Read more
Books delve into the world of collectorsThe Detroit News, August 13th
candy wrappers or matchbook covers, to the exceptionalist (who seeks out the opposite), the 351-page hardcover has some editorial, but mainly devotes the pages to gorgeous shots of antique snuffboxes, silhouettes, majolica, café au lait bowls, and...Read more
Aerin's Hour: A Poolside Lunch Celebrating the Beauty Brand's Collaboration ...Vogue.com, August 10th
The cohosts attended the Chapin School together and on a post-lunch tour of the house, Loehnis fit right in, her Dolce & Gabbana Majolica-print sundress matched Estée's collection of Delftware china displayed in one of the living rooms. “I love seeing...Read more
Fine Majolica at AuctionMaine Antique Digest, February 23rd
At the 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition in Hyde Park, London, Herbert Minton introduced Victorian majolica, a new line of ceramics based on Renaissance designs and natural forms with rich lead-glazed colors: bright green, yellow, turquoise, and deep...Read more