Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
The Bowes Museum: Ceramics
Cowan Pottery Museum Associates
Ceramics at The V&A
The Pottery Studio
Clubs & Associations
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Stoneware
Source: Google News
Ambiente India 2015, second edition taking place in JuneYarnsandFibers (subscription), May 24th
Thanor Pottery will showcase a range of hand-made, hand-glazed stoneware ceramics including themed and cuisine-based collections for chefs and connoisseurs and decorative vases, planters, lamps, tiles, vanity bowls and chandeliers for the lifestyle ...Read more
Go Columbia calendarThe State, May 24th
GLAZING BASICS WORKSHOP: Noon-3 p.m. June 13 at the Columbia Parks and Recreation Art Center, 1928 Calhoun St. Participants should bring one or two bisque pieces of stoneware or porcelain to test techniques (pieces should not exceed 6 inches in ...Read more
Cool alternative to electric kettle avoids excess waterPhys.Org, May 24th
Any vessel made from non-ferrous materials such as ceramics (including porcelain, earthenware and stoneware), glass and heat-resistant plastics can be used. Examples given are a ceramic mug, glass, heat-resistant plastic container, or porcelain teapot...Read more
Diving deeper into Mayan lore — and a den of human sacrificeBoston Globe (subscription), May 22nd
The skeletal remains of 13 other humans, as well as many ceramic and stoneware pieces, have been discovered in the limestone abyss. Our archeological adventure began after a bumpy backroads drive and a 45-minute jungle hike that included fording a ...Read more
Five colorful pieces to make your patio pop this summerHouston Chronicle (subscription), May 22nd
Memorial Day weekend is the unofficial start of summer. Is your patio ready to party? Outdoor spaces, whether you have a small patio or a big yard with a pool, are perfect settings for bold color. Consider sprucing up your al fresco area with these...Read more
Kalamazoo Institute of Arts announces winners of the 2015 West Michigan Area ...MLive.com, May 12th
Grand Prize ($1,000): Elisabeth Carnell, Kalamazoo, "L'essentiel est Invisible," saggar-fired white stoneware. Second Prize ($500): George Robeck, Kalamazoo, "Storage Jar with Cord and Weights," porcelain with fiber cord. Third Prize ($400): Taylor...Read more
Royal Stoneware pledges to invest 1.2 billion drams in production of ceramic ...Arka News Agency, May 7th
YEREVAN, May 7. / ARKA /. The Royal Stoneware company has been awarded today by the government of Armenia a VAT payment deferment after pledging to invest 1.2 billion drams in the production of ceramic tableware, economy minister Karen ...Read more
Cargo Lane Unveils New Range of Natural StonewarePRWire (press release), May 3rd
The Stoneware range also includes a variety of matching river rock and natural stone bathroom accessories and homewares such as candle holders, soap dishes and water bowls. The range is available to buy online or is available to view in store at The...Read more