Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Ceramicist Axel Salto Blended Form and FunctionBLOUIN ARTINFO, December 20th
When a 1944 stoneware vase in the budding style brought £373,250 ($604,000) at Phillips London in September 2012 — more than triple its £100,000 ($160,000) high estimate and 18 times its selling price 13 years earlier — anyone who wasn't already ...Read more
Left it late to deck the halls? Here's a fast-track to festiveHam&High, December 20th
Artisan white stoneware, The White Company. PA Photo/Handout. Hang 'em high. Set baubles free from the tree and you'll be amazed at their power to bring razzle-dazzle to rooms. “Buy invisible wire thread, or fishing line, and attach to a window frame...Read more
A the Phipps Center for the Arts: 'Holiday extravaganza' organ concertStillwater Gazette, December 19th
A series of exhibitions featuring functional glazed stoneware by Guillermo Cuellar, works of and on paper by Toni Dachis, panoramic photographs by David Heberlein, relief and monotype prints by Graham Judd, and black and white photography by Michael A ...Read more
Kovels: Beer steins born of necessityINFORUM, December 19th
They were made of pewter, wood, stoneware and, for the very wealthy, ivory. Painted or carved decorations were added. A 1-liter stein made of carved ivory with scenes of cherubs drinking wine sold at a Fox stein auction in September 2014 for $5,760...Read more
There's still time to catch CraftTexas 2014Houston Chronicle, December 19th
Consider the variety of blobs, from Kamila Szczesna's "Drive No. 6" made of porcelain and gold leaf to James Tingey's "Impact and Prisms," a work of press-molded stoneware that resembles a pile of slag. Or the range of materials that call to mind the...Read more
In Copenhagen, Shops With Studios AttachedNew York Times, December 19th
The continuing evolution of Norrebro, a multicultural neighborhood in northern Copenhagen, is most evident along Jaegersborggade, a less-than-quarter-mile-long stretch between Assistens Cemetery and Norrebroparken. This formerly derelict lane is now ...Read more
Asheer Akram's sculptures at Belger Crane Yard decode the mysticalKansas City Star, December 17th
In “Luminous Girih” (2014), a roughly 4-foot-tall work in steel, stoneware, glaze and enamel, a rich aqueous blue-green screen of stoneware appears against a neutral steel plinth. The two colors speak of life and its aftermath and are fused into one...Read more
High anxiety: Kristalova sculptures reveal inner emotionsPalm Beach Daily News, December 16th
View Larger · High anxiety: Kristalova sculptures reveal inner emotions photo. “And Still They Remain” glazed stoneware from 2009 is by artist Klara Kristalova. The Norton show is Kristalova's first solo museum exhibition in the United States. Courtesy...Read more