Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Recent News: Stoneware
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From dry state to beer destinationBurlingtonFreePress.com, April 1st
Stewart knew the museum had several related artifacts on hand, including a pair of massive stoneware jugs used as alcohol containers in the 1800s and early-American tavern items including a bar tab from the Catamount Tavern in Bennington for ...Read more
Get Hip to HopsBoise Weekly, April 1st
These 1/2-liter and 1-liter tankards were traditionally fashioned from glazed stoneware, adorned with elaborate decorations and topped with pewter lids or thumb-lifts. Some say the lids were conceived as a sanitary measure after the Bubonic Plague to...Read more
How to Say Goodbye to Mad Men? Why With a Smarty-Pants Viewing Party, Of ...CityLab, April 1st
Mad Men returns for its final episodes on Sunday, April 5, capping one of the most acclaimed series in television history. With Don, Peggy, Joan, and the rest of the gang poised to ride off into the sunset (or the 1970s, as the case may be), you're...Read more
'The Bite' Set for No. 6The Mountain Times, April 1st
From her Welches studio, Dulcie creates a stunning line of functional stoneware and hand-built sculptures. She has been producing and selling her work throughout the Pacific Northwest since 1980. All of her ware is thrown on the potter's wheel. No...Read more
Angelica whips up a batch of baby back ribs and other small bitesfox6now.com, April 1st
Arrange ribs in slow cooker by standing them up against the wall of the stoneware pot, thicker side down and meaty side against the pot. Pour barbecue sauce over the ribs, cover and cook for 6-8 hours on low. After ribs are cooked, carefully remove...Read more
Scale, detail, bravado in Adams show at Gallery 224Boston Globe (subscription), March 31st
Keeping to his basic structure, Adams experiments with different types of clay (terra cotta, porcelain, stoneware), a range of sizes, a sliding scale of firing temperatures, and what he calls in his artist's statement “a promiscuous approach to glazing...Read more
New technology and recipes with bolder flavors are making slow cookers a hip ...Kansas City Star, March 31st
Multipurpose crock: Stoneware or heavy ceramic were the vessels of choice when the Rival Crock Pot was first introduced. Though still the most popular today, some units, such as the All Clad Deluxe 7-quart unit, features a nonstick cast aluminum vessel...Read more
Louisville Stoneware taps world-renowned architect to expand brandWDRB, March 25th
(WDRB) -- Traditional dinnerware at Louisville Stoneware is still a top seller, but the company has recently put its focus on expanding its style and offerings in order to ensure success in the future. The nearly 200-year-old company recently announced...Read more