Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Recent News: Stoneware
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NCCS offers three classes in MayChambersburg Public Opinion, May 1st
Each fountain will be made from white stoneware clay and decorated with colorful glazes. Instructor Carolyn Baker will provide step-by-step guidance to create the unique project with a variety of hand building techniques. The workshop is limited to 10 ...Read more
It's Show Choir vs. Glee Club in new musical comedyAnniston Star, May 1st
Crowe's current focus is on functional stoneware pieces. “Clay is a lifelong learning experience,” she said. “Although clay objects have a long history, there is always something new to learn about the creation, design, glazing and firing processes.”...Read more
Hundreds crowd Haeger store Saturday for 'piece of history'Chicago Tribune, April 30th
Locals from all over the area flocked to the store at 7 Maiden Lane and bought up their inventory of vases, art pieces, lamps and stoneware. The store was forced to close for two weeks so that more items to restock the shelves could come from storage...Read more
My Grandfather Was a Famous Artist. He Also Made Greeting Cards.New York Times, April 28th
Although Associated would branch into artist-designed home and fashion goods during its 66-year history — there are arresting stoneware platters and cotton fabrics in “Art for Every Home” — it started with prints, and they remained the foundation of...Read more
Porcelain stoneware surfaces in bars and restaurantsFloornature.com, April 25th
Porcelain stoneware tiles may be used in all contemporary spaces with the same high technical and aesthetic performance in both public places and private homes. A material such as porcelain stoneware underlines the expressiveness of the space and the ...Read more
Less is more: minimalist spaces with porcelain stoneware surfacesFloornature.com, April 11th
Natural and artificial light play a key role in the design of minimalist environments decorated with porcelain stoneware, the material best qualified to underline and enhance the subtleties of hue of all surfaces in any style. Porcelain stoneware in...Read more
Communicating interiors with decorated ceramic stoneware tilesFloornature.com, April 4th
With its decorative elements for porcelain stoneware floors and walls, Iris Ceramica recreates lifestyles in line with the tradition of the art of ceramics, using surfaces in rooms as a colour palette. This is apparent in the Kreo collection, a series...Read more
Bluegrass & Backroads: Stone Fence Pottery produces highest quality hand ...KyForward.com, April 3rd
Bluegrass & Backroads: Stone Fence Pottery produces highest quality hand thrown stoneware. Apr 4th, 2016 · 0 Comment. Meet a duo that produced the finest quality hand thrown pottery you can find at Stone Fence Pottery in Nicholasville. Kentucky is a...Read more