Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Recent News: Stoneware
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North Shore Community CalendarThe Salem News, February 12th
gallery reception, 5 to 7 p.m., Manninen Center for the Arts, Endicott College, 376 Hale St. Featuring works in glass, wood, stoneware, ceramics, plexi, bronze, aluminum, fiberglass, porcelain and urethane on polyurethane block. Free and open to the...Read more
2016 Valentine Gift GuideFocusdailynews, February 12th
The set for $29.99 has a stoneware Zen-shaped bowl for fondue and a divided platter to house assorted fondue dipping ingredients. Four color-coded fondue forks and a tea light to flame the unit along with recipes and instructions are included. Check...Read more
Beautiful BacongPhilippine Star, February 12th
good condition despite modern interventions to some of the historic fabric. I would recommend a visit to Bacong for the church, its annual Sinulog de San Miguel fiesta, and the distinctive stoneware sold at the Negros Oriental Arts and Heritage...Read more
Even the mug needs coffee…Albany Times Union (blog), February 12th
As you know, I've been tinkering around with my “Salty Mug” series of photos, in which I pour salt and boiling water into a clay mug and wait until the salt permeates through the nooks and crannies and cracks in the mug itself. After a few tries with a...Read more
Museum an asset to CountyThe Lafayette Sun, February 11th
It features an extensive collection of regional stoneware made in early Alabama history from clays mined in Chambers and Randolph counties. LaFayette's own Joe Louis, world heavyweight boxing champion is featured with an exhibit of scrapbooks, ...Read more
Dining review: Beautiful meals at Nazara, an upscale Indian eateryNews & Observer, February 11th
Dishes are artfully composed and served on gleaming white stoneware in contemporary geometric shapes. Even the naan arrives on a doily-lined plate. In one appetizer offering, seared jumbo scallops, each topped with a scarlet dot of capsicum chutney...Read more
Make a stoneware Easter bunnyChambersburg Public Opinion, January 21st
WAYNESBORO - Will Mr. and Mrs. Rabbit be joining you for Easter dinner this year? You will have the opportunity to handcraft stoneware Easter rabbits at the Ceramic Arts Center's February Corks and Clay workshop. Workshops will be 6-8 p.m.Feb. 19 and ...Read more
RIT Press distributes book exploring folk art of decorated stonewareHenrietta Post, January 19th
A new book distributed by RIT Press explores 19th-century utilitarian stoneware — including crocks, jugs and churns — and the unique folk art that was created on those canvases. “Art for the People: Decorated Stoneware from the Weitsman Collection” ...Read more