Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Marvelous Pirate Relic on the Auction BlockFine Books & Collections Magazine, January 26th
A unique relic of the Age of Piracy will be on display at the venue of the California International Antiquarian Book Fair in Oakland, California, on February 6th and 7th, 2015, at the Oakland City Center Marriott Hotel. The 17th century stoneware...Read more
Sneak peek inside 'Splendors of Shiga: Treasures from Japan' at Meijer GardensMLive.com, January 26th
1 of 12 Link to this photo | Comments about this photo essay Stoneware roof tile with gargoyle, Onigawara, Edo period (1615-1868). 14.96 x 24.41 x 11.81 inches. Collection of Omihachiman City. Courtesy of Omihachiman City Municipal Kawara Museum...Read more
Pattern Name Is PerplexingNewsOK.com, January 25th
They have made porcelain, earthenware and stoneware in Burslem, Staffordshire and Lambeth, London, England. It can be challenging to identify a pattern name. You can try contacting Royal Doulton and Company. Since it has been several years since you ...Read more
Check It Out: 'Fictitious Dishes' a tasty, literary readThe Columbian, January 25th
In the center of the table he placed a gigantic stoneware pitcher full of milk." If that doesn't call up memories of summertime repasts, I don't know what will. A book full of tasty passages would be interesting by itself, but the interest-factor...Read more
First Baptist Church of Canton holds single mom retreat in FebruaryTyler Morning Telegraph, January 23rd
A master potter and owner of Joy Pottery, Ms. Norris has been creating original stoneware and tile for more than 20 years. She is a regular speaker at women's events and uses demonstrations on the potter's wheel to share the love of God and His...Read more
The unfulfilled promise of the Crock-Pot, an unlikely symbol of women's equalityWashington Post (blog), January 23rd
Oversized handles make carrying comfortable and the removable 6-quart stoneware doubles as a serving dish," the company said in a cheesy news release. "And when the party is over, clean up is a snap thanks to the dishwasher safe stoneware and glass ...Read more
Stoneware enthusiasts share collectionsFort Dodge Messenger, January 18th
Stoneware enthusiasts share collections. Pottery pieces on display from across Iowa. January 19, 2015. By JESSE MAJOR (firstname.lastname@example.org) , Messenger News. Save |. Members of the Iowa Stoneware Collectors Society filled the Opera House at ...Read more
Pairpoint Puffy lamp, antique stoneware, duck decoys and more at Fontaine's ...ArtfixDaily, January 14th
A two-session antique estate auction totaling more than 500 lots and featuring rare and collectible firearms, duck decoys, stoneware, pottery, lighting and more will be held on Saturday, Jan. 31st, by Fontaine's Auction Gallery, in the firm's...Read more