Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
The Bowes Museum: Ceramics
Cowan Pottery Museum Associates
Ceramics at The V&A
The Pottery Studio
Clubs & Associations
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Stoneware
Source: Google News
New devices from Doggy Bag to Catty Whack cater to petsWatertownDailyTimes.com, August 28th
Mason Cash pet bowls. Mason Cash, the venerable British pottery company, is bringing its classic pet bowls to the U.S. market. Designed for cats, dogs, rabbits and other small critters, the bowls are made of heavy stoneware, making them difficult to...Read more
Red Wing, Hastings and Prescott are a trail of art, antiques and boutiquesTwinCities.com-Pioneer Press, August 28th
In the Old West Main district, Red Wing Pottery is a place to score Red Wing Pottery and Red Wing Stoneware dinnerware, kitchenware and more at deep discounts. The store also offers other kitchenware and gadgets, including Fiestaware and Zak brands...Read more
Art street faire to take over downtown CamasThe Columbian, August 28th
Stoneware by Camas artist Claire Bandfield will be for sale during the Vintage and Art Faire. (Handout). Stoneware by Camas artist Claire Bandfield will be for sale during the Vintage and Art Faire. (Handout). A busy scene in downtown Camas from last...Read more
Jamestown Unearthed: Recycled Breastplate, Stoneware Found in Probable CellarWilliamsburg Yorktown Daily, August 28th
Mary Anna Richardson, an archaeologist with the Jamestown Rediscovery Project, works at the dig site where the team has found a wealth of animal bones and other food debris. (Elizabeth Hornsby/WYDaily). A team of archaeologists from Preservation ...Read more
Reviews show old and new can co-existAlbuquerque Journal, August 27th
From left, Ruth Wilson and Jane Tustin, from Dallas, talk with Romaine Begay, Navajo, about a piece of his stoneware pottery during the first day of the Indigenous Fine Art Market in Santa Fe, Thursday, Aug. 20, 2015. Begay, from Silver City, is one of...Read more
Sea Grape features Bonnie Benande's stoneware creationsFlorida Weekly, August 26th
The stoneware art of potter Bonnie Benande will be exhibited through Sept. 3 at the Sea Grape Gallery in Punta Gorda. Ms. Benande began working to create pottery when she lived in North Carolina in a region known for its production of pottery. She...Read more
Fill your senses, stomach at Fort Wayne's Taste of the Arts festivalNews Sentinel, August 26th
Pieces available for purchase include stoneware, wood art, wearable art and textiles, paper-folding, watercolors, acrylic painting, mixed media collage and photography. Taste of the Arts is held in the downtown arts district on the east end of Main...Read more
Balwierz at VIVA in SeptemberLa Crosse Tribune, August 26th
VIVA Gallery's monthly First Thursday artist reception will be held Sept. 3 and feature the handmade stoneware tiles of Margy Jean Balwierz, who produces colorful and imaginative tiles in her home studio in rural western Wisconsin in the Rush River Valley...Read more