Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Artists put work on display in Oswestryshropshirestar.com, August 29th
Other contributors include Elspeth Soper from Broseley will be showing her decorated earthenware and stoneware, mosaic artist and potter Jenny Foord (CORR FOORD) from Wem, Trefonen-based handweaver Sue Christian, Roy and Jacqueline Abbott from ...Read more
Art in the Park purchase awards: An easy way to pre-payWinfield Daily Courier Online, August 28th
Four new participating artists this year are: Marian Rucker, oil paintings and greeting cards; Linda Fadely, dichroic glass items and jewelry; Virgil Penner, acrylic paintings and ink drawings; and Shirley Keimig of Glazing Grace Stoneware, hand-built ...Read more
US exhibit recreates tea drinking parlour from BermudaRoyal Gazette, August 28th
It is arranged with two Chinese stoneware tea pots and some Ming porcelain cups from a wreck known as the Hatcher Cargo sunk in the 1640s. “Bermudians in that early period had very ready access to Chinese export porcelain luxuries,” said Mr Adams...Read more
Norton Museum unveils 2014-15 exhibition seasonPalm Beach Daily News, August 27th
20 at the Norton Museum in Coming into Fashion: A Century of Photography at Conde Nast. View Larger · Norton Museum unveils 2014-15 exhibition season photo. Klara Kristalova's glazed stoneware will be shown in the exhibit ”Klara Kristalova: Turning ...Read more
Quilt show at historic church part of Art Blast SaturdayObserver-Reporter, August 27th
The blast also will include a show of Greensboro historic pottery, the unique stoneware that was manufactured from local red clay and thus had a distinctive coloring and an important influence on Greensboro's early history and economy. Bookmark and...Read more
Restaurant review: Ann Arbor's Slurping Turtle features beautiful Japanese ...The Ann Arbor News, August 27th
For a satisfying experience at Slurping Turtle try the Tan Tan Ramen, a stoneware bowl holding smoldering red broth with delicate ramen noodles curling around a festival of meatballs, pork chashu, and bokchoy. All crowned with a topknot of bean sprouts ...Read more
Vietnam throws out Alien stonewareTTR Weekly, August 24th
HANOI, 25 August 2014: Vietnam's Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism has ordered the removal of all stone statues of animals imported from China or Europe that adorn the entrances of Buddhist temples, historical relic sites and government offices...Read more
Holiday ornaments at Louisville StonewareThe Courier-Journal, August 14th
Louisville Stoneware has begun production of on their unique holiday ornaments. In all, they expect to produce 3,500 ornaments by the start of the holiday season. But, why wait? For the second year in a row, the Stoneware Art Factory has developed a ...Read more