Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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A Leicester man who spends up to 10 hours a day cleaning his home features in a new TV series. Bachelor Andy, who shares his very clean two-bedroomed maisonette with a Chinchilla called Leo, stars in 'Obsessive Compulsive Cleaners' on Channel 4...Read more
Movin' On UpHour Detroit Magazine, September 29th
A STONEWARE BLUE-GRAY BEAUTY WHOSE BASE WAS CRAFTED LONG AGO BY NEWMAN'S MOTHER (HE LATER HAD IT WIRED TO BE A LAMP). RIGHT: IN THE BEDROOM, NEWMAN CHOSE HIS FAVORITE PIECES TO ADORN HIS HANDMADE ...Read more
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The artworks that weren't performances or interventions included large pieces like Galia Linn's abstract glazed stoneware “Vessels” in the motor court and Adam Mars' subversive/creepy/cool business cards scattered in stacks throughout the mansion ...Read more
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Whetting our appetitesIowa Now, September 29th
7, the UI Museum of Art exhibition, “Tea Time: Going Dutch,” at the IMU Black Box Theater, focuses on close study of Pieter Gerritsz van Roestraten's painting Blue and White Teacups and a Bowl with a Yixing Stoneware Teapot, a Teaspoon, and Lumps of ...Read more
The country with one people and 1200 sausagesBBC News, September 28th
Tall glasses from Switzerland, stoneware tankards from Cologne, covered beakers from Austria, and silver-gilt mugs from Hamburg and the German-speaking merchant cities of the Baltic, all the way from Luebeck to Riga. But most astonishing of all is this ...Read more
Handmade Home: StonewareOrlando Magazine, September 18th
Vets · Real Estate · Best of Orlando · Dining Awards · Promotions · Weddings · Guides · Doctors · Lawyers · Vets · Real Estate · Best of Orlando · Dining Awards · Promotions · Weddings · Guides · Home Grown /; September 2014 /; Handmade Home: Stoneware ...Read more
Keen collector secures stoneware mug at auctionChristian Davies Antiques (blog), September 16th
A lucky bidder has managed to track down an antique tankard that he had been after for some time. The 18th-century, stoneware mug was auctioned at Woolley and Wallis in the sale for fine porcelain and pottery. The tavern tankard is dated 1740 and had ...Read more