Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Recent News: Stoneware
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It's Always Christmas for Dieter RauschLeesburg Today, October 8th
Rausch said his house is full of the stoneware, including plates, vases and beer steins. Rausch is also involved in the design process for some of his decorations. He has created a new line of ornaments featuring the Middleburg Christmas Parade. One of...Read more
Goettel chosen for Autumn Art ShowLamar Ledger, October 8th
As a professional artist Andy operates a pottery studio called G3 Pottery & Arts. The work Mr. Goettel produces is a combination of functional stoneware, raku work and sculptural forms. His work can be seen and is available for purchase at the Upstairs...Read more
Slim Jims and MonsterOxford American, October 8th
Afterwards she spent an inordinate amount of time scraping a piece off her plate, hardened to stone by five trips through the dishwasher. I considered making a joke about the plate being stoneware but knew such humor might fall flat. Instead I...Read more
Large format Maximum porcelain stoneware tiles: a new design frontierFloornature.com, September 28th
29-09-2015 Facebook Floornature Twitter Floornature Google Plus Floornature The large format Maximum porcelain stoneware tiles by GranitiFiandre are an innovative product from a technological and aesthetic point of view, able to redefine every floor...Read more
Old Virginia stoneware jugs by Lowndes, Schermerhorn will be part of Tom's ...ArtfixDaily, September 24th
As for the six stoneware pieces in the sale, John P. Schermerhorn (1788-1850) was trained in the Germanic salt-glazed tradition and began his career in New York, New Jersey and the James River Valley. He arrived in Richmond, Virginia in 1811, having ...Read more
Watch artist Reggie Delarm make miniature stoneware pots at The Big E on ...MassLive.com, September 20th
Visitors to The Big E on Sunday, September 20, were able to watch Reggie Delarm make historical pottery miniatures on the Storrowton Village Green. Delarm, a potter from Torrington, Conn., has practiced her craft for 45 years and knows the early styles...Read more
Marketing and PR 2015-16 competition entry: Charlotte Storrs StonewareThe Guardian, September 16th
Charlotte Storrs, owner of Abingdon-based Charlotte Storrs Stoneware, explains why the business should win the marketing and PR category of the Guardian Small Business Showcase competition. I set up my pottery business eleven years ago. I make ...Read more
Heavy duty stoneware ceramic 'furniture' at the Clay StudioThe Missoulian, September 9th
In another, pitch-dark sculptural forms like blocks and handles rise out of a mass of unformed black stoneware. Working a line between those raw shapes and starker lines is one aspect of ceramic artist Casey Zablocki's exhibition "Accessories, Series 1."...Read more