Stoneware is the roughhewn cousin of porcelain. Like porcelain, it is fired at very high temperatures (1,200 to 1,400 degrees), literally melting the minerals (usually feldspar) within the clay to create a non-porous ceramic. This makes stoneware an excellent container for food storage, which is why so many 19th- and 20th-century stoneware pieces were made in the shapes of crocks, jugs, jars, and other household items. Stoneware also has terrific insulating properties, which means it keeps items cool, but can also handle the heat.
In the late 1700s, Wedgwood and other Staffordshire potteries popularized the ware. Because it is non-porous, stoneware could be used unglazed, but most English potteries glazed their pieces by adding salt to the kiln in which the stoneware was being fired. Upon being heated, the salt would vaporize, leaving a glossy layer of sodium silicate on the object.
Just after the Revolutionary War, American potters practiced roughly the same techniques. A rich vein of feldspathic clay ran through Staten Island and New Jersey, so New York and its neighbor became centers for stoneware. Famous 19th-century potter families included Morgan of New Jersey and Crolius and Remmey of New York. Farther afield there were the Nortons of Vermont and Hamiltons of Pennsylvania. All produced egg-shaped jugs, barrel-shaped water coolers, and cylindrical butter churns.
Since salt glazing was not a perfect science, potters in northern New York devised a brown liquid known as Albany slip to seal the interiors of their pieces. Sometimes the slip was also poured over the outside of items to give them a darker hue and enable potters to scratch designs and legends onto their surfaces. Toward the end of the 19th century, spongeware glazing treatments were also found on stoneware.
Though initially dominated by potters, a few factories used stoneware to produce commodities like sewer tiles. For collectors, one of the most interesting footnotes to this aspect of U.S. stoneware history is what happened at the end of a factory’s shift. That’s when workers would fashion everything from animals to busts to baseballs from the leftover clay. Naturally these pieces are highly prized by contemporary stoneware collectors.
Another stoneware player of interest to collectors was Anna Pottery of Illinois. From 1859 until 1896, the Kirkpatrick brothers who ran the pottery made stoneware tobacco pipes, butter churns, storage jugs and jars, and hanging baskets. Today, though, they are best known for their so-called railroad pigs and snake jars.
Usually fashioned as a horizontal flask, with a stopper plugging its end, the kneeling white or brownish pigs featured railroad routes and local, geographic maps on their ample sides, incised and then highlighted with a soft cobalt glaze. Sometimes the names of routes and elaborate, folk-art-like inscriptions would be written on the pig’s back, other times rivers would be depicted coursing through the porcine countryside...
The Kirkpatrick’s other signature item was the snake jar or jug, which betrayed Wallace Kirkpatrick’s love of the reptiles. Snake jugs ranged from simple pieces labeled with the words “Little Brown Jug” on the side and a snake coiled around the jug’s neck, to elaborate objects that riffed on the political cartoons of Thomas Nast and portrayed New York City’s William Tweed and his cronies as a tangle of slithering serpents.
By 1877, Red Wing Stoneware had been founded in Minnesota. Red Wing produced hand-turned jugs, water coolers, and butter churns, some with capacities of up to 40 gallons. Many of these earliest farmhouse pieces had the classic, glassy, mottled, salt-glazed surfaces that we associate with stoneware of this era.
At first, the decorations of these pieces were limited to a single hand-painted blue flower, a tornado shape, or perhaps a small bird. But in the early 20th century, Red Wing replaced its salt glaze with a zinc glaze known as Bristol. The resulting bone-white surface gave Red Wing food-storage products a clean, sanitary appearance.
Just as importantly, Bristol gave Red Wing’s designers a neutral background for decoration, from the “red wing” that would become the company’s logo to custom designs for advertisers. Red Wing had a great run, but by 1947 demand for stoneware had dropped to the point that Red Wing discontinued the line.
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Recent News: Stoneware
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Red Wing Stoneware owners close on purchase of Red Wing Pottery brandMinneapolis Star Tribune, November 25th
The new owners of Red Wing Stoneware closed Friday on the purchase of Red Wing Pottery, reuniting the two brands under one family and keeping them locally rooted. The day after Bruce and Irene Johnson of Red Wing purchased the functional-stoneware ...Read more
Businessman Adam Weitsman's stoneware collection featured in New York State ...Auburn Citizen, November 24th
Now, with "Art for the People: Decorated Stoneware from the Weitsman Collection" — a 300-page, oversized hardcover book produced by Weitsman and historian John Scherer and published by the state museum — the pieces are accessible to an even wider ...Read more
State tourism tax credits push Nulu's Rabbit Hole Distillery, Paristown's ...Broken Sidewalk, November 23rd
Two of Louisville most exciting development projects have taken a step forward. Last Friday, the Kentucky Tourism Development Finance Authority awarded preliminary approval to both the Rabbit Hole Distillery in Nulu and to the redevelopment of...Read more
Louisville Stoneware area gets tourism moneyThe Courier-Journal, November 20th
The three key components of the project are Louisville Stoneware, a performance venue operated by the Kentucky Center for the Arts and Goodwood Brewery. Plans for the project include a $6 million renovation of Louisville Stoneware, along with new ...Read more
Stoneware owner Steve Smith on the company's 200-year heritage, transformation ...Broken Sidewalk, November 3rd
Smith enlisted Los Angeles architecture firm wHY and a cadre of local designers to chart the path under the banner of the Paristown Pointe Preservation Trust. The $28 million plan calls for redoing the historic Stoneware headquarters, building a major ...Read more
CEO of Louisville Stoneware, and partners, bought 21 properties around ...Louisville Business First, October 29th
Stephen Smith is owner and CEO of Louisville Stoneware, a member of the PPPT, and one of four partners of PPDP LLC, a group that has bought huge swaths of properties in the Paristown area in the last year and a half. Smith's partners in PPDP are Howard ...Read more
Goodwood Brewing, Kentucky Center and Louisville Stoneware come together for ...Insider Louisville (press release) (registration), October 28th
A mixture of public and private dollars is expected to transform Paristown Pointe into a destination. The city, state, Goodwood Brewing Co., Kentucky Center for the Performing Arts and Louisville Stoneware will invest an estimated $28 million in a...Read more
daniel libeskind clads faceted sculpture with casalgrande padana's porcelain ...Designboom, October 27th
spiraling upwards towards the sky, this multi-faceted structure by daniel libeskind for the ceramics company casalgrande padana sits on the dinazzano roundabout in casalgrande, italy. called 'the crown', the recently inaugurated installation follows on...Read more