Modern mugs, which are most commonly used for coffee or tea, likely evolved from beer steins. Larger than tea cups, mugs are generally defined as handled beverage containers made out of stoneware, earthenware, porcelain, or glass, serving approximately 12 ounces. Mugs are not usually included in formal china settings, whose tea or coffee cups are traditionally daintier. Besides their size, mugs are differentiated from tea cups by their insulating properties; they have thick walls and flat bottoms.

The earliest drinking mugs date to the Stone Age and were carved out of bone. Ancient Greek ceramists attached handles to their drinking vessels, while early metalworking techniques allowed artisans to create bronze, silver, or even gold cups with handles for hot beverages. Wood was also used for ancient drinking mugs, but for obvious reasons, few examples have survived.

Since ancient Egypt, jugs have been made into the shape of human figurines—similar objects have also been found in English archaeological digs from Roman to Medieval times. Modern-day “character jugs” came about in the 18th-century in the form of “Toby jugs,” first made by Ralph Wood and his fellow Staffordshire potters. This seated British character, known as Toby, had a hat with three corners that could each form a separate spout for drinking.

John Doulton at Royal Doulton’s Lambeth art pottery took this concept and made his own line of political Toby jugs in the 1800s. In the 1930s, Doulton chief designer Charles J. Noke revived the idea of character jugs, but instead of showing the full figure, Noke's only featured the character's head and shoulders, like a handled bust. By the 1950s, Doultons’ character jugs included Dickens and Shakespeare characters, legends like Rip Van Winkle and Johnny Appleseed, and caricatures of Native Americans.

From the 14th century to 19th century, when mugs were used to serve beer in taverns all over Germany, England, and later the United States, clever potters came up with a way to use mugs for drinking games and betting. Puzzle mugs feature a trick that prevents the vessel from operating in the usual manner. Some have holes in the rim so that the only way to drink from them is through a secret opening in the handle. “Fuddling cups” are made of three mugs attached by their handles and each mug's walls—if the contents are not sipped in a particular sequence, the liquor will drain out. And a “Pythagorean cup” has a small syphon hidden in a center rod that prevents the mug from being filled any higher than the height of the rod.

The earliest reference to coffee dates to 10th century Ethiopia. From there, it spread to the Middle East, then to Italy in the 16th century, after which it was brought to the rest of Europe and the United States. In the mid-17th century, cafes and coffeehouses began to open around Europe.

In the United States, many credit the Boston Tea Party as the reason coffee became the favored hot drink of America over tea. That winter night in 1773, American colonists disgui...

Mochaware, a type of earthenware with dendritic (tree-like) slip patterns, was made in England starting around 1770. While the slip was still wet, the tree-like patterns were created by dropping bits of tobacco infusion, or even urine, on the pot. These pieces were made at British potteries in Staffordshire and Yorkshire to be exported to America. The ware was cheap, designed for lower- or middle-class households.

In the early 1800s, quart-size creamware, mochaware, and pearlware mugs were used in pubs and homes all over the northeastern United States. These mugs featured a wide array of geometric and abstract plant-like patterns. Nineteenth century pubs often sold beer in mochaware mugs.

Around the same time, mugs were also used for shaving, as most homes didn’t have hot water from the tap. These shaving mugs, also called scuttle, often can be distinguished from drinking mugs thanks to their brush rests.

After the turn-of-the-century craze for novelty advertisements took off, drinking mugs became an obvious place to advertise one’s wares. Some advertising or novelty mugs are thrown or carved into unusual shapes, but more often than not, the image is simply printed on the mug. Celebrated mid-century dinnerware company Fiesta even put out a line of advertising mugs called Sit 'n Sip. Today, common means for transferring images to coffee mugs include screenprinting, photographic emulsion, and decals.

In 1930s America, bars and restaurants inspired by a romanticized ideal of Polynesian culture produced so-called Tiki mugs, which were similar to Toby jugs, except that their inspiration came from Polynesian human figures called Tiki. Hugely popular in the '50s and '60s, these Tiki mugs usually contained fruity tropical-themed cocktails.

Glassware mugs were also prevalent in the middle of the 20th century. In the 1940s, Anchor Hocking's heat-resistant Fire-King line was popular for coffee-mug sets, particularly in the opalescent sea green Jadeite color.

Even the respected British pottery giant Wedgwood got into the coffee-mug act with its Queen’s ware line, which featured porcelain mugs commemorating major events in the royal world, including the Coronations of Edward VIII, George VI, and Queen Elizabeth II; the Festival of Britain; and the Queen’s Silver Jubilee.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

The Bowes Museum: Ceramics

The Bowes Museum: Ceramics

This gallery showcases highlights from the 5,000 items in the museum's ceramics collection dating from 1500-1900. I… [read review or visit site]

Feeding America

Feeding America

This archive of 76 influential American cookbooks from the late 1700s to early 1900s, assembled by the Michigan St… [read review or visit site]

Ceramics at The V&A

Ceramics at The V&A

A great reference on ceramics from the Victoria and Albert Museum. Learn about different ceramics techniques and st… [read review or visit site]

Tupper Diva

Tupper Diva

Kristian McManus’ fresh, airtight collection of Tupperware catalogs and related ephemera from the 1950s and 6… [read review or visit site]



Most watched eBay auctions    

Fire King Jadeite D Handle Coffee Mug ~ Mint ~ Original Foil Label ~ Jadite Hotel Butler Seattle, Wash; Villeroy Boch Mettlach Antique German Beer Stein MugFire-king Peanuts Charlie Brown Snoopy A Friend To Lean On Coffee Mug Cup Original Rare Iroquois Casual Russel Wright Parsley Green 13 Oz Coffee Mug Ec Nr1950's Wallace China Till Goodan "westward Ho" Rodeo Set Of 4 Coffee Mug/cupsVtg Set Of 4 Heavy Fire King Jadeite Green Coffee Cup Mug Round Handle4 1940s Fire-king Oven Ware Glass D Handle Jadite Jadeite Small Restaurant MugsVintage Fire King Green Jadeite Heavy Restaurant Ware Coffee Mug C-handleDeath Wish Coffee Mug George Deathington Starbucks Coffee Alaska Mug Cup 2012 State Collector 16 Fl Oz Vintage Heath Ceramics Pottery Coupe Line Studio Coffee Mugs Cups Brown Set Of 4Vintage 1983 Ringling Bros. Barnum & Bailey Circus Coffee Mug Cups With Boxes2 Arte Italica Tuscan Ceramic & Pewter Cappuccino Coffee Cup Mugs & Saucer ItalyFire King Jadeite Green Mugs "d" Handles (8) EightVintage Heath Ceramics Pottery Coupe Line Studio Coffee Mugs Cups Brown Set Of 41 Fire King Jadeite 2 Ivory D Handle MugsFire-king Borden's Dairy Milk Elsie Cow Yellow Stackable Advertising Coffee Mug Antique Shreve & Co Sterling Silver Hand Hammered Tea Cup Hold Mug 127 GramsBeatles Orig 1964 White Color Top ' Burrite ' Thermal Coffee MugFiesta Accessories Homer Laughlin Seamist Coffee Mug Tree Holder Death Wish Coffee Mug Day Of The Dead 2016 Limited Edition #1800 Of 3500Death Wish Coffee Co - 2016 Red Mug With Skull Emblem - Deneen PotteryCartoon Beauty And The Beast Teapot Mug Mrs Potts Chip Tea Pot Cup Set Xmas GiftLot Of 7 Starbucks Mugs Mermaid Christmas Gold Coffee Green Jadite Coffee Mug Fire-king Oven Ware D Handle GucDeath Wish Coffee Mug Halloween 2015 Rare Sleepy Hollow Tankard SetSigned 2017 Wicked Crow Creations Coffee Mug RareFire-king Harley Davidson Motorcycles Bike Advertising Coffee Mug Ride StraightSet Of 4 Vintage Fire King Turquoise Blue Delphite D-handle Coffee Cup MugsKeurig 2.0 K400 Coffee Maker + Starter Pack Pot K Cup Drawer 2 MugsGlasbake Kentucky Fried Chicken Kfc Advertising Dad's Mug Milk Glass Coffee CupFire-king Circle K Convenience Food Store Stacking Advertising Coffee Mug 3 Mugs And Bowls Matching Davy Crockett White Glass Vintage Oven Ware Fire King400ml 3d Cool Car Mug Coffee Cup Milk Mug Tea Cup Ceramice Car Cup GiftAnchor Hocking Burger King Education Enriches Everyone Advertising Coffee Mug 2 Vintage Anchor Hocking Fire King Turquoise Blue "d" Handle Coffee Mugs1958 Fire King Snoopy Charlie Brown I Feel Strangely Confident Today Mug Vintage 1989 Bergschrund Eddie Bauer Stainless Chubby Coffee MugFire King Oven Ware Jadeite D Handle Coffee Mug Alessi : 2x Michael Graves Coffee / Tea MugsRare Vintage Anchor Hocking Fire King Blue Stars Milk Glass MugFoley Bone China Espresso/ Coffee Mug And Saucer - Cunard Steamship Company Ltd.Set Of 4 Waechtersbach Red Heart Cups Mugs Coffee Germany Kliban Coffee Mug Rare 1989 Basket Of Hearts Pattern Perfect Valentines Day GiftPioneer Woman Set Of 4 Footed Coffee Mugs Turquoise Yellow. 4 Mint In Original Package Fire King Anchor Hocking Turquoise Blue D Handle MugsSet Of (2) Vtg Slim Jadeite Fire King Restaurant Oven Ware "c" Handle Mugs ~Starbucks 16 Oz Collectors Coffee Mug Fort Worth Texas Longhorn CattleVintage Case Unimog Coffee Mug~set Of 2Portmeirion Botanic Garden Coffee Mugs Set Of 42011 Starbucks Global City Icon Nashville Coffee Mug Cup Microphone 16 OzPendleton Coffee Mug Sacred Dance Western Horse Red Blanket 18 Oz Htf3 Mikasa Crystal Park Lane Irish Coffee Footed MugsLot /set Of 6 Fire King Blue Dot And Lace Coffee Mugs - Excellent Condition!Blue Danube Blue Onion Japan Set Of (4) Coffee Mugs Tripod HandleVintage 1960s/70s Heath Ceramics (2) Low Coffee Mugs Sausalito, Calif Pottery57 Pieces Lot Of Rare Fire King Restaurantware Anchor Hocking W-215 Mugs PlatesLife Is Good Women's "coffee Mug" Tee Shirt Medium Med MVintage Pink Fire King Coffee Cup Mug D Handle Nice! Anchor HockingLilly Pulitzer Pink & Blue Flamingo Coffee Mug, Euc.