The evolution of fruit or canning jars parallels the science of food preservation, which itself was an attempt to address a critical need. For centuries, rural farmers and the poor struggled to find ways to preserve food for the winter. Soldiers, too, were often left on the battlefields without proper nourishment due to the lack of food-storage solutions. Indeed, in 1809, Napoleon offered 10,000 francs to anyone that could devise a way to ensure that his soldiers scattered across Europe were supplied with fresh food.
Nicholas Appert was up to Napoleon’s challenge—though his invention was a far cry from the Mason fruit jar that came later. Appert devised a means to hermetically seal jars, which are just bottles with wider mouths. The jar would be heated, then vacuum sealed. Interestingly, the heat killed the bacteria in the food product, but at the time people did not know that bacteria was the cause of spoilage.
While Appert’s invention marked progress, it did not help home canners—the process was extremely expensive and difficult. The only options for them was to use tin cans and solder...
The build up to John Mason’s November 30th, 1858, patent for the Mason jar, which ultimately revolutionized food preservation, began with Robert Arthur in 1855. That’s when Arthur introduced a wax seal on a metal jar. These jars or cans, however, could not be reused, were expensive and bulky, and they left food with a metallic taste. Thus, they never caught on, although these Arthur cans are rare and highly collectible today.
Another concurrent method of sealing also included wax poured over a glass jar by the home canner. These jars date to the 1850s and remained popular through 1912, but they were especially difficult to open.
And then, to the rescue, came New Yorker John Mason. The key to the success of his Mason jar was the invention of a machine that could cut a thread into a glass jar’s lip. This made screw-on zinc lids, which improved the jar’s food-preservation capabilities, possible. A rubber ring on the inside surface of the lid completed the seal.
Mason jars were quickly a hit. They were affordable, reusable, and allowed very little moisture to escape. This meant that farmers and other rural residents no longer had to smoke, dry, salt, or pickle food prior to the winter. It also meant Civil War soldiers could get preserved food on the front lines.
Crowleytown’s Atlantic Glass Works in Crowleytown, New Jersey, is often credited with producing the first Mason jars, which were embossed with the words “Mason’s Patent Nov. 30th. 1858.” But only a year later, Mason sold that patent and others to The Sheet Metal Screw Company, which was run by Lewis. R. Boyd. Boyd added a milk-glass cover for the zinc lid in order to stop food from contacting the metal. Boyd and Mason later partnered at the Consolidated Fruit Jar Company, which produced countless jars between 1859 and 1910.
In the last half of the 19th century there was a slew of inventions related to home canning. Many of these focused on avoiding metal-food contact. Beginning in 1863, Keystone Glass Works manufactured Kline Stoppers, which used a vacuum seal with a glass stopper. Henry William Putnam introduced the “Lightning jar” in 1882. It used a glass lid with a metal clamp. The clamp solved the problem of vacuum sealing—finally, a jar whose lid was easy to remove.
Soon thereafter, the Ball brothers introduced their Ball jar, which was so popular among consumers—and collectors today—that it became synonymous with “fruit jar” or “Mason jar.” In 1897, Ball invented the semi-automatic glass-making machine, which made jar sizes standard.
While Ball jars were the most widely produced fruit jars, they were not the only ones. In fact, there have been countless fruit jar designs developed in the century and a half since Mason’s innovation. Some of the more memorable ones include Atlas’ E-Z Seal jar, which was a offshoot of the Lightning jar and featured a raised lip. These were manufactured from the end of the 19th century through 1964.
Kerr is another popular brand of fruit jars. In 1903, Alexander H. Kerr opened the Hermetic Fruit Jar Company, producing some of the first wide-mouth jars, which were easy to fill and empty. At first Kerr used a metal lid with a gasket, but by 1915 he had introduced a way to make these jars reusable.
After World War II, home canning fell out of fashion, although the jars themselves became increasingly popular among collectors. Clear and aqua jars are the most readily available, while colors such as greens, amber, milk, and blue are scarcer and more sought after.
For collectors, dating a jar can be difficult. There are some clues, however. For example, if a jar has a pontil mark, then it likely predates the Civil War. Jars with mold seams, evidence of being machine-made, are post-1895, while the side seams on jars began to disappear around 1915. Purple jars (the color is the result of sun exposure to the manganese dioxide in the glass) were made prior to World War I because during the war manganese dioxide, which was scarce, was replaced by selenium.
Interviews & Articles
At one of our Findlay Bottle Club meetings, Jeff passed around a fruit jar that was a smooth-lip Mason's 1858, but in the familiar… [more]
One of the most common fruit jars ever produced is the lowly Ball jar. Historical figures show that from between Sept 1, 1894 unti… [more]
I started as a collector and I’m a web designer, so I thought I would design a website from my passion. I threw it up there and pe… [more]
My maternal grandfather and uncle got into bottles in about 1965 or ‘66 when I was in high school, and we started digging. My uncl… [more]
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Thompson's Station: Gardening is a joy, but bugs are a nuisanceThe Tennessean, June 19th
I think 90 degrees was different then, though of course we could always find a shade tree to sit under and enjoy an occasional breeze, along with a fruit jar of water taken from the cold spring! Oh, memories! Some things I'd rather not remember...Read more
Other daysArkansas Online (subscription), June 18th
100 YEARS AGO June 18, 1913 BATESVILLE — The lid was clamped on tighter than an old-fashioned fruit jar in Batesville when the City Council passed an ordinance prohibiting the sale of cigars, tobacco, cold drinks or anything except a sandwich, cup of ...Read more
Best BetsPocono Record, June 14th
Manufacturing Co., Monroe Dairy Inc., Neustadtl Brewing Co., Penn-Dell Dairy, Pocono Cigar Co., Pocono Hosiery Mills, ShaweeCraft Brewing Co., Stroudsburg Bottling Works, Stroudsburg Brewing Co., Van Vliet Fruit Jar and the Worthington Mower Co...Read more
REFLECTIONS: June 12-The Cabin on Beaver Lake, part 2Greenwood Democrat, June 12th
Occasionally, he would stop to drink ice water from a fruit jar. Dad worked the fastest, but we all worked. My hands were covered with blisters from the pick handle. I remember wrapping my bleeding blisters from the pick handle with cloth. Dad never...Read more
Busy summer at D'Arbonne starts in a 'Majestic' wayMonroe News Star, June 1st
Gates pocketed a total of $3,330 by winning the 10 p.m. to noon pay period, the overall Big Bass award and the Big Bass fruit jar. Mike Brister of Ruston weighed in five fish during the event that were 3.26, 2.71, 4.67, 4.39 and 4.60 for a total of 19...Read more