Think of antique clocks and a stately grandfather, German cuckoo, or Art Deco Bakelite clock may come to mind. But clockmaking is a vast field, spanning continents, outlasting empires, and encompassing a complete range of technologies and styles. Indeed, for clock collectors, the only problem with clocks is the lack of time to absorb and appreciate them all.
The Dutch are credited with inventing the first pendulum clock in the mid-17th century. The brainchild of a mathematician named Christiaan Huygens and a clockmaker named Salomon Coster, this first pendulum clock has an ebony-veneer case with an iron dial covered in black velvet.
French clockmakers of the 17th and 18th centuries took the Dutch pendulum and ran with it, focusing their creative attentions on the cases of their clocks. Ornately lacquered bracket clocks in oak, marble, tortoiseshell, brass, and gilt bronze were typical, as were larger pedestal clocks sporting similarly Rococo details.
The English were also influenced by the pendulum and improved upon it by inventing a recoil, or anchor, escapement that permitted a longer pendulum to be used—this resulted in a slower swing and less wear and tear on the clock. Brass lantern clocks were popular at the end of the 17th century; tall, walnut, long-case clocks were common in the 18th.
At the end of the 18th century and into the 19th, especially during the Biedermeier period, an Austrian wall clock known as the Vienna regulator came to prominence. These rectangular timekeepers often had decorative pediments on their tops and glass on the fronts of their cases, so that the slowly swinging pendulum inside was revealed for all to see. Most of these regulators ran for eight full days between windings—some could go for six weeks.
In America, Colonial clockmakers flourished, particularly in Pennsylvania and New England. David Rittenhouse, an astronomer who was the first director of the U.S. Mint, was the king of Pennsylvania clockmakers. His astronomical clock from 1774 is considered a masterpiece. Other noteworthy Keystone state clockmakers include Jacob Godchalk, his brother-in-law, Griffith Owen, and John Paul, Jr., whose German-style tall clocks were wonders of curly maple, walnut, and ivory.
In New England, the Willard family of Massachusetts, especially Simon, was every bit as influential. They made tall clocks, of course, but Simon and his brother Aaron are perhaps best known for the invention in 1802 of the much-copied banjo clock...
Just west, in Connecticut, Thomas Harland produced handsome clocks with all-brass movements. His Norwich cases from the late 1700s had bracket feet on the floor, decorative carved-cherry finials on top, and brass faces. But Harland is also remembered for the apprentices he trained, who in turn trained apprentices of their own. One of these was a clockmaker named Eli Terry.
Terry is widely considered to be the father of the clockmaking industry in the United States, thanks to his decorative pillar-and-scroll shelf clocks of the early 19th century. These modestly priced ($15), mass-produced clocks had wooden movements rather than brass, which kept costs down.
Terry’s clocks were widely imitated, and established Connecticut as the center of clockmaking in the United States. Makers such as former Terry apprentice Seth Thomas, the firm of Jeromes & Darrow, and Joseph Ives created boxy, bronze, and gilt versions of the same basic clock, some enclosed behind glass, others ornately carved and decorated with paintings of natural scenes or urban landscapes.
By the middle of the 19th century, the first spring-driven clocks began to appear. This allowed clocks to be smaller and lighter, as the springs did the job of weights. Balance wheels replaced pendulums, which added portability to the features of these new home timepieces. Clocks shaped like beehives and acorns were introduced, others resembled compact versions of Gothic cathedrals.
Elias and Andrew Ingraham created these latter clocks. In 1844, they partnered with Elisha Curtis Brewster to form Brewster & Ingrahams. The company quickly created a spring-driven banjo clock and, in 1850, a gallery clock, whose frameless design, save a ring around the clock’s face, appears very contemporary to 21st-century eyes.
Another key mid-19th century Connecticut clockmaker whose antique clocks are popular among collectors was the Ansonia Clock Company. Founded by Terry’s nephew Theodore, Ansonia clocks had brass movements—in 1850, the firm went through 58 tons of the metal. Chauncey Jerome based his Jerome Manufacturing Company in New Haven, renaming it the New Haven Clock Co. in 1853.
In 1857, the newly formed Waterbury Clock Company hired Chauncey Jerome—he had lost everything when he purchased a down-on-its-luck clock company owned by P.T. Barnum—to help with its case-making operations. The Sessions Clock Company arrived on the scene at the turn of the 20th century—between 1903 and 1933, Sessions made 52 different models, all mechanical.
As Arts & Crafts took hold, then gave way to Art Deco and Mid-century Modern, clocks continued to reflect the styles and technologies of their times. In the 1920s, Westclox introduced its crackle-finish Big Ben, Baby Ben, and Tiny Tim alarm clocks, each small enough to fit on a crowded bedside table. And in the 1950s and 1960s, George Nelson designed a line of battery-powered ball clocks that were practically all arms and dial. The ornate cases of shelf clocks and fine woodworking of grandfather clocks seemed so very far in the past.
Key terms for Antique Clocks:
Escapement: A device that converts the pressure of a spring or coil into a fixed release of movement.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
National Watch and Clock Museum
National Maritime Museum
Dan and Diana's Lux Clock Collection
Detex Watchman's Clock Album
Clubs & Associations
- British Horological Institute
- North American Sundial Society
- National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors
- The Antiquarian Horological Society
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Clocks
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Crazy rich familiesInquirer.net, October 8th
They were exhausted from shopping—one had bought an antique clock for more than four million euros after barely a glance. They would have dined at the hotel restaurant, but they had walked out after finding that fried rice cost 25 euros. “Tai leiren...Read more
Calvin hosts lunar eclipse viewing open house featuring Botjes planetariumCalvin News (press release), October 8th
The planetarium is run by an antique clock and a set of finely tuned gears powered by a mainspring. “It's kind of fun, because if there's a power outage, all the clocks on all the classroom walls, they will all be wrong by an hour if the power's out...Read more
Home of the Week: Home of the Week: The Vintage Young residence in the ...CapitalGazette.com, October 8th
Interspersed with the books, are family mementos, awards and plaques, an antique clock, a portrait of a young Queen Elizabeth II, ceramic plates and mugs painted by the Young youngsters, and souvenirs. Here, too, is the throne room for Bagheera and ...Read more
Which jobs could a 100-year-old do?BBC News, October 8th
I am now repairing antique clocks as my own business working from home. There is enormous demand for this kind of work as hardly any young people are coming into this trade. I feel I am being well paid to enjoy my hobby! I can see no age limit for this...Read more
Sam Asano's Let's Invent: Resolving the issue of how to 'move time'The Union Leader, October 4th
Other than the AC-motor driven clock, other types — such as antique clocks — have to be taken down to adjust time either forward or backward. It is very easy to push the hour hand forward by an hour, but requires patience to retard the hour because...Read more
Clock collector donates more than time to Cleveland church (photos)cleveland.com, May 14th
Clock collector donates more than time to Cleveland church (photos). 1 / 10. A passion for time on a grand scale. One of three 6-foot clock faces on the steeple of Our Lady of Lourdes Parish in Cleveland's Slavic Village. (Frank Del Greco photo)...Read more
Passion for history drives antique clock collectionSpartanburg Herald Journal, April 21st
Randy Cobb has a collection of more the 25 antique, grandfather clocks at his home in Inman,Thursday, 4-9-2015. Cobb runs Legacy Antique Clocks, and buys, repairs, and sells many of the vintage collector's clocks. Cobb repairs the clockwork for a...Read more
Antique-clock collector turns hobby into a businessDallas Morning News, April 17th
Antique-clock collector turns hobby into a business. 1/2. Michael Ainsworth/Staff Photographer. Henry Juvers decided to sell clocks when he found that he had some time on his hands after retirement...Read more