Think of antique clocks and a stately grandfather, German cuckoo, or Art Deco Bakelite clock may come to mind. But clockmaking is a vast field, spanning continents, outlasting empires, and encompassing a complete range of technologies and styles. Indeed, for clock collectors, the only problem with clocks is the lack of time to absorb and appreciate them all.
The Dutch are credited with inventing the first pendulum clock in the mid-17th century. The brainchild of a mathematician named Christiaan Huygens and a clockmaker named Salomon Coster, this first pendulum clock has an ebony-veneer case with an iron dial covered in black velvet.
French clockmakers of the 17th and 18th centuries took the Dutch pendulum and ran with it, focusing their creative attentions on the cases of their clocks. Ornately lacquered bracket clocks in oak, marble, tortoiseshell, brass, and gilt bronze were typical, as were larger pedestal clocks sporting similarly Rococo details.
The English were also influenced by the pendulum and improved upon it by inventing a recoil, or anchor, escapement that permitted a longer pendulum to be used—this resulted in a slower swing and less wear and tear on the clock. Brass lantern clocks were popular at the end of the 17th century; tall, walnut, long-case clocks were common in the 18th.
At the end of the 18th century and into the 19th, especially during the Biedermeier period, an Austrian wall clock known as the Vienna regulator came to prominence. These rectangular timekeepers often had decorative pediments on their tops and glass on the fronts of their cases, so that the slowly swinging pendulum inside was revealed for all to see. Most of these regulators ran for eight full days between windings—some could go for six weeks.
In America, Colonial clockmakers flourished, particularly in Pennsylvania and New England. David Rittenhouse, an astronomer who was the first director of the U.S. Mint, was the king of Pennsylvania clockmakers. His astronomical clock from 1774 is considered a masterpiece. Other noteworthy Keystone state clockmakers include Jacob Godchalk, his brother-in-law, Griffith Owen, and John Paul, Jr., whose German-style tall clocks were wonders of curly maple, walnut, and ivory.
In New England, the Willard family of Massachusetts, especially Simon, was every bit as influential. They made tall clocks, of course, but Simon and his brother Aaron are perhaps best known for the invention in 1802 of the much-copied banjo clock...
Just west, in Connecticut, Thomas Harland produced handsome clocks with all-brass movements. His Norwich cases from the late 1700s had bracket feet on the floor, decorative carved-cherry finials on top, and brass faces. But Harland is also remembered for the apprentices he trained, who in turn trained apprentices of their own. One of these was a clockmaker named Eli Terry.
Terry is widely considered to be the father of the clockmaking industry in the United States, thanks to his decorative pillar-and-scroll shelf clocks of the early 19th century. These modestly priced ($15), mass-produced clocks had wooden movements rather than brass, which kept costs down.
Terry’s clocks were widely imitated, and established Connecticut as the center of clockmaking in the United States. Makers such as former Terry apprentice Seth Thomas, the firm of Jeromes & Darrow, and Joseph Ives created boxy, bronze, and gilt versions of the same basic clock, some enclosed behind glass, others ornately carved and decorated with paintings of natural scenes or urban landscapes.
By the middle of the 19th century, the first spring-driven clocks began to appear. This allowed clocks to be smaller and lighter, as the springs did the job of weights. Balance wheels replaced pendulums, which added portability to the features of these new home timepieces. Clocks shaped like beehives and acorns were introduced, others resembled compact versions of Gothic cathedrals.
Elias and Andrew Ingraham created these latter clocks. In 1844, they partnered with Elisha Curtis Brewster to form Brewster & Ingrahams. The company quickly created a spring-driven banjo clock and, in 1850, a gallery clock, whose frameless design, save a ring around the clock’s face, appears very contemporary to 21st-century eyes.
Another key mid-19th century Connecticut clockmaker whose antique clocks are popular among collectors was the Ansonia Clock Company. Founded by Terry’s nephew Theodore, Ansonia clocks had brass movements—in 1850, the firm went through 58 tons of the metal. Chauncey Jerome based his Jerome Manufacturing Company in New Haven, renaming it the New Haven Clock Co. in 1853.
In 1857, the newly formed Waterbury Clock Company hired Chauncey Jerome—he had lost everything when he purchased a down-on-its-luck clock company owned by P.T. Barnum—to help with its case-making operations. The Sessions Clock Company arrived on the scene at the turn of the 20th century—between 1903 and 1933, Sessions made 52 different models, all mechanical.
As Arts & Crafts took hold, then gave way to Art Deco and Mid-century Modern, clocks continued to reflect the styles and technologies of their times. In the 1920s, Westclox introduced its crackle-finish Big Ben, Baby Ben, and Tiny Tim alarm clocks, each small enough to fit on a crowded bedside table. And in the 1950s and 1960s, George Nelson designed a line of battery-powered ball clocks that were practically all arms and dial. The ornate cases of shelf clocks and fine woodworking of grandfather clocks seemed so very far in the past.
Key terms for Antique Clocks:
Escapement: A device that converts the pressure of a spring or coil into a fixed release of movement.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
National Watch and Clock Museum
National Maritime Museum
Dan and Diana's Lux Clock Collection
Detex Watchman's Clock Album
Clubs & Associations
- British Horological Institute
- North American Sundial Society
- National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors
- The Antiquarian Horological Society
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Estates bloom at Gray'sArtfixDaily, April 29th
This wonderful antique clock is unusual in that it is in working order. Claude Victor Boeltz, the European surrealist master artist was born in Paris, France in 1937. The Parisian designer invented 'exploded bronze'. Lot 144, a gorgeous candelabra is...Read more
Winchester man Mark Rayden's gifts wife a Russian submarine radioactive clockDaily Mail, April 24th
For a wife with a keen interest in the Navy, this vintage clock was the perfect present. But there was just one problem with Mark Rayden's thoughtful gift, which took pride of place on the kitchen wall. The £250 clock – which had come from a Russian...Read more
Struck by the clock gene, Peterborough man finds unique nicheThe Keene Sentinel, April 23rd
Suddenly, the room is awash in music. One of the antique clocks breaks into chimes, like a jazz musician stepping into the spotlight for a solo. The full-orchestra effect lasts about 10 seconds, until the clock goes quiet again and the rhythmic tick...Read more
Llanrwst antique clocks up the miles in third transatlantic journeyDaily Post North Wales, April 13th
A 250-year-old grandfather clock made in Llanrwst spent 150 years in Canada before returning to its hometown only to be snapped up again just days by a buyer in New York. The longcase clock worth around £8,000 was made by John Owen in 1760 and ...Read more
Service Pros: Time Will TellNorthJersey.com, April 6th
The second-generation owner of Time Will Tell in Midland Park, Sanford inherited an appreciation for antique clocks from his father the late Dick Sanford, who purchased the antique clock repair shop in 1988. For the Sanfords, the antique clock is not...Read more
Precious antique clock returned to Kerry pub after stag party 'got carried away'Irish Mirror, April 6th
A red-faced stag party have returned an antique clock to the pub they took it from at the weekend. The management of Dick Mack's pub in Dingle, Co Kerry were furious when the Railway Timekeepers clock - which dates back to the early 1900s and is worth ...Read more
Stag party urged to face the music over antique clock stolen from Irish pub at ...Irish Mirror, April 5th
Time could be running out for a rowdy stag party who allegedly stole a precious antique clock from a pub over the weekend. The Railway Timekeepers clock, which dates back to the early 1900s, was taken by callous thieves from Dick Mack's Pub in Dingle, ...Read more
After 36 years in business, Bayonne antique clock store destroyed in massive fireNJ.com, January 20th
BAYONNE -- As Patrick Fay boarded up the charred remains of his antique clock store today, the sorrow of losing the 36-year-old business weighed heavily on him. "It's been such an impact on me," he said, adding that he couldn't sleep last night...Read more