Regulator clocks, sometimes referred to as pendulum clocks, were invented in the late 18th century in a quest for greater timekeeping accuracy. They were weight-driven devices and featured a deadbeat escapement (an improvement on the anchor design). To ensure their accuracy, they usually omitted complicated features like calendars. Instead, each of the clock’s hands worked off a different mechanism.
The Englishmen Benjamin Vulliamy and James Harrison invented two of the earliest regulators between 1760 and 1780. Despite this British lineage, regulator clocks were not especially well received in England, but they were in Vienna, where the form flourished. Indeed, Vienna regulator wall clocks gained such a reputation for accuracy that they were routinely used in public places such as railway stations and post offices.
During the Empire period (1800-1835), the cases of early Viennese regulator wall clocks were typically made of wood, which was either polished or gilded. These laterndluhr clocks resembled three boxes, one stacked on top of the other. The upper part of the case housed the movement and was capped by a roof. The clock’s weights dangled in the center of the case, and at the bottom swung the pendulum.
The Biedermeier period (1835-1848) was a very conservative time in Vienna—regulator clocks reflected the new austerity. The dachluhr clocks from this era were thus simpler in style. Instead of three sections, these clocks had two: a top section (still with a roof) for the clock’s face and movement, and a bottom section for the weights and pendulum, which could be accessed by a glass door. The clocks were elegant but rigid in their design, except for the "piecrust" bezels around the clocks’ faces.
The Viennese revolution of 1848 expanded the middle class, which made luxuries like regulators more accessible to a greater percentage of the population. And after years of aesthetic repression, these newly affluent Viennese embraced revivals of Greek, Renaissance, and Gothic styles.
For regulator clocks, this meant that straight sides would give way to serpentine waves. Ornamentation was on the rise, as pediments were interrupted by finials and the sides of regulators were ornately carved and scrolled. As for the dials, they were rendered in creamy, bright porcelain.
In 1850s Vienna, antique regulator clocks continued to become increasingly ornate. This meant more finials, more flanking columns, and fancier woodwork on the clock’s top and bot...
The Vienna regulator clocks from about 1870 to 1895 are the most common today. They are also some of the most ornate and beautiful. Signatures of these regulators include the Corinthian columns on the sides of the cases and the clock’s elaborate hands.
All that effusive design ground to a halt at the turn of the 20th century, when the overlapping impulses of Art Nouveau and Arts and Crafts ushered in the Jugendstil style, which was a precursor of sorts to 20th-century modernism. It was a return to the box regulators of almost a century before, but this time the lines were softer, the boxes were less boxy but more massive. In addition, Viennese regulators from this period often featured leaded and beveled glass in front of their swinging pendulums, and the woods ranged from gorgeous maple to rich walnut.
In the United States, 19th century clock manufacturers such as Ingraham, Sessions, Seth Thomas, and New Haven also made regulators. Some were designed like squat versions of the famous banjo clocks that were so popular, others were marketed as "railroad regulators" with train-station style numerals and hands.
Just as in Vienna, accuracy was the main selling point for makers of U.S. regulators. Even more interesting, the look of these U.S. clocks paralleled the evolving design of those of the old country, which suggests that U.S. clockmakers were not yet setting the standards for clock design.
Key terms for Antique Regulator Clocks:
Escapement: A device that converts the pressure of a spring or coil into a fixed release of movement.
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Recent News: Regulator Clocks
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Star Shots: Best photos of April 17, 2015Kansas City Star, April 17th
Mike Haines, left, and his brother, Dan Haines, right, both of Kansas City, Mo., examined the movement of a Schutz Marke two-weight regulator clock, circa 1875, before installing it on Friday at the Antique Clocks and Watch Show at the Lenexa Community ...Read more
Pine Ridge contents to be auctionedMacclesfield - Wilmslow - Local News Cheshire Today, April 14th
They range from a fine William and Mary walnut chest (£3,000-5.000) to an 18th century longcase regulator clock (£2,000-3,000), a stunning Bakshaish carpet (£1,000-2,000) and a half-length portrait of Queen Elizabeth 1 wearing a highly elaborate ...Read more
Keeping timeChico News & Review, April 8th
The gargantuan timepiece is an “astronomical regulator clock” with a mercury-compensated pendulum, commissioned and custom-built in 1870s Boston by long-defunct manufacturers E. Howard & Co. for Dreiss Jewelry in downtown Chico, which was ...Read more
Antiques & Collectibles: Seth Thomas regulator clock a timeless favoritePress of Atlantic City, March 6th
Question: What can you tell me about an old oak wall clock left in an office building I recently ac-quired? It is 37 inches long, 16 inches wide and 5½ inches deep with a brass pendulum and weight. Its metal dial is painted white, has Roman numerals, a...Read more
Ashland resident donates clock to historical societyNews Item, February 15th
The regulator clock, a more accurate version time-wise of a standard pendulum clock, was rewound about every eight days with a key, which was stored in the case. The glass cover over the lower half of the clock showed "P.H. Loeper, Leading Jeweler...Read more
E. Howard & Company No. 47 wall-hanging astronomical regulator soars to a ...ArtfixDaily, December 5th
PITTSFIELD, Mass. – An E. Howard & Company No. 47 wall-hanging astronomical regulator clock – one of only three examples known and so rare it doesn't even appear in the E. Howard catalog – soared to a record price of $356,950.00 at a clock and watch ...Read more
An E Howard Company No 47 wall-hanging astronomical regulator clock soars ...News-Antique.com (press release), December 5th
News-Antique.com - Dec 05,2014 - PITTSFIELD, Mass. – An E. Howard & Company No. 47 wall-hanging astronomical regulator clock – one of only three examples known and so rare it doesn't even appear in the E. Howard catalog – soared to a record price ...Read more
E. Howard & Co. No. 47 wall-hanging clock could fetch $200000-$300000 at ...ArtfixDaily, September 11th
PITTSFIELD, Mass. - Horological history might be made on November 22nd when an exceedingly rare E. Howard & Company No. 47 wall-hanging astronomical regulator clock comes up for bid in an antique clock auction at Fontaine's Auction Gallery located ...Read more