Regulator clocks, sometimes referred to as pendulum clocks, were invented in the late 18th century in a quest for greater timekeeping accuracy. They were weight-driven devices and featured a deadbeat escapement (an improvement on the anchor design). To ensure their accuracy, they usually omitted complicated features like calendars. Instead, each of the clock’s hands worked off a different mechanism.

The Englishmen Benjamin Vulliamy and James Harrison invented two of the earliest regulators between 1760 and 1780. Despite this British lineage, regulator clocks were not especially well received in England, but they were in Vienna, where the form flourished. Indeed, Vienna regulator wall clocks gained such a reputation for accuracy that they were routinely used in public places such as railway stations and post offices.

During the Empire period (1800-1835), the cases of early Viennese regulator wall clocks were typically made of wood, which was either polished or gilded. These laterndluhr clocks resembled three boxes, one stacked on top of the other. The upper part of the case housed the movement and was capped by a roof. The clock’s weights dangled in the center of the case, and at the bottom swung the pendulum.

The Biedermeier period (1835-1848) was a very conservative time in Vienna—regulator clocks reflected the new austerity. The dachluhr clocks from this era were thus simpler in style. Instead of three sections, these clocks had two: a top section (still with a roof) for the clock’s face and movement, and a bottom section for the weights and pendulum, which could be accessed by a glass door. The clocks were elegant but rigid in their design, except for the "piecrust" bezels around the clocks’ faces.

The Viennese revolution of 1848 expanded the middle class, which made luxuries like regulators more accessible to a greater percentage of the population. And after years of aesthetic repression, these newly affluent Viennese embraced revivals of Greek, Renaissance, and Gothic styles.

For regulator clocks, this meant that straight sides would give way to serpentine waves. Ornamentation was on the rise, as pediments were interrupted by finials and the sides of regulators were ornately carved and scrolled. As for the dials, they were rendered in creamy, bright porcelain.

In 1850s Vienna, antique regulator clocks continued to become increasingly ornate. This meant more finials, more flanking columns, and fancier woodwork on the clock’s top and bot...

The Vienna regulator clocks from about 1870 to 1895 are the most common today. They are also some of the most ornate and beautiful. Signatures of these regulators include the Corinthian columns on the sides of the cases and the clock’s elaborate hands.

All that effusive design ground to a halt at the turn of the 20th century, when the overlapping impulses of Art Nouveau and Arts and Crafts ushered in the Jugendstil style, which was a precursor of sorts to 20th-century modernism. It was a return to the box regulators of almost a century before, but this time the lines were softer, the boxes were less boxy but more massive. In addition, Viennese regulators from this period often featured leaded and beveled glass in front of their swinging pendulums, and the woods ranged from gorgeous maple to rich walnut.

In the United States, 19th century clock manufacturers such as Ingraham, Sessions, Seth Thomas, and New Haven also made regulators. Some were designed like squat versions of the famous banjo clocks that were so popular, others were marketed as "railroad regulators" with train-station style numerals and hands.

Just as in Vienna, accuracy was the main selling point for makers of U.S. regulators. Even more interesting, the look of these U.S. clocks paralleled the evolving design of those of the old country, which suggests that U.S. clockmakers were not yet setting the standards for clock design.

Key terms for Antique Regulator Clocks:

Escapement: A device that converts the pressure of a spring or coil into a fixed release of movement.

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Source: Google News

Circadian Clock and Aging
The Scientist, February 3rd

So, in a sense, the [postnatal Bmal1 knockout] mice segregate the issue of neurodegeneration—which seems to be clock-related—and lifespan.” The question in the field has been whether Bmal1 and other master regulator clock genes have other, nonclock ...Read more

ANTIQUES: Clocks, art, furniture showed eager bidders at Lawrences, Somerset
Western Daily Press, February 1st

A Victorian regulator clock by Henry Archard, used in its day as the clock by which other local clocks were set, struck a high note early on with a bid of £8,780 while a George III bracket clock, made one hundred years earlier by Charles Blanchard when...Read more

E Howard Company No 43 astronomical floor regulator clock soars to record 254 ...
News-Antique.com (press release), November 24th

News-Antique.com - Nov 24,2015 - PITTSFIELD, Mass. –An E. Howard & Company (Boston) No. 43 astronomical floor regulator clock, 105 inches tall and in fine operating condition, soared to $254,100 at Fontaine's Auction Gallery's two-session clock and ...Read more

Time change is Sunday; remember to fall back 1 hour
Port Huron Times Herald, October 29th

C.W. Mosher had time in his hands. The patriarch and founder of Mosher's Jewelers, 336 Huron Ave., Mosher came to Port Huron in 1906 to be a railroad clock inspector. "He had his own shop," said Bill Mosher, C.W.'s great-grandson, "He was watch ...Read more

Texans' Clock Collection Sells in Massachusetts
Maine Antique Digest, August 6th

A William Hardy observatory regulator clock made in London circa 1825 stalled at $55,000 (est. $70,000/90,000). Cheney suggested that the European dealers potentially interested in this clock were “saving ammo” for upcoming horology auctions in Europe...Read more

Antiques & Collectibles: Seth Thomas regulator clock a timeless favorite
Press of Atlantic City, March 6th

Question: What can you tell me about an old oak wall clock left in an office building I recently ac-quired? It is 37 inches long, 16 inches wide and 5½ inches deep with a brass pendulum and weight. Its metal dial is painted white, has Roman numerals, a...Read more

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East Oregonian (subscription), February 27th

Among the dozens of clocks placed around the room were vintage cuckoo clocks, a Westminster mantel clock from 1900 and a Vienna regulator clock from about 1870. Richard Courtney stood near a grandfather clock made in Paddington, England, in 1860...Read more

Ashland resident donates clock to historical society
Republican & Herald, February 15th

The regulator clock, a more accurate version time-wise of a standard pendulum clock, was rewound about every eight days with a key, which was stored in the case. The glass cover over the lower half of the clock showed "P.H. Loeper, Leading Jeweler...Read more