The first time any piece of cloth or bedding was called a “blanket” was in 1340, when Thomas Blanquette, a Flemish weaver living in England, developed a heavily napped woollen weave. In the early days, all blankets were made of wool, which provided warmth and was resistant to fire. Thinner, skin-friendly sheets were made of cotton or linen.

These days, though, the term blanket may be applied to quilts, bedspreads, comforters, and duvets. These blankets are made of all sorts of materials, including cotton, linen, silk, synthetic fibers, goose down, and even old clothes.

Blankets have come to serve all sorts of purposes, too. Decorative throw blankets are designed to keep one warm outside the bed, while security blankets or “blankies” give little children comfort. Native Americans would wear wool blankets as coats or robes, and in Mexico, colorful blankets called zarape, or serape, are often worn by men like shawls.

Blankets are also used to spread on the ground during picnics, at the beach, or to protect furniture during moves. Horse blankets are placed on the animals to prevent them from growing a shaggy winter coat of hair; saddle blankets keep their skin from chafing. Firefighters also use specialized blankets to protect furniture from water damage and themselves from flames.

Among collectors, the most popular blankets are those associated with the North American fur trade between Native Americans and Europeans. These include the Hudson Bay Company’s “pointed blankets” and Pendleton blankets. While these “Indian trade blankets” may feature patterns inspired by Native American designs, they were actually made by Europeans and white Americans to sell to the tribes.

In 1670, French explorers Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard Chouart des Groseilliers, with the blessing the government of England, established the Hudson Bay Company on the north side of the Great Lakes in what became Canada. Native Americans would bring them furs in exchange for manufactured items like knives, kettles, beads, needles, and, eventually, blankets.

European wool blankets were coveted by the Native Americans, who had previously worn hides, stitched fur pelts, and handmade clothes made of wool, down, feathers, shredded cedar ...

It was M. Germain Maugenest who proposed to the Hudson Bay Company’s board in England in 1779 that blankets (non-diseased ones) should be a staple of the North American trade. Blankets had long been exchanged in bartering, but it wasn’t until 1780 that the company received regular shipments of large numbers of wool blankets from Europe.

These “pointed blankets,” first produced in Witney, Oxfordshire, were hugely popular with the Native Americans, thanks to their insulating and water-repellent qualities. Since blankets were felted or shrunk during manufacturing, during the mid-1700s French weavers developed a “point” system to indicate the final size of the blanket, which Hudson Bay Company indicated with indigo lines woven into the side of the blanket. (“Point” is thought to come from the French word “empointer,” meaning to make stitches.)

These were traded in a range of one to four points, in increments of half points. While the number wasn’t intended to indicate how many beaver pelts a blanket was worth, that’s how they were used. A half point, for example, meant half a pelt or an imperfect one.

Hudson Bay’s popular off-white multistripe blankets, which became known as “chief’s blankets,” are characterized by their “headings,” which are bold stripes of bright colors like green, red, and yellow, at either end. The off-white base color made them excellent camouflage in the snow.

Blankets were also offered in solid colors like indigo, scarlet, green, and light blue. The Native Americans would wear them instead of buffalo robes, or sew them into coats. The colors were important to the Native Americans, as variations in shade could telegraph spiritual meaning or the mood of the wearer.

The Navajos had taken up textile weaving in the early 1800s, producing their own stunning, colorful wool blankets with spellbinding patterns in stripes, diamonds, triangles, and diagonal lines that created optical illusions. These blankets were coveted by Victorian tourists, who traveled by train on tours of the Southwest and were in the market for souvenirs.

However, when these tourists got home, they would put the blankets on the floor, using them as rugs instead of bedding or clothing. In response, the Navajo crafted the same patterns in sturdier fibers to be used as rugs in the homes of white Americans. When the Indian Wars ended and the reservation system was established in 1890, the Navajos quit making wearing blankets all together and only sold rugs at federally licensed Indian trading posts.

Pendleton Woollen Mills, which was established in 1909 along the Oregon Trail in Pendleton, Oregon, saw the Native American population as a new market. The company took great care to learn about traditional Native American designs and patterns, the important mythology and spiritual symbols, and the preferred colors of their customers. Company pattern designer Joe Rawnsley, in particular, who was gifted with the jacquard loom, worked with many of the tribes people of northeastern Oregon to get his blankets just right. He also took six months to travel the Southwest and visit with the tribes there and learn about their traditions.

These blankets were embraced and treasured by Native Americans, who used them in rituals and ceremonies, as a part of dowries, in weddings, at pow wows, for gifts and prizes, and even to line coffins of the deceased. As a result, the name Pendleton has become synonymous with “Indian trade blankets,” even though Pendleton was not the only producer of these blankets.

In the 1920s and ’30s, Indian trade blankets grew in popularity with non-Indian interior designers. Hudson Bay Company responded by expanding its blanket manufacturing to Yorkshire and introduced its line of Pastel Tones, Deep Tones, and Imperial Tones to match popular design schemes.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

LACMA Luxury Textiles

LACMA Luxury Textiles

Textile collectors shouldn't miss this microsite from the LA County Museum of Art, a great reference on European an… [read review or visit site]

Most watched eBay auctions    

Pendleton BlanketBeaver State Navajo Water Blanket, PendletonVintage Four Point Green And Black Hudson's Bay BlanketPendleton Code Talker Blanket RetiredPendleton Beaver State 53" X 75"" Wool Blanket Turquoise BackgroundVintage Hudsons Bay Hbc 4 Point Multistripe Wool Blanket 73 X 91Vintage Southwest Design Pink Blue Green Camp Blanket Craft CutterVintage Pendleton Glacier Park 4 Stripe 72" X 53" Wool Blanket, Usa1930s Reversible Beacon Camp Blanket, Cotton Trade Blanket Indian Design, Nr!!Vintage Hudson Bay Blanket Red & Black Wool 3.5 PointHudson Bay - 4 Point Blanket Excellent Pendleton 100% Wool Sage Green Blanket ~ King Size ~ 90" By 96"Beaver State Hidatsa Earth Blanket, PendletonVintage Orr Orrlaskan Wool Blanket 3 Stripe 85 X 76 Inches Hudson Bay Camp StyleVintage Hudson's Bay 4 Point 100% Wool 90 X 73 Blanket Made In England HeavyVintage 1930s Pendleton Indian Blanket - Great ColorsVintage Foxford Wool Blanket Cream With Blue Stripe Made In Ireland 90" X 100"Pendleton Blanket 64x80 Nib Never UsedVintage Cotton Camp Blanket Blue & Tan Geometric PatternVintage 1940's Warmbilt Minnesota Virgin Wool Lifetime Blanket 74 "x 86"Vintage Hudson Bay Camp Style Pure Wool Blanket Multi-stripe Vintage Hudson Bay 6 Point Multi-color Striped Wool Blanket - Queen SizePendleton Beaver State Bird Song Blanket Shaw WoolPendleton Beaver State Wool Throw Lap Saddle Blanket Tan 32"x42" ~free S&h ~Vintage Ayers Canadian Product Wool Blanket Multi Colored Striped 74 "x 88"Vintage Mohawk Tepee Wool Camp Blanket! Camp Cottage All Wool Canada Te Pee NiceAntique Great Northern Railway Wool Blanket 49" X 82Vintage Hudson's Bay 3 1/2 Point Blanket; Blue-gray Body, Blue Stripe; 80" X 61"Vintage 1950's Pendleton Wool Baby Crib BlanketChimayo Pendleton Throw Blanket Garnet Wool Eyelash Fringe Original LabelPendleton Chief Joseph Blanket Brand NewPendleton Beaver State Wool Throw Lap Saddle Blanket Blue & Red 32"x42" Free S&hVintage Hudson Bay 100% Wool Blanket 3 Points With LabelVintage Horse & Dog 60" X 54" Horsehair Lap Robe Buggy Sleigh Carriage BlanketVintage Gold Liquid Satin Hollywood Glam Comforter Quilt 64 X 80 Lullabye PuffVintage Southwestern Style Cotton Blanket, Heavy , CutterB198 ) Hudson Bay Wool Blanket, 6 Points, Marigold Yellow Color, A+ ConditionVintage Double Fold Blanket, Pink Stripes Cotton Flannel Camp Cottage BeautyGreat Pendleton War Eagle Print Wool Blanket #h79Faribo Pure Wool Queen Size BlanketEsprit Westpoint Pepperell 100% Virgin Wool Blanket Ivory 84" X 88" Made In UsaVintage Churchill Weavers Wool Fringe Throw Blanket Hand Woven Soft GreenVtg Blanket Bedspread Wool Stripes Fring Campy Shabby RetroNaruto Akatsuki Red Fuzzy Coral Fleece Warm Blankets Bed Rug 120x150cm Soft NewAo No Exorcist Fuzzy Coral Fleece Warm Blankets Bed Rug 120x150cm Soft FirstFaribault Wool Indian Blanket Wellsprings Buffalo Tatanka Robe Plains CollectionVintage Mid Century Pendleton Robe In A Bag 100% Wool Stadium Blanket & Pad Vintage Cotton Camp Lightweight Pink Blanket Color Block Gc 64" X 68" Beaver State Pendleton Chief Joseph Aqua 64x80 Indian Blanket Usa Nib!!!Great Pendleton Gray War Eagle Print Wool Blanket #h81.Vintage San Marcos Blanket Lion And Lioness Brown/cream 64 W By 89 L With TagSan Marcos Blanket, Full Size Southwestern & Train Print, Nice!Vintage San Marcos Blanket Lion On A Rock Burgundy/cream 55" W By 86" L With TagChenille Bedspread With Blue. Full/doubleVintage Wool Golden Dawn Blanket Red Yellow Green StripesVtg Hudson Bay Style Striped Wool? Trade Carriage Stadium Lap Blanket 50"x58"100% Cotton Thermal Queen/king Size Green Blanket In Original PackageVintage Faribo Hudson Bay Type Wool Blanket 74 X 89Vintage Donegal Design Wool/mohair Throw Blanket 60"x70" Beautiful ColorsVintage Woodleigh Wool Blanket Made In England Coral Color 64 X 83 Twin Size