The Arts and Crafts movement that swept the United States and Great Britain from roughly 1880 to 1920 was a response to the industrialization of the late 19th century. It was a call on the part of thinkers, poets, artists, and designers to return to a handmade aesthetic, in which craftsmanship was paramount, design was nature-inspired , and construction methods were straightforward, simple, and undisguised.
English art critic John Ruskin had actually articulated the movement’s founding principles several decades earlier. He considered the prevailing Victorian aesthetic decadent and argued for working conditions that considered the happiness of craftsmen. Pattern designer William Morris put Ruskin’s theories into practice when he established Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. in 1861 to create everything from furniture to wallpaper to fabrics to tapestries.
Another craftsman to put the ideals of Arts and Crafts into action was Charles Robert Ashbee, who established his Guild of Handicraft in 1888 in the slums of London’s East End. The goal was to produce furniture, metalware, and jewelry in an atmosphere of fair wages, good working conditions, and cooperation.
Most British artists of the day did not take the movement’s social side that far. Instead, they contented themselves to producing furniture, ceramics, metalwork, and jewelry that hued to the visual principles of the movement, which got its formal name of Arts and Crafts in 1888.
Liberty & Co. in London brought the movement to the masses with chairs, plant stands, bookcases, and buffets, mostly in oak and mahogany. Individual designers of the day included William De Morgan, whose earthenware vases often suggested Persian influences.
Scotsman Charles Rennie Mackintosh, also considered a practitioner of Art Nouveau (which ran concurrently with the Arts and Crafts period), was another leader. From his Glasgow workshop, he produced handsome desks and other pieces of furniture. His high-backed chairs, especially the ones with trellis backs, are considered his signature.
Robert “Mouseman” Thompson arrived on the scene a little later. His charming gimmick was to adorn a carved mouse on the side of every piece of furniture he made...
In the United States, the Arts and Crafts movement was warmly embraced. Gustav Stickley published a highly influential magazine called The Craftsman from 1901 to 1916. Through his Craftsman Workshops in Syracuse, New York, he also produced furniture and metalwork.
Two of Stickley’s brothers, John George and Albert, established their own firm, Stickley Bros. Co., in Grand Rapids, Michigan in 1891. After John George left to start yet another Stickley company with yet another brother (L. & J. G. Stickley in Fayetteville, New York with brother Leopold), Albert carried on at Stickley Bros., eventually labeling his pieces with a tag that read "Quaint Furniture."
Leopold and John George produced pieces for one of the 20th century's greatest architects, Frank Lloyd Wright. Today Wright is more closely associated with what we now call the Prairie School, a type of architecture that emphasized horizontal lines and eschewed ornamentation. But at the turn of the 20th century, he was considered one of the leading practitioners of Arts and Crafts. Importantly, Leopold and John George were not above using mechanical techniques to produce their pieces. Thus, they embraced the aesthetic of Arts and Crafts if not its social and philosophical underpinnings.
Louis Comfort Tiffany was perhaps even more famous than Stickley, although like Macintosh, his style straddled Arts and Crafts and Art Nouveau. Some of the finest examples of the former are his lamps with ceramic bases by Grueby Faience Company of Massachusetts.
Speaking of ceramics, the oldest pottery in the United States, Fulper Pottery Company, also became a proponent of Arts and Crafts with its 1909 Vasecraft line. Rookwood Pottery was a breeding ground for numerous Arts and Crafts ceramists — at one time or another, Artus Van Briggle, Matthew A. Daly William P. MacDonald, Albert Valentien, and John D. Wareham were all on staff.
More difficult to categorize was George Ohr, the so-called "Mad Potter of Biloxi, Mississippi," whose deformed and pinched vases fairly drip with candy-colored glazes. Newcomb College pottery from New Orleans went the other way, promoting simply-shaped vases and plates, usually with floral decorations in soft, pastel glazes.
Regions developed their own specialties. New York was the home of Roycroft, which excelled in copper objects for the home, handmade books, and fine wooden furniture. In Northern California, Arequipa Pottery of Fairfax imported future Fiesta visionary Frederick H. Rhead to design its pieces from 1910-1912. Dirk Van Erp was another San Francisco Bay Area artisan of renown: His metal vases featured his trademark "warty" surface produced by hand-hammering.
In Southern California, Pasadena was the center for Arts and Crafts. In 1908, architects Charles Sumner and Henry Matthew Greene designed what many consider to be the movement’s architectural masterpiece for David and Mary Gamble. A year later, tilemaker Ernest T. Bachelder established a school devoted to the movement.
Meanwhile, in Chicago and Boston, jewelry in the Arts and Crafts style was very popular. The Kalo Shop opened in Chicago in 1900. And in Boston, Frank Gardner Hale and Edward E. Oakes were among that city’s leading jewelry designers.
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Arts and Crafts gem opens to the publicHinckley Times, January 31st
It was designed in 1898 and built the following year by Leicester's own Ernest Gimson, a leading light of the English Arts and Crafts Movement, for his elder brother Sydney and wife Jeanie. The cottage remained in the family until being offered to the...Read more
AD Previews Shirley Morales's ExhibitionArchitectural Digest (blog), January 30th
She also let them remove precious works from her personal collection and replace them with art pieces that reference the U.K.'s Arts and Crafts movement, German Lebensreform (“life reform,” a precursor to the vegan and hippie movements, which took ...Read more
Rare surviving Arts and Crafts house to open to public for first time in ...Culture24, January 29th
A reaction to the excesses of Victorian industrialisation, the Arts and Crafts movement grew from a desire to revive the skill of traditional craftsmanship and to restore simplicity and honesty to how buildings and furnishings were made. Its leading...Read more
The Most Expensive House for Sale in Avon: 115 Acres, Private Lake on Top of ...Patch.com, January 29th
Have you ever wanted a private mountain escape? It can be yours for nearly $15 million. Montevideo as its called was originally acquired by Daniel Wadsworth, a patron of the arts. The property has 115 wooded acres and the resort-style home was...Read more
The Valley Line: PSHA presents annual 'Empty House Party'Valley Sun, January 28th
The home was designed by French architect Fernand Parmentier and is filled with eclectic artistic innovations of the burgeoning Arts and Crafts movement that has over 9,400 square feet and is complemented by a 2,600 carriage house with an upstairs ...Read more
Arts and Crafts Project Given Lottery FundsChiswickW4.com, January 9th
Sue Bowers, Head of Heritage Lottery Fund London, says: " Given the proximity of these two riverside homes – shrines to the Arts and Crafts movement – we are delighted to support this joint project that will underline the close working relationship...Read more
Leicestershire's hidden arts and crafts gem is set to open to the publicHinckley Times, January 5th
It was designed and built by Leicstershire's most famous architectural son, Ernest Gimson, a follower of William Morris and the English Arts and Crafts Movement, which eschewed the new age of industrialisation for integrity of labour, craftsmanship and...Read more
A Gorgeous iPad Game Inspired By The Arts and Crafts MovementCo.Design, October 31st
Last week, the Victoria & Albert Museum released "Strawberry Thief," an iPad app based on the textiles of 19th-century British Arts and Crafts movement designer William Morris. Sophia George, the museum's first game designer-in-residence, studied one...Read more