Frank Lloyd Wright, who emerged as an architect during the turn-of-the-century Arts and Crafts movement, gave birth to the first distinctly American brand of architecture. Throughout his seven-decade career, Wright insisted that buildings complement their natural settings: With unfinished materials, simple lines, and open spaces, his structures seem to grow organically out of the landscape. Influenced by sparse Japanese design, Wright rejected the boxy, labyrinthine layouts and excessive ornamentation of Victorian Europe in favor of a style he felt reflected American principles of democracy and self-determination.

Wright is perhaps best known for his striking and innovative dwellings such as the Robie House near Chicago, Fallingwater in rural Pennsylvania, and his longtime home, Taliesin, in Spring Green, Wisconsin. He also invented the influential “Prairie Houses,” which he designed regularly between 1900 and 1917. These long, low-to-the-ground buildings with sloping roofs and clean lines were meant to mimic the flatness of the surrounding prairies. The concept eventually led to a proliferation of one-story ranch-style houses around the United States. In addition to his architecture and design, Wright was an educator, philosopher, and prolific writer, publishing 20 books and a myriad of articles.

In addition to the 532 architectural structures he erected worldwide (409 of which are still standing), Wright also designed furniture, textiles, art glass, lamps, dinnerware, silver, and graphic arts. He began creating his own furnishings in the 1890s, as he felt most commercially made objects did not live up to his high aesthetic standards. They were pretty high standards, indeed, because at the time he was employing brothers Leopold and John George Stickley of Fayetteville, New York, to produce many of his furnishings.

Wright believed the interior design of a home could influence the spiritual and emotional well-being of his clients. This philosophy became known as the House Beautiful movement and it applied not just to the spaces he conceived but the furniture within them. Take, for example, the wooden spindle-backed side chairs he designed for his Oak Park home in 1895. The chairs have such high backs that when positioned at the dining table, they create an intimate room-within-a-room effect.

Often Wright made his furniture compact and multi-functional to give living areas an open feeling. In fact, much of his furniture was built into the structure of his homes. Wright also believed that repeating uncomplicated geometric patterns created an atmosphere of order and simplicity. His stained-glass pieces, such as the “Tree of Life” window, echoed these motifs. Even the lines and circles in his textile and carpet patterns, such as his Taliesin Line, played on this theme of geometric harmony.

Wright, who was born in Richland Center, Wisconsin, on June 8, 1867, to a Unitarian pastor and a schoolteacher, spent his formative years, ages 11-20, in Madison. He never went to college to study architecture; he only took two semesters worth of civil engineering classes at the University of Wisconsin. Instead, he learned the ropes first by helping architect Joseph Lyman Silsbee draft and supervise the construction of Unity Chapel in Madison, and then by taking a drafting job at age 20 for the Adler and Sullivan firm in Chicago.

For six years, Wright reported directly to famous architect Louis Sullivan, the only influence Wright would acknowledge in his life, as his “Lieber Meister,” or “beloved master.”...

In 1889, when Wright was 22, he married Catherine Tobin and built a home in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, which eventually became the headquarters of his practice and is now known as the Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio. His first acknowledged masterpiece, the Winslow House, was built in 1893 in River Forest, Illinois.

It was during this period that he started producing his Prairie Houses. He built the Martin House, which first incorporated his trademark horizontal-band windows; Robie House, one of his most celebrated Prairie Houses; the Unity Temple in Oak Park, one of the first U.S. buildings to feature exposed concrete; and the Larkin Company Administration Building in Buffalo, New York, which boasted innovations like the first wall-hung toilets, steel office furniture, glass doors, and extensive use of ventilation.

Around this time, Wright also began to give lectures on architecture. He famously parted ways with the one of the basic principles of the Arts and Crafts movement—that craftsmanship is always superior to machine-made products—in a 1901 lecture at the Hull House in Chicago. In his talk, “The Art and Craft of the Machine,” he asserted that machines can be used to bring out the simplicity and beauty of wood, establishing himself as the first U.S. architect to declare his acceptance of industrialization.

It was a prolific time for him in other ways, too. He had six children with Catherine before he left her in 1910 to run off to Europe with Mamah Borthwick Cheney, a client’s wife, where he put together two portfolios, published by Ernest Wasmuth, “Ausgefuhtre Bauten und Entwurfe” and “Ausgefuhrte Bauten,” also known as the Wasmuth Portfolios. These publications brought him international acclaim and also influenced architects worldwide.

In 1911, Wright returned to Wisconsin to build a home on the land his mother’s Welsh ancestors had settled. He named this new home Taliesin, which is Welsh for “shining brow.” When Wright was working on Midway Gardens entertainment center in Chicago and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo (a structure heralded for its earthquake-proof support system) in 1914, a mentally-ill servant set fire to the living quarters of Taliesin, killing Mamah, two of her children, and four others.

Wright started resurrecting Taliesin right away, and soon married sculptor Miriam Noel. Concurrently, Wright developed California properties like Hollyhock House and Millard House, for which he created the “textile block” technique, weaving together pre-cast concrete blocks with steel rods and cement. A second fire destroyed the Taliesin living quarters in 1925, when a lightning strike ignited faulty electrical wiring. As with the last fire, Wright rebuilt his home as quickly as possible. In 1928, Wright married again, this time to Olga Lazovich, the daughter of the Chief Justice of Montenegro.

In the 1930s, Wright focused on spreading his philosophies by hosting Taliesin Fellowships at his home, where scholars would study architecture, construction, farming, gardening, cooking, nature, and the arts. He promoted his ideas through books such as his autobiography and “The Disappearing City,” in which he proposed the concept of the Broadacre City, wherein each U.S. family is given a one acre-plot, a concept that helped give birth to modern suburbia.

Taking these ideas one step further, he invented prefab housing, which he named “Usonian” homes—from USONA or the United States of North America. These low-cost one-story houses for families of humble means featured innovations like carports, radiant heating using hot-water pipes under concrete-slab floors, and prefabricated walls made of boards and tar paper. His first functional Usonian home was named Jacobs I.

In 1936, Wright erected one of his most famous houses, Fallingwater, which stretches over a waterfall in rural Pennsylvania. The home, built with cantilevered balconies, doesn’t even appear to touch the ground. His other important later buildings include the SC Johnson Wax Administration Building and the Wingspread house in Racine, Wisconsin; the circular Guggenheim Museum in New York City, whose interior was inspired by the spiral of a conch shell; the Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma; and the Marin County Civic Center in California.

Eventually, Wright created two other homes for himself. Taliesin West was his winter residence, built on a sprawling several-hundred-acre property in the foothills of the McDowell Mountains in Scottsdale, Arizona. Then, in 1955, he rented an apartment at the Plaza Hotel in New York City, which he dubbed “Taliesin East” and redecorated it with black and red lacquered furniture and thick peach carpeting.

Many people have speculated that Wright, with his iconoclast reputation and adamant rejection of traditionalist architecture, inspired the architect character Howard Roark in Ayn Rand’s book “The Fountainhead.” But in a letter to a fan, Rand herself denied that Roark’s personality and life had any connection to Wright, insisting that the only thing the two have in common is their disdain for cluttered old-world design.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Modernism

Modernism

This archived overview produced by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts offers thumbnail sketches of the design moveme… [read review or visit site]

Chicago Silver

Chicago Silver

Paul Somerson's incredible reference on handwrought metalwork from the American Arts and Crafts movement of the ear… [read review or visit site]

1910 Metal

1910 Metal

A detailed tribute to the lesser-known artistic metalwork craftsmen of the Arts and Crafts movement. In addition t… [read review or visit site]



Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Pair Lori Mclean Moma Frank Lloyd Wright Sterling Silver 925 Enamel Earrings SnmNwb! Bulova Mini Grandfather Clock #b0597 Frank Lloyd Wright Lego Architecture Solomon Guggenheim Museum Set Frank Lloyd Wright New Free ShipGlassmasters Stained Glass Panel - Frank Lloyd Wright - Saguaro - Collectible!Frank Lloyd Wright Glassmasters Replica Of ParadeFrank Lloyd Wright Archiblocks Prairie House Blocks Architecture Vtg Mid CenturyFrank Lloyd Wright Glass Cylinder Vase Argento Omaggio Italy 2000 SilverFrank Lloyd Wright Style Faux Stained Glass Decorative 15" Curved Plate W/ StandFrank Lloyd Wright Marionette - Great Collectable For Architecture & Design FansFrank Lloyd Wright Design Mug Cup "cabaret"Acme Studios Frank Lloyd Wright "coonley" Pierced EarringsFrank Lloyd Wright Metal Insert Coasters George Blossom House 1892 ~ Black CreamDr Jim Stamps Us Cover Fdc Scott 1280 Block Artcraft Frank Lloyd Wright 19661965 The Work Of Frank Lloyd Wright By Olgivanna Lloyd Wright Beautifully Illus.Frank Lloyd Wright Saguaro Forms And Cactus Flowers Collectors NecktieUs Scott 1280c Frank Lloyd Wright 2c 1966 Booklet Pane Of 6 Mint Nh - Free ShipDr Jim Stamps Us Cover Fdc Scott 1280 Pair Artcraft Frank Lloyd Wright 1966Frank Lloyd Wright Saguaro Forms And Cactus Flowers Cross Stitch KitFrank Lloyd Wright, Architect, Robie House In Chicago, Cel. The Century 1900sLego - Falling Water, Mill Run, Pa - Nib - Frank Lloyd Wright Design Frank Lloyd Wright's Usonian Houses : The Case For Organic Architecture By...Frank Lloyd Wright Taliesin Design Bronze Metal Picture Photo Frame 4" X 6"The Frank Lloyd Wright Companion, Revised Edition - Free ShippingGiclee Signed Art Print (7.5" X 10.5) Frank Lloyd Wright's FallingwaterDomino's Mansion Frank Lloyd Wright Intro By Yale Professor Vincent Scully GreatThe Show To End All Shows: Frank Lloyd Wright And The Museum Of Modern Art, 1940Pbs Home Video: Frank Lloyd Wright 2 Videos 1 BookFdc: Prominent Americans Series: Frank Lloyd Wright ( Scarce Fleetwood Fdc )3182 Frank Lloyd Wright's Robbie House Fdc - Artmaster Cachet 2 Ct Frank Lloyd Wright Stamps - Block Of 10 -

Recent News: Frank Lloyd Wright

Source: Google News

A Frank Lloyd Wright House Is One Of America's Most Endangered Historic Places
Co.Design, August 28th

Years of exposure to hurricanes and high winds have taken their toll on Frank Lloyd Wright's Spring House, the only private residence the architect designed in Florida. This year, the National Trust For Historic Preservation has listed the home as one...Read more

Frank Lloyd Wright inspires Portland artist CJ Hurley: Wildflowers and weeds
The Oregonian - OregonLive.com, August 28th

Artists often discover a kinship with each other, and although they never met, Portland painter CJ Hurley shares Frank Lloyd Wright's outlook that nature is not only central to our well being but is to be celebrated for its simple, everyday display...Read more

Spiralling Tensions at Frank Lloyd Wright Architecture School
New York Times (blog), August 27th

The architecture school run by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation on Wednesday criticized a decision by the foundation's board that will result in the school losing its accreditation. Last week, the Higher Learning Commission, a Chicago-based nonprofit...Read more

Preserving Frank Lloyd Wright's Hemicycle Spring House
ArchDaily, August 27th

The Spring House, also known as the Clifton and George Lewis II House, is the only private house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright that was ever built in Florida. The design embodies the final and shortest stylistic phase in Wright's career – the...Read more

Frank Lloyd Wright School Facing Loss of Accreditation
ArchDaily, August 26th

The Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture is currently at risk of losing its accreditation. The school has been cited as no longer meeting requirements by the Higher Learning Commission, a non-profit group whose approval is a prerequisite for the...Read more

Frank Lloyd Wright School faces accreditation loss
USA TODAY, August 21st

The Higher Learning Commission, a Chicago-based non-profit that accredits universities and colleges, told the school it no longer meets accreditation requirements, threatening its ability to offer a master of architecture degree, the Frank Lloyd Wright ...Read more

Rescued Frank Lloyd Wright house for sale in Houston
Today.com, August 13th

The money grabbers almost got this Frank Lloyd Wright house. The 1955 home lost its design religion in the 1980s, when a previous owner added columns, painted the original redwood walls white and put decorative pineapples on the corners of the roof...Read more

Vacant Frank Lloyd Wright-designed home in Riverside is vandalized
Chicago Tribune, August 4th

Police are investigating a recent break-in and vandalism at a vacant Riverside house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright. A caller on July 26 reported that someone had broken into the home in the 300 block of Scottswood Road, according to a Riverside Police ...Read more