Frank Lloyd Wright, who emerged as an architect during the turn-of-the-century Arts and Crafts movement, gave birth to the first distinctly American brand of architecture. Throughout his seven-decade career, Wright insisted that buildings complement their natural settings: With unfinished materials, simple lines, and open spaces, his structures seem to grow organically out of the landscape. Influenced by sparse Japanese design, Wright rejected the boxy, labyrinthine layouts and excessive ornamentation of Victorian Europe in favor of a style he felt reflected American principles of democracy and self-determination.

Wright is perhaps best known for his striking and innovative dwellings such as the Robie House near Chicago, Fallingwater in rural Pennsylvania, and his longtime home, Taliesin, in Spring Green, Wisconsin. He also invented the influential “Prairie Houses,” which he designed regularly between 1900 and 1917. These long, low-to-the-ground buildings with sloping roofs and clean lines were meant to mimic the flatness of the surrounding prairies. The concept eventually led to a proliferation of one-story ranch-style houses around the United States. In addition to his architecture and design, Wright was an educator, philosopher, and prolific writer, publishing 20 books and a myriad of articles.

In addition to the 532 architectural structures he erected worldwide (409 of which are still standing), Wright also designed furniture, textiles, art glass, lamps, dinnerware, silver, and graphic arts. He began creating his own furnishings in the 1890s, as he felt most commercially made objects did not live up to his high aesthetic standards. They were pretty high standards, indeed, because at the time he was employing brothers Leopold and John George Stickley of Fayetteville, New York, to produce many of his furnishings.

Wright believed the interior design of a home could influence the spiritual and emotional well-being of his clients. This philosophy became known as the House Beautiful movement and it applied not just to the spaces he conceived but the furniture within them. Take, for example, the wooden spindle-backed side chairs he designed for his Oak Park home in 1895. The chairs have such high backs that when positioned at the dining table, they create an intimate room-within-a-room effect.

Often Wright made his furniture compact and multi-functional to give living areas an open feeling. In fact, much of his furniture was built into the structure of his homes. Wright also believed that repeating uncomplicated geometric patterns created an atmosphere of order and simplicity. His stained-glass pieces, such as the “Tree of Life” window, echoed these motifs. Even the lines and circles in his textile and carpet patterns, such as his Taliesin Line, played on this theme of geometric harmony.

Wright, who was born in Richland Center, Wisconsin, on June 8, 1867, to a Unitarian pastor and a schoolteacher, spent his formative years, ages 11-20, in Madison. He never went to college to study architecture; he only took two semesters worth of civil engineering classes at the University of Wisconsin. Instead, he learned the ropes first by helping architect Joseph Lyman Silsbee draft and supervise the construction of Unity Chapel in Madison, and then by taking a drafting job at age 20 for the Adler and Sullivan firm in Chicago.

For six years, Wright reported directly to famous architect Louis Sullivan, the only influence Wright would acknowledge in his life, as his “Lieber Meister,” or “beloved master.”...

In 1889, when Wright was 22, he married Catherine Tobin and built a home in the Chicago suburb of Oak Park, which eventually became the headquarters of his practice and is now known as the Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio. His first acknowledged masterpiece, the Winslow House, was built in 1893 in River Forest, Illinois.

It was during this period that he started producing his Prairie Houses. He built the Martin House, which first incorporated his trademark horizontal-band windows; Robie House, one of his most celebrated Prairie Houses; the Unity Temple in Oak Park, one of the first U.S. buildings to feature exposed concrete; and the Larkin Company Administration Building in Buffalo, New York, which boasted innovations like the first wall-hung toilets, steel office furniture, glass doors, and extensive use of ventilation.

Around this time, Wright also began to give lectures on architecture. He famously parted ways with the one of the basic principles of the Arts and Crafts movement—that craftsmanship is always superior to machine-made products—in a 1901 lecture at the Hull House in Chicago. In his talk, “The Art and Craft of the Machine,” he asserted that machines can be used to bring out the simplicity and beauty of wood, establishing himself as the first U.S. architect to declare his acceptance of industrialization.

It was a prolific time for him in other ways, too. He had six children with Catherine before he left her in 1910 to run off to Europe with Mamah Borthwick Cheney, a client’s wife, where he put together two portfolios, published by Ernest Wasmuth, “Ausgefuhtre Bauten und Entwurfe” and “Ausgefuhrte Bauten,” also known as the Wasmuth Portfolios. These publications brought him international acclaim and also influenced architects worldwide.

In 1911, Wright returned to Wisconsin to build a home on the land his mother’s Welsh ancestors had settled. He named this new home Taliesin, which is Welsh for “shining brow.” When Wright was working on Midway Gardens entertainment center in Chicago and the Imperial Hotel in Tokyo (a structure heralded for its earthquake-proof support system) in 1914, a mentally-ill servant set fire to the living quarters of Taliesin, killing Mamah, two of her children, and four others.

Wright started resurrecting Taliesin right away, and soon married sculptor Miriam Noel. Concurrently, Wright developed California properties like Hollyhock House and Millard House, for which he created the “textile block” technique, weaving together pre-cast concrete blocks with steel rods and cement. A second fire destroyed the Taliesin living quarters in 1925, when a lightning strike ignited faulty electrical wiring. As with the last fire, Wright rebuilt his home as quickly as possible. In 1928, Wright married again, this time to Olga Lazovich, the daughter of the Chief Justice of Montenegro.

In the 1930s, Wright focused on spreading his philosophies by hosting Taliesin Fellowships at his home, where scholars would study architecture, construction, farming, gardening, cooking, nature, and the arts. He promoted his ideas through books such as his autobiography and “The Disappearing City,” in which he proposed the concept of the Broadacre City, wherein each U.S. family is given a one acre-plot, a concept that helped give birth to modern suburbia.

Taking these ideas one step further, he invented prefab housing, which he named “Usonian” homes—from USONA or the United States of North America. These low-cost one-story houses for families of humble means featured innovations like carports, radiant heating using hot-water pipes under concrete-slab floors, and prefabricated walls made of boards and tar paper. His first functional Usonian home was named Jacobs I.

In 1936, Wright erected one of his most famous houses, Fallingwater, which stretches over a waterfall in rural Pennsylvania. The home, built with cantilevered balconies, doesn’t even appear to touch the ground. His other important later buildings include the SC Johnson Wax Administration Building and the Wingspread house in Racine, Wisconsin; the circular Guggenheim Museum in New York City, whose interior was inspired by the spiral of a conch shell; the Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma; and the Marin County Civic Center in California.

Eventually, Wright created two other homes for himself. Taliesin West was his winter residence, built on a sprawling several-hundred-acre property in the foothills of the McDowell Mountains in Scottsdale, Arizona. Then, in 1955, he rented an apartment at the Plaza Hotel in New York City, which he dubbed “Taliesin East” and redecorated it with black and red lacquered furniture and thick peach carpeting.

Many people have speculated that Wright, with his iconoclast reputation and adamant rejection of traditionalist architecture, inspired the architect character Howard Roark in Ayn Rand’s book “The Fountainhead.” But in a letter to a fan, Rand herself denied that Roark’s personality and life had any connection to Wright, insisting that the only thing the two have in common is their disdain for cluttered old-world design.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Modernism

Modernism

This archived overview produced by the Minneapolis Institute of Arts offers thumbnail sketches of the design moveme… [read review or visit site]

Chicago Silver

Chicago Silver

Paul Somerson's incredible reference on handwrought metalwork from the American Arts and Crafts movement of the ear… [read review or visit site]

1910 Metal

1910 Metal

A detailed tribute to the lesser-known artistic metalwork craftsmen of the Arts and Crafts movement. In addition t… [read review or visit site]



Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Rare Art Deco Johnson's Wax Research Tower Table Lighter Frank Lloyd Wright VgcMotawi Art Tile Frank Lloyd Wright Avery Coonley Rug 4" X 8" Z Scale Scratch Built Model - Fallingwater - Frank Lloyd WrightFrank Lloyd Wright Style/ Mission Style Electric Light - Frank Lloyd Wright Taliesin Floor LampFrank Lloyd Wright 10" Omaggio Glass VaseFrank Lloyd Wright Collection Biltmore By Acme Rollerball Pen CompleteJohnson Wax Collector Watch "it's A Good Life" Frank Lloyd Wright Racine WiFrank Lloyd Wright Lake Geneva Inn, Lake Geneva Tulip Window Needlepoint ChartFrank Lloyd Wright Dvd Pbs Ken Burns Lynn Novick DocumentaryLarge Frank Lloyd Wright Glass Pitcher Miller Rogaska 2000Moma Museum Of Modern Art Ny Frank Lloyd Wright Silk Scarf 11" X 48" Bulova Womens 96l63 Frank Lloyd Wright Willits Leather Strap WatchEstate - Tiffany & Co Polished Crystal Bud Vase Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Glassmasters Stained Glass Suncatcher -"city By The Sea" Frank Lloyd Wright 1280 Frank Lloyd Wright Mnh Sheet Cv $12.50Frank Lloyd Wright 30 Architectural Drawings Postcard BookFrank Lloyd Wright The Dana-thomas House Sumac Window Counted Cross Stitch ChartReproduction Frank Lloyd Wright Quarter Sawn Oak Cantileiver Sofa Frank Lloyd Wright Collection Guggenheim By Krups Small Cups And Saucers Set 4Frank Lloyd Wright Glass Tile1998 Frank Lloyd Wright Museum Of Art Dessert Plates Arcs Geometric 4Frank Lloyd Wright Texture Blocks Art Deco Blue Green Bright Mens Silk Neck TieFrank Lloyd Wright Meyer May Amberg House Rare MugFrank Lloyd Wright Guggenheim Design Coffee Mug & Biscotti Jar Set Henriksen '02Very Nice Vintage Frank Lloyd Wright Collection Pottery VaseFrank Lloyd Wright Art Stencil Diy Paint Architect Coonley House CraftFrank Lloyd Wright's House On Kentuck Knob By Donald Hoffmann (2000, Hardcover)1975 Frank Lloyd Wright Bronze Proof Medal Franklin MintFrank Lloyd Wright Wright Rare Cedar Rock Walter House MugFrank Lloyd Wright: A Testament 1957 Architecture Book HardcoverFrank Lloyd Wright Christmas Cards Coonley WindowsRare Frank Lloyd Wright Monona Terrace See Thru GlassFrank Lloyd Wright's Chicago - O'gorman - 2004 Coffee Table BookFrank Lloyd Wright - A Visual Encyclopedia - Book By Thompson - Architecture

Recent News: Frank Lloyd Wright

Source: Google News

Frank Lloyd Wright Came to Miami in 1955 And He Hated It
Curbed Hamptons, October 22nd

Paying his first visit to Miami in some 20 years, Architectitan Frank Lloyd Wright, 86, duly paid the city's palm-fringed structures his typical disrespects. In a word, after a look at a flossy row of hotels and cottages: "Horrible." Critic Wright...Read more

Frank Lloyd Wright's Chicago Landmarks
Huffington Post, October 20th

Frank Lloyd Wright traveled to Chicago in search of employment in 1887, a time when the midwestern capital had emerged from the devastating fire of 1871 as a once-again bustling metropolis. Wright would go on to become the impossibly prolific leader of ...Read more

High-End Homes: Frank Lloyd Wright protege-designed house in Fall Parade of ...
MLive.com, October 18th

EAST GRAND RAPIDS, MI – Betsy McIntyre says she and her husband, John, are thrilled to be only the fifth owners of a 101-year-old home -- designed by a protégé of Frank Lloyd Wright and decorated with a mural by Grand Rapids artist Mathias Alten in the ...Read more

No One Wants Frank Lloyd Wright's Isidore H. Heller House
Curbed Chicago, October 16th

In exactly a week from today, Frank Lloyd Wright's Isidore H. Heller House in Hyde Park will have been on the market for a whopping 1,000 days. That's nearly three years that this early Prairie home has been actively seeking a new owner. It's not...Read more

SC Johnson Regains Frank Lloyd Wright Desk, Chair
ABC News, October 14th

A desk and chair designed by Frank Lloyd Wright has been returned to home products giant SC Johnson as part of a settlement with a California man who had planned to auction the distinctive and valuable furniture, a company spokesman said Tuesday...Read more

Owner of Phoenix Frank Lloyd Wright house buys another Wright house next door
azcentral.com, October 10th

A Las Vegas attorney has paid $3 million for a modern-looking house next to the Frank Lloyd Wright house he bought a few years ago in Phoenix's Arcadia neighborhood. Zach Rawling bought the house, currently under construction, earlier this week through ...Read more

Couple restores overgrown midcentury house with ties to Frank Lloyd Wright
Columbus Dispatch, October 5th

“This is probably the most important modern house in Columbus,” said David Vottero, an architect with Schooley Caldwell Associates who has been involved in several architectural restorations, including Frank Lloyd Wright's Westcott House in Springfield...Read more

Glencoe celebrates 100 years of Frank Lloyd Wright
Glencoe News, September 29th

The next 12 months will be a time of reflection and examination of famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright and his influence on Glencoe. To build on that, local historians are seeking ways to create a permanent tribute to Wright. To initiate a year long...Read more