The precursor to the modern-day bicycle was the 1817 Draisine, named for its German inventor, Karl von Drais. This two-wheeled machine lacked pedals, so cyclists straddled the bike and pushed it along with their feet. Despite their primitive design, these "swift-walkers," as they were sometimes called, were quite popular in 19th-century Europe and the United States, but as novelties rather than a serious means of transportation.
Around 1863, the wood-and-iron velocipede or "boneshaker" appeared in England and France. This was the first true bicycle, with pedals attached to the front wheel so that riders could propel themselves up hills. Some models had a rear "spoon" brake; most had a bell to keep horses from being spooked.
Because gears for bicycles had not yet been invented, the only way for engineers to increase the speed of a bike was to enlarge its front wheel. This led to the development of high-wheel bicycles in the latter part of the 19th century.
High-wheel bikes (also called penny-farthings) were eye-catching and not as difficult to get onto as they looked, but they were next to impossible to stop once they got going, which often resulted in crashes that would send the rider flying head first over the handlebars. Smart riders learned to ride downhill with their legs draped over the handlebars to mitigate the impact of sudden stops.
Manufacturers tried to solve the "header" problem with models like the Star and the Eagle, which placed the bike’s small wheel in front of the large one to give the rider a slightly better center of gravity. Tricycles with a small wheel in the front, two large wheels in the back, and a seat between them were another solution, favored by women in elaborate Victorian dress as well as professional men, for whom high-wheelers were not an especially dignified mode of transportation.
By the end of the 19th century, the high-wheelers were replaced by so-called "safety" bikes, which resemble the bikes we ride today. The key was a chain to drive the rear wheel.
In addition to steel, wood such as hickory and bamboo was used to construct the frames. Elliott Hickory Cycle Co. of Boston went so far as to tout the wood used in its bikes as "...
Some of these turn-of-the-century bike builders would go on to become prominent manufacturers of automobiles. George Pierce was making bicycles more than a dozen years before his company produced its first Pierce Arrow in 1903. The Pierce bicycle’s "monoshock" suspension was a far cry from the boneshaker bicycles of a half-century before. Similarly, Lozier cut its teeth on its line of Cleveland bicycles before becoming a renowned builder of luxury cars in 1900.
For collectors of antique racing bikes, the bicycles produced at the beginning of the 20th century are of particular interest. Track bikes by companies like Peugeot were designed to be stiff and responsive, with deep-drop handlebars to reduce the rider’s wind resistance. Chainless drives were also tried but quickly discarded. And by the 1930s, John "Pop" Brennan was producing frames that are considered prototypes of the contemporary handmade bicycle-frame industry.
The arrival of the derailleur in 1908 changed everything. Americans were slow to accept the device, and the English thought three gears were quite enough, but the French embraced the device. Consequently, a culture of cycling evolved in France, while bikes in the United States largely fell out of favor.
The vintage balloon-tire cruisers from the 1930s to 1950 brought the bicycle back into fashion in the U.S. In 1941, Colson made the Cruiser and Super Cruiser models for Firestone and the Clipper for Goodyear. Many vintage bikes from this era had fake gas tanks to imitate the ones on motorcycles, and built-in headlights and taillights. Some were gloriously painted two-tone jobs; others showed off their aluminum and chrome.
Murray was another company that had its own line as well producing bikes for third parties. In Murray’s case, it supplied bikes to Sears. Its house brand was the Mercury. Among other collectible brands from the pre-war era are Shelby, which made the gorgeous Speedline Airflow, whose sweeping and curving lines suggested movement even when the bike was standing still.
But it was the Schwinn that really changed the American perception of the bicycle, in particular with the 1933 Aerocycle with its awesome Buck Rogers design. The Auto Cycle followed, as did the heavily fendered and chromed Phantom and Jaguar.
By the middle of the 20th century, Schwinn was, as Schwinn collector Jim Snell puts it, "where bicycles came from for Christmas." In the 1960s and 1970s, if you were the luckiest kid on the block, that meant you spent Christmas morning riding your high-handlebar, banana-boat seat Stingray, Apple Krate, or Grey Ghost, some of which had a black-handle "Stik Shift" attached to the frame. Also collectible are the three-speed Schwinn Paramounts and Travelers from the 1950s and 1960s, and the classic 10-speed Varsity models from the 1960s and 1970s.
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IN BUSINESS: Voz's Cycles donates 26 new bikes; Artpark director stepping downNiagara Gazette, December 22nd
Terry and Carol Vosburgh, owners of Voz Cycle City in Wheatfield, shown at center and right, pose with Jesse Gooch of Painters Plus and his son, Tyler, 4, in front of the line of bicycles they have helped to purchase for children of WNY Heroes, an...Read more
Vintage bicycle ride coming to Paso RoblesPaso Robles Daily News, December 17th
L'Eroica founder, Giancarlo Brocci, stops for a photo while bicycling Paso Robles. It wasn't until after he bicycled the area that he selected Paso Robles as the location for the L'Eroica Vintage Bicycle Event that will benefit Hospice of San Luis Obispo...Read more
Vogue Turns Models Into Barbie Dolls For The Coolest Shoot EverTheGloss, December 17th
Valentino is a bourgeois bohemian with a pet bunny and a vintage bicycle. She is basically what I want to look like every day. Miu Miu has pompoms and bigger pigtails than Zooey Deschanel. Moschino's whole collection was already a hyper-literal take on ...Read more
Bike brouhaha: Nonprofit can no longer accept used bike donationsRapid City Journal, December 17th
“I have a dozen antique bicycles hanging from my ceiling right now, but the Stingray always gets the most attention, banana seat, sissy bar and all.” Bishop says those youthful years taught him how something as simple as a bike could change a child's...Read more
Christmas home tour raises funds for libraryCalaveras Enterprise, December 16th
“There was a house that had a bicycle collection,” Hoekstra said. Not only were bicycle parts used as ornaments, but the home also featured historical information on some of the bicycles, she said. Another home featured a decorated caboose, Hoekstra said...Read more
Government meetings around SLO County for the week of Dec. 15The San Luis Obispo Tribune, December 14th
Grover Beach City Council. Meets today. 473-4567. Ordinance prohibiting excessive panhandling; discuss implementation of the voter-approved bond measure to fund street rehabilitation; agreement with retiring police Chief Jim Copsey to serve as interim ...Read more
Beloit College professor finds Italian gems via his trusty bicycleBeloit Daily News, December 13th
Several years ago the region started the “L'Eroica” challenge, which allows cyclists to ride the scenic White Roads using vintage bicycles and clothing. Lewis didn't run into too many tourists because of the season, but he was able to bike some of the...Read more
The Seasoned Collector: Vintage bicycles in Los Altos; Tracy antiques, wine showSan Jose Mercury News, June 11th
Whether they're vintage or high-tech, bicycles are hot. It's the reason bike fanciers are racing to the finish line to take in "Pedal Power: From Wacky to Workhorse" -- the latest exhibit at the Los Altos History Museum. Bicycling has a long history in...Read more