Birds of a feather flock together. In this case, the cliché rings true, and Native Americans knew it. When the colonists first arrived in North America, they found that the natives were using mud, bulrushes, fowl carcasses, and other materials to create imitations of ducks and other fowl. These imitations attracted live birds, which the hunters would then kill or capture.
Native Americans had been successfully employing this practice for more than 1,000 years, so the colonists began to build on their techniques. Hunting had been rare among commoners in the Old World since most fields and pastures with game belonged to aristocrats, especially in England. Despite the novelty of hunting in the New World for the colonists, the word they eventually used to name their new lifelike lures—“decoys”—came from a Dutch word referring to the cages Old World hunters built to attract and tame wild birds.
By the mid-19th century, most decoys in the New World were made out of wood rather than mud, and commercial and sport hunters alike used them to help lure their prey. Although the style and construction of decoys varied by region and carver, the most common woods used were white pine and white cedar, which were both durable and buoyant.
A carver would craft the general shape of the decoy’s body using a hatchet and then fine-tune it with a long drawknife. He or she—a few carvers enlisted the help of their wives—would create the head separately from a smaller block of wood using an axe, rather than a hatchet; then, the carver would whittle the head down with a jackknife and attach it to the body using nails or long spikes.
Finally, the finished decoy would be sanded, primed, and painted in natural colors to lure fowl effectively. By the time of the Civil War, this technique had matured almost to an art form.
Commercial hunters often owned hundreds of decoys, which they would set out in large numbers to attract as many birds as possible. As sport hunting became more prominent among the wealthy, some carvers began making fewer decoys but of higher quality for this new clientele. Sport hunters wanted decoys that were beautiful, not just useful. Eventually, some carvers began making decoys for purely decorative reasons.
Decoys varied in style from region to region, as the environment and species of a given area dictated their design. Decoys in Maine, for example, were often tougher and more rugg...
Even within regions, decoys could take any one of a number of designs. Some were built to float, and these were generally intended to attract large fowl like ducks and geese. Within this group, some were hollowed out so they would be more buoyant, while others were solid.
Another group of decoys included the stationary “stickups,” which stood on legs in the ground. Still others were two-dimensional profiles that were also designed as stickups. Some of these stickups were nearly four feet tall; floating decoys could be just as long.
Although the carvers who made these decoys were considered craftsmen at the time, decoys have become collectible examples of folk art. The reasons for this change in perception range from the quality of the decoys to events that helped make them scarce.
By 1920, for example, Congress had passed the North American Wildlife Act and North American Migratory Bird Act, which limited hunting and banned commercial hunting of most species altogether. Overnight, the demand for decoys all but disappeared—commercial hunters had been by far the biggest decoy customers.
Decoys became even scarcer in the 1950s and 1960s when mass-produced plastic decoys became available. Because the plastic decoys were cheaper and lighter than wooden decoys (an important consideration when carrying many in a small boat), many hunters discarded or even burned their wooden decoys, which at the time seemed worthless. In recent decades, however, many of these vintage decoys have emerged as collectors’ items.
The value of a decoy depends on a variety of factors, including its condition (both of the paint and of the wood itself), its rarity, and the reputation of the carver. Decoys of some species—like wood ducks and teal—are rarer than others, as are decoys carved in unusual poses like sleeping, swimming, or feeding. Those never actually used for hunting, of course, tend to be in better condition and, thus, more valuable.
The list of carvers is literally endless, but some names stand out above the rest. Perhaps the most famous practitioner was Elmer Crowell (1862-1951), a masterful carver and painter who lived in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. His decoys generally have carved wings and glass eyes, and he often used a rasp to imitate feathers on the back of his decoys’ heads and on their breasts. In 2000, a preening Canada goose that he carved sold at an auction for $684,500, the current world record for a decoy.
Other notable carvers include Lathrop T. Holmes, who used a limited but expressive palette of colors. “Gus” Wilson’s attention to detail was almost unrivaled, while many of the approximately 10,000 decoys in 50 years made by the Ward Brothers of Maryland were purely decorative. Charles Perdew and his wife, Edna, were a team—he carved and she painted. And Ken Anger perfected the technique of using a rasp to make his decoys look soft and realistic.
In addition to hand-carved decoys, some of the high-quality decoys produced in late-19th-century factories are also highly collectible. The main factories included Mason, Victor, Dodge, Stevens, Peterson, Evans, and Reynolds. Most of these factories used either a duplicating lathe, an assembly line, or both.
Although many of the more successful companies’ decoys were quite similar to one another, some particularly innovative examples are valuable today. One, for example, flapped its wings—a terrible failure for a hunter, but a great find for a collector. Another prize is a factory-made rubber decoy from 1867.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
National Carousel Association
American Folk Art Museum
The Outsider Art Pages
Folk Art in Bottles
Index of American Design
Clubs & Associations
- Midwest Decoy Collectors Association
- Great Lakes Decoy Association
- The Wheelmen
- Folk Art Society of America
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Duck Decoys
Source: Google News
Campaign Diary: Wednesday, Sept 17Stuff.co.nz, September 16th
On a visit to his old school Burnside High in Christchurch yesterday, Prime Minister John Key ran into his economics teacher. Key promised to give him his prime ministerial warrant to look after should he win the election on Saturday. By that time, he...Read more
Elmer Crowell barn becoming a museumCapecodonline, September 14th
He added another section to the barn, presumably a workshop, before he went on to become a full-time duck decoy carver. Crowell became one of the most famous decoy carvers in the world, with some of his work selling for more than $1 million at auction...Read more
Winter sports no longer just a 'guy thing'The Oakland Press, September 13th
Fish-decoy carving, duck-decoy carving, fly-tying and small-boat building are among the daily demonstrations. Visitors can bring their retrievers to participate in the Huron River dock dog-jumping contest and learn dog-handling tips from trainers or...Read more
Timberlake Gallery to showcase new outdoor prints at Sportsman's Open HouseNorth Carolina Sportsman, September 5th
The Sportsman's Open House will last until 5 p.m. next Saturday and will feature work by a number of renowned turkey call, duck call and duck decoy makers and other woodworkers and artisans. The three prints in the “Sportsman's Series” release will be ...Read more
Salem County Fair Results 2014: Open Class Produce, Home Economics ...Today's Sunbeam - NJ.com, August 31st
Allison Hillman, Mullica Hill, Hollow Cedar Duck Decoy. Non-Professional: Angelina D'Ortona, Williamstown, Lady GaGa in graphite pencil. Professional: Annette Devitt, Pedricktown NJ, Low Tide on Oldmans Creek. General Crafts. Silver Stars: John Maden, ...Read more
The lure of decoysBismarck Tribune, August 28th
MIKE McCLEARY/Tribune Dr. Tom Hutchens and his wife, Katie, hold a pair of duck decoys he carved several years ago to use for hunting before adding them to his extensive decoy collection. People can view a part of his decoy collection at the entrance...Read more
DIY homemade duck decoys can do the trickFarm and Dairy, August 27th
Duck hunters looking for a way to add a little spice to their sport may want to try crafting a decoy or two to their gear bag. I know, the catalogs are full of life-like decoys, some so perfectly shaped and finely colored that they appear to ready to...Read more
Decoys get their due as folk art specimensBurlingtonFreePress.com, August 23rd
At the Hale Duck Decoy, a historic site that has been preserved in Cheshire, England, dogs were used to scare ducks into the "pipes," hooped nets overarching the appendages of the pond. In North America, by contrast, the prevalent waterfowl decoy was...Read more