Birds of a feather flock together. In this case, the cliché rings true, and Native Americans knew it. When the colonists first arrived in North America, they found that the natives were using mud, bulrushes, fowl carcasses, and other materials to create imitations of ducks and other fowl. These imitations attracted live birds, which the hunters would then kill or capture.
Native Americans had been successfully employing this practice for more than 1,000 years, so the colonists began to build on their techniques. Hunting had been rare among commoners in the Old World since most fields and pastures with game belonged to aristocrats, especially in England. Despite the novelty of hunting in the New World for the colonists, the word they eventually used to name their new lifelike lures—“decoys”—came from a Dutch word referring to the cages Old World hunters built to attract and tame wild birds.
By the mid-19th century, most decoys in the New World were made out of wood rather than mud, and commercial and sport hunters alike used them to help lure their prey. Although the style and construction of decoys varied by region and carver, the most common woods used were white pine and white cedar, which were both durable and buoyant.
A carver would craft the general shape of the decoy’s body using a hatchet and then fine-tune it with a long drawknife. He or she—a few carvers enlisted the help of their wives—would create the head separately from a smaller block of wood using an axe, rather than a hatchet; then, the carver would whittle the head down with a jackknife and attach it to the body using nails or long spikes.
Finally, the finished decoy would be sanded, primed, and painted in natural colors to lure fowl effectively. By the time of the Civil War, this technique had matured almost to an art form.
Commercial hunters often owned hundreds of decoys, which they would set out in large numbers to attract as many birds as possible. As sport hunting became more prominent among the wealthy, some carvers began making fewer decoys but of higher quality for this new clientele. Sport hunters wanted decoys that were beautiful, not just useful. Eventually, some carvers began making decoys for purely decorative reasons.
Decoys varied in style from region to region, as the environment and species of a given area dictated their design. Decoys in Maine, for example, were often tougher and more rugg...
Even within regions, decoys could take any one of a number of designs. Some were built to float, and these were generally intended to attract large fowl like ducks and geese. Within this group, some were hollowed out so they would be more buoyant, while others were solid.
Another group of decoys included the stationary “stickups,” which stood on legs in the ground. Still others were two-dimensional profiles that were also designed as stickups. Some of these stickups were nearly four feet tall; floating decoys could be just as long.
Although the carvers who made these decoys were considered craftsmen at the time, decoys have become collectible examples of folk art. The reasons for this change in perception range from the quality of the decoys to events that helped make them scarce.
By 1920, for example, Congress had passed the North American Wildlife Act and North American Migratory Bird Act, which limited hunting and banned commercial hunting of most species altogether. Overnight, the demand for decoys all but disappeared—commercial hunters had been by far the biggest decoy customers.
Decoys became even scarcer in the 1950s and 1960s when mass-produced plastic decoys became available. Because the plastic decoys were cheaper and lighter than wooden decoys (an important consideration when carrying many in a small boat), many hunters discarded or even burned their wooden decoys, which at the time seemed worthless. In recent decades, however, many of these vintage decoys have emerged as collectors’ items.
The value of a decoy depends on a variety of factors, including its condition (both of the paint and of the wood itself), its rarity, and the reputation of the carver. Decoys of some species—like wood ducks and teal—are rarer than others, as are decoys carved in unusual poses like sleeping, swimming, or feeding. Those never actually used for hunting, of course, tend to be in better condition and, thus, more valuable.
The list of carvers is literally endless, but some names stand out above the rest. Perhaps the most famous practitioner was Elmer Crowell (1862-1951), a masterful carver and painter who lived in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. His decoys generally have carved wings and glass eyes, and he often used a rasp to imitate feathers on the back of his decoys’ heads and on their breasts. In 2000, a preening Canada goose that he carved sold at an auction for $684,500, the current world record for a decoy.
Other notable carvers include Lathrop T. Holmes, who used a limited but expressive palette of colors. “Gus” Wilson’s attention to detail was almost unrivaled, while many of the approximately 10,000 decoys in 50 years made by the Ward Brothers of Maryland were purely decorative. Charles Perdew and his wife, Edna, were a team—he carved and she painted. And Ken Anger perfected the technique of using a rasp to make his decoys look soft and realistic.
In addition to hand-carved decoys, some of the high-quality decoys produced in late-19th-century factories are also highly collectible. The main factories included Mason, Victor, Dodge, Stevens, Peterson, Evans, and Reynolds. Most of these factories used either a duplicating lathe, an assembly line, or both.
Although many of the more successful companies’ decoys were quite similar to one another, some particularly innovative examples are valuable today. One, for example, flapped its wings—a terrible failure for a hunter, but a great find for a collector. Another prize is a factory-made rubber decoy from 1867.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
National Carousel Association
American Folk Art Museum
The Outsider Art Pages
Folk Art in Bottles
Index of American Design
Clubs & Associations
- Midwest Decoy Collectors Association
- Great Lakes Decoy Association
- The Wheelmen
- Folk Art Society of America
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Duck Decoys
Source: Google News
Out and About: Decoy and Sporting Collectible ShowAlexandria Echo Press, March 24th
A shorebird and a duck decoy carved by Granite Falls' Curt Soine were on display at the Rudy Zwieg Decoy and Sporting Collectibles Show on Saturday. Out and About: Decoy and Sporting Collectible Show. Posted Today at 12:00 a.m.. Email · News Alerts...Read more
The Blowing Rock Art and History Museum Announces “Floating Sculpture ...High Country Press, March 23rd
The Blowing Rock Art and History Museum (BRAHM) is excited to be displaying a prestigious collection of wooden duck decoys on loan from the Cameron Art Museum in Wilmington, NC. The exhibit, Floating Sculpture: Bruce Barclay Cameron Duck Decoy ...Read more
7th Annual Cape Fear Wildlife ExpoWWAY NewsChannel 3, March 21st
The Cape Fear Wildlife Expo is a family event that features wildlife art, decoy displays, hunting and fishing products, hand-crafted duck decoy and turkey calls, jewelry, and much more. The Cape Fear Raptor Center had birds of all kinds on display...Read more
Raleigh duck decoy carver enjoys chance to copy nature's workNews & Observer, March 18th
Marc Gottlieb of Raleigh crafts duck decoys so detailed they look like they might fly or paddle away. Yet, despite a collection of awards from shows such as the East Carolina Wildlife Arts Festival and N.C. Decoy Carving Championships in Washington, ...Read more
Aquinnah Town Column: March 20The Vineyard Gazette - Martha's Vineyard News, March 18th
Join Chris Murphy and learn the process of carving a duck decoy. Reservations are required by calling 508-627-4441 extension 110 or email email@example.com. The cost is $20 per person. See you at the Martha's Vineyard Film Festival this weekend at ...Read more
Vintage decoy collectors to join with antique and sporting art dealers at ...Westlake | Bay Village Observer, March 17th
Vintage duck decoy dealers from across the country will gather to buy, sell and display items from their collections on Friday and Saturday, March 20 and 21, at the Hilton DoubleTree, formerly the Westlake Holiday Inn, 1100 Crocker Road, as part of the ...Read more
Murder-suicide leaves woman dead in duck hunting decoy bagFOX 9 News, March 12th
A woman was found dead inside of a plastic waterfowl decoy bag in an apparent murder-suicide in Norwood Young America, Minnesota. According to the Carver County sheriff's office, a roommate came back to the house at 920 Preserve Blvd at about 5 p.m. ...Read more
Self-taught carver draws from decades of spearfishingSt. Cloud Times, March 2nd
What: Antique Sporting Collectibles & Fish Decoy Show, a National Fish Decoy Association event co-sponsored by the Minnesota Fishing Museum, with 20 fish decoy carvers. New this year: duck decoy carvers, including Phil Nelson and Dennis Finden of ...Read more