Birds of a feather flock together. In this case, the cliché rings true, and Native Americans knew it. When the colonists first arrived in North America, they found that the natives were using mud, bulrushes, fowl carcasses, and other materials to create imitations of ducks and other fowl. These imitations attracted live birds, which the hunters would then kill or capture.

Native Americans had been successfully employing this practice for more than 1,000 years, so the colonists began to build on their techniques. Hunting had been rare among commoners in the Old World since most fields and pastures with game belonged to aristocrats, especially in England. Despite the novelty of hunting in the New World for the colonists, the word they eventually used to name their new lifelike lures—“decoys”—came from a Dutch word referring to the cages Old World hunters built to attract and tame wild birds.

By the mid-19th century, most decoys in the New World were made out of wood rather than mud, and commercial and sport hunters alike used them to help lure their prey. Although the style and construction of decoys varied by region and carver, the most common woods used were white pine and white cedar, which were both durable and buoyant.

A carver would craft the general shape of the decoy’s body using a hatchet and then fine-tune it with a long drawknife. He or she—a few carvers enlisted the help of their wives—would create the head separately from a smaller block of wood using an axe, rather than a hatchet; then, the carver would whittle the head down with a jackknife and attach it to the body using nails or long spikes.

Finally, the finished decoy would be sanded, primed, and painted in natural colors to lure fowl effectively. By the time of the Civil War, this technique had matured almost to an art form.

Commercial hunters often owned hundreds of decoys, which they would set out in large numbers to attract as many birds as possible. As sport hunting became more prominent among the wealthy, some carvers began making fewer decoys but of higher quality for this new clientele. Sport hunters wanted decoys that were beautiful, not just useful. Eventually, some carvers began making decoys for purely decorative reasons.

Decoys varied in style from region to region, as the environment and species of a given area dictated their design. Decoys in Maine, for example, were often tougher and more rugg...

Even within regions, decoys could take any one of a number of designs. Some were built to float, and these were generally intended to attract large fowl like ducks and geese. Within this group, some were hollowed out so they would be more buoyant, while others were solid.

Another group of decoys included the stationary “stickups,” which stood on legs in the ground. Still others were two-dimensional profiles that were also designed as stickups. Some of these stickups were nearly four feet tall; floating decoys could be just as long.

Although the carvers who made these decoys were considered craftsmen at the time, decoys have become collectible examples of folk art. The reasons for this change in perception range from the quality of the decoys to events that helped make them scarce.

By 1920, for example, Congress had passed the North American Wildlife Act and North American Migratory Bird Act, which limited hunting and banned commercial hunting of most species altogether. Overnight, the demand for decoys all but disappeared—commercial hunters had been by far the biggest decoy customers.

Decoys became even scarcer in the 1950s and 1960s when mass-produced plastic decoys became available. Because the plastic decoys were cheaper and lighter than wooden decoys (an important consideration when carrying many in a small boat), many hunters discarded or even burned their wooden decoys, which at the time seemed worthless. In recent decades, however, many of these vintage decoys have emerged as collectors’ items.

The value of a decoy depends on a variety of factors, including its condition (both of the paint and of the wood itself), its rarity, and the reputation of the carver. Decoys of some species—like wood ducks and teal—are rarer than others, as are decoys carved in unusual poses like sleeping, swimming, or feeding. Those never actually used for hunting, of course, tend to be in better condition and, thus, more valuable.

The list of carvers is literally endless, but some names stand out above the rest. Perhaps the most famous practitioner was Elmer Crowell (1862-1951), a masterful carver and painter who lived in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. His decoys generally have carved wings and glass eyes, and he often used a rasp to imitate feathers on the back of his decoys’ heads and on their breasts. In 2000, a preening Canada goose that he carved sold at an auction for $684,500, the current world record for a decoy.

Other notable carvers include Lathrop T. Holmes, who used a limited but expressive palette of colors. “Gus” Wilson’s attention to detail was almost unrivaled, while many of the approximately 10,000 decoys in 50 years made by the Ward Brothers of Maryland were purely decorative. Charles Perdew and his wife, Edna, were a team—he carved and she painted. And Ken Anger perfected the technique of using a rasp to make his decoys look soft and realistic.

In addition to hand-carved decoys, some of the high-quality decoys produced in late-19th-century factories are also highly collectible. The main factories included Mason, Victor, Dodge, Stevens, Peterson, Evans, and Reynolds. Most of these factories used either a duplicating lathe, an assembly line, or both.

Although many of the more successful companies’ decoys were quite similar to one another, some particularly innovative examples are valuable today. One, for example, flapped its wings—a terrible failure for a hunter, but a great find for a collector. Another prize is a factory-made rubber decoy from 1867.

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Recent News: Duck Decoys

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This Is the Fire Breathing Duck Decoy You Didn't Know You Needed
Popular Mechanics, February 3rd

YouTuber David Windestål likes to take on some radio controlled projects, but this goose / duck decoy is a head above the rest. Using a modified toy boat, an aerosol can, and a hunting decoy, Windestål makes The Duck From Hell. The instructions can be ...Read more

Inherited a collection? When to save it ... and when to sell
LancasterOnline, February 3rd

In this week's example, an inherited collection of valuable decoys reminds a widow of her significant loss -- what steps should she take to honor both the collection and her own needs? prev. next. Love is one of the most common reasons why we collect...Read more

MDC Cape Nature Center hosts Duck Decoy Carving program
Daily Journal Online, February 2nd

The Missouri Department of Conservation's (MDC) Cape Girardeau Conservation Nature Center will host a Duck Decoy Carving program Feb. 26 at 6 p.m. through Feb. 27 at 2 p.m. MDC Education Consultant Bridget Jackson said participants will make ...Read more

Fishing The Overton Arm (January 27, 2016)
mvprogress, January 27th

Seeing the duck decoy stored on the top of my outdoor fridge, reminds me of Verl and Deloy using a duck decoy years ago to mark where they caught a fish and dozens thereafter by circling around the duck. I found a number of articles about the use of ...Read more

Frank's 'Duck Creek Dynasty' to play So. Door Auditorium
Green Bay Press Gazette, January 26th

What better place to build a duck decoy empire than Duck Creek? Phil Robinson has invented a decoy that resembles Daffy Duck and is sweeping the nation. His son Willie has taken the product and built an empire with Duck Creek Commander decoys...Read more

Volunteer to help out at historic Duck Decoy
Buckingham Advertiser, January 24th

Once a common sight on rural estates, the Duck Decoy was an 16th century invention for catching waterfowl. Set in beautiful woodland, this is one of only a handful still open. To find out more, meet some of team between 10am and 3pm on Saturday...Read more

Late-stage ducks demand thoughtful decoy rigs
Sherman Denison Herald Democrat, January 14th

To do so, you can use a low-cost decoy jerk rig; a couple of Quiver Magnets that float and wobble in the decoy spread; or something even more high-tech like the Higdon Pulsator II duck decoy that bobs up and down and spits out a stream of water every...Read more

Duck Decoy Carving Should Be Your Next Eccentric Hobby
Popular Mechanics, December 17th

Duck decoy collecting has become serious business, with a Christie's auction sale of one decoy fetching a record $856,000 in 2007. That same year, the highest value for a duck decoy sold reached $1.13 million apiece in a private sale of an A. Elmer...Read more