Birds of a feather flock together. In this case, the cliché rings true, and Native Americans knew it. When the colonists first arrived in North America, they found that the natives were using mud, bulrushes, fowl carcasses, and other materials to create imitations of ducks and other fowl. These imitations attracted live birds, which the hunters would then kill or capture.
Native Americans had been successfully employing this practice for more than 1,000 years, so the colonists began to build on their techniques. Hunting had been rare among commoners in the Old World since most fields and pastures with game belonged to aristocrats, especially in England. Despite the novelty of hunting in the New World for the colonists, the word they eventually used to name their new lifelike lures—“decoys”—came from a Dutch word referring to the cages Old World hunters built to attract and tame wild birds.
By the mid-19th century, most decoys in the New World were made out of wood rather than mud, and commercial and sport hunters alike used them to help lure their prey. Although the style and construction of decoys varied by region and carver, the most common woods used were white pine and white cedar, which were both durable and buoyant.
A carver would craft the general shape of the decoy’s body using a hatchet and then fine-tune it with a long drawknife. He or she—a few carvers enlisted the help of their wives—would create the head separately from a smaller block of wood using an axe, rather than a hatchet; then, the carver would whittle the head down with a jackknife and attach it to the body using nails or long spikes.
Finally, the finished decoy would be sanded, primed, and painted in natural colors to lure fowl effectively. By the time of the Civil War, this technique had matured almost to an art form.
Commercial hunters often owned hundreds of decoys, which they would set out in large numbers to attract as many birds as possible. As sport hunting became more prominent among the wealthy, some carvers began making fewer decoys but of higher quality for this new clientele. Sport hunters wanted decoys that were beautiful, not just useful. Eventually, some carvers began making decoys for purely decorative reasons.
Decoys varied in style from region to region, as the environment and species of a given area dictated their design. Decoys in Maine, for example, were often tougher and more rugg...
Even within regions, decoys could take any one of a number of designs. Some were built to float, and these were generally intended to attract large fowl like ducks and geese. Within this group, some were hollowed out so they would be more buoyant, while others were solid.
Another group of decoys included the stationary “stickups,” which stood on legs in the ground. Still others were two-dimensional profiles that were also designed as stickups. Some of these stickups were nearly four feet tall; floating decoys could be just as long.
Although the carvers who made these decoys were considered craftsmen at the time, decoys have become collectible examples of folk art. The reasons for this change in perception range from the quality of the decoys to events that helped make them scarce.
By 1920, for example, Congress had passed the North American Wildlife Act and North American Migratory Bird Act, which limited hunting and banned commercial hunting of most species altogether. Overnight, the demand for decoys all but disappeared—commercial hunters had been by far the biggest decoy customers.
Decoys became even scarcer in the 1950s and 1960s when mass-produced plastic decoys became available. Because the plastic decoys were cheaper and lighter than wooden decoys (an important consideration when carrying many in a small boat), many hunters discarded or even burned their wooden decoys, which at the time seemed worthless. In recent decades, however, many of these vintage decoys have emerged as collectors’ items.
The value of a decoy depends on a variety of factors, including its condition (both of the paint and of the wood itself), its rarity, and the reputation of the carver. Decoys of some species—like wood ducks and teal—are rarer than others, as are decoys carved in unusual poses like sleeping, swimming, or feeding. Those never actually used for hunting, of course, tend to be in better condition and, thus, more valuable.
The list of carvers is literally endless, but some names stand out above the rest. Perhaps the most famous practitioner was Elmer Crowell (1862-1951), a masterful carver and painter who lived in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. His decoys generally have carved wings and glass eyes, and he often used a rasp to imitate feathers on the back of his decoys’ heads and on their breasts. In 2000, a preening Canada goose that he carved sold at an auction for $684,500, the current world record for a decoy.
Other notable carvers include Lathrop T. Holmes, who used a limited but expressive palette of colors. “Gus” Wilson’s attention to detail was almost unrivaled, while many of the approximately 10,000 decoys in 50 years made by the Ward Brothers of Maryland were purely decorative. Charles Perdew and his wife, Edna, were a team—he carved and she painted. And Ken Anger perfected the technique of using a rasp to make his decoys look soft and realistic.
In addition to hand-carved decoys, some of the high-quality decoys produced in late-19th-century factories are also highly collectible. The main factories included Mason, Victor, Dodge, Stevens, Peterson, Evans, and Reynolds. Most of these factories used either a duplicating lathe, an assembly line, or both.
Although many of the more successful companies’ decoys were quite similar to one another, some particularly innovative examples are valuable today. One, for example, flapped its wings—a terrible failure for a hunter, but a great find for a collector. Another prize is a factory-made rubber decoy from 1867.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
National Carousel Association
American Folk Art Museum
The Outsider Art Pages
Folk Art in Bottles
Index of American Design
Clubs & Associations
- Midwest Decoy Collectors Association
- Great Lakes Decoy Association
- The Wheelmen
- Folk Art Society of America
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Duck Decoys
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Exhibit to highlight folk arts in IllinoisDaily Eastern News, April 10th
Each of the art forms represent a variety of traditions such as duck decoy carving, Irish fiddle, Mexican murals and African American quilts. Each artist is one piece of the puzzle of tradition. The pieces highlight significant traditional art that...Read more
Elementary Students Invited to Choose Design for Nevada CoinKTVN, April 8th
Group of elements include: (1) Rugged Nevada: Big Horn Sheep, Bristlecone Pine and Mt. Wheeler; (2) Nevada's Early Heritage: Petroglyph, Tule Duck Decoy and Basket; (3) Prehistoric Nevada: Bristlecone Pine, Ichthyosaur and Desert Tortoise; and (4) ...Read more
Decoy sale coming to St. MichaelsThe Star Democrat, April 3rd
Duck decoy. This hollow, premier-grade wood duck drake made by the Mason Decoy Factory in 1910 will be on display at the Guyette & Deeter exhibit in St. Michaels. Posted: Thursday, April 3, 2014 1:00 pm | Updated: 2:32 pm, Fri Apr 4, 2014. Decoy sale ...Read more
Duck Commander to build Orangeville factoryOrangeville Banner, April 1st
The existing factory will be converted to allow the Robertson Clan to expand into the maple duck decoy business. The expansion marks the company's first expansion outside of the continental United States. “Happy, happy, happy,” Robertson said of the ...Read more
Mom Tells Us How Rush Revere Made Her 11-Year-Old Want to ReadRushLimbaugh.com (subscription), March 28th
CALLER: So, he started reading your book for school, but then soon he started bringing it home and reading it at home on his own. We even went to a duck decoy class, and at the end of class he had some extra time, and he even brought the book with us...Read more
Greenwing Field Day hits its mark in SlidellThe Times-Picayune, March 26th
With his long brown hair with silver streaks pulled into a ponytail, Slidell's Carl Kingsmill kept kids in awe as he rattled off stories of the ancient and mythical art of duck decoy carving, a folk art he's carried on for 37 years. With wood chips...Read more
Gypsy site has WWI grenades and horse carcasses under it say campaignersRetford Times, March 26th
a full case to Bassetlaw Council, highlighting what they call a number of shortcomings about the proposed application site ranging from concerns over highways safety, to the impact on the nationally important, historic setting, of the Haughton Duck...Read more
Crews Clean Up Waterfowl Hunters' Dirty BlindsTwin Falls Times-News, March 20th
By the end of the three-hour effort, the crew had filled several large plastic garbage bags with empty casings along with a broken duck decoy and one Crocs shoe. They also picked up three large, blue plastic barrels, two large pieces of plastic foam...Read more