In early America, the weather was of utmost importance for daily life. The prevailing winds and a sudden change in direction, combined with patterns of the clouds and the level of moisture in the air, could determine whether a storm was on its way—freezing crops or providing them with much-needed rain. So it was that every city, village, and farm had its own weathervane (also called a weather vane, weathercock, wind vane) perched atop the highest building, to show people the direction the wind was coming from.

The concept goes back to ancient Greece, where the first known weathervane, a life-size bronze Triton figure with his wand pointing into the wind, sat on the top of the Tower of the Winds temple. These devices are first recorded in England in the 11th century, and by the 17th century they were vital to ship merchants, aristocrats with shipping interests, and military leaders. Usually their weathervanes were attached to wind-clocks, often placed above the fireplace, which helped a merchant or a king calculate how long it would take his shipments or navies to arrive in port.

In England, the rooster, or cock, was such a popular design that the devices were often called weathercocks. For Christians, the rooster symbolizes the Passion of Christ, as Jesus predicted that Peter would deny him three times before the cock crowed. The rooster’s early-riser tendency to cock-a-doodle-do at the crack of dawn is also associated Christ rising from the grave and bringing an end to the darkness, or good defeating evil. The bird also stands for watchfulness and readiness for the return of Christ.

Arrows, like the one attached to the Father Time weathervane over Lord’s Cricket Grounds in London, which signals the end of play, were obvious weathervane motifs; farmers liked plain arrows for their simplicity and accuracy. Grasshopper weathervanes were a popular symbol for merchants, like the one belonging to Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange.

At first, the colonists in America simply copied the weathervane designs used in mother England, be they arrows, grasshoppers, roosters, or fish, another ancient Christian symbol. The cock and the grasshopper design in particular remained popular for hundreds of years. Esteemed 18th-century weathervane artisan, Boston coppersmith Shem Drowne, adopted the grasshopper motif and made a copper one with green glass eyes that can still be seen at the home of the merchant family Faneuil.

After America won its independence, weathervanes in the U.S. took on their own personalities. Farmers, concerned with their livestock and beasts of burden, would have weathervanes made in the shapes of horses, cows, sheep, pigs, or chickens, while coastal villages that depended on fishing favored sailors, captains, ships, whales, seagulls, fish, mermaids, and sea serpents. In addition to roosters and fish, American churches were topped by angels blowing trumpeting horns. Some shop owners would use their weathervanes as signs.

Other American weathervanes were specific to a particular region. In Eastern Pennsylvania, farmers would display Indian-shaped weathervanes on their barns. The Indian's arrows in...

Some of the most enduring themes for weathervanes in the U.S. are patriotic symbols like the bald eagle, Lady Liberty, and Uncle Sam, which were used on private homes as well as municipal government buildings. When the steam locomotive first appeared on the scene, the railroad soon became a popular weathervane motif—these same train engines were quickly modeled by toy train makers.

For a weathervane, whose name comes from the Old English word “fane” meaning flag or banner, to be successful, it must have even weight distribution throughout but an uneven surface area. It also has to have a sharply drawn profile, making it easy to distinguish from the ground and in silhouette. Some weathervanes also have the compass points, N, S, E, and W, in a fixed position to compare the pointer against.

The earliest American weathervanes were carved out of wood or cut from sheet metal. Wooden vanes were usually painted in solid colors like red or white or yellow ocher to emulate gold leaf, or in a few brightly contrasting colors. Metal vanes, on the other hand, might be painted or gilded, but most were not. Unpainted iron made a dark, bold silhouette all by itself, while copper shined in a striking way at first, and then turned an appealing grayish green. Not surprisingly, few of these handcrafted, unfinished, weathervanes have survived.

You’re much more likely to find a weathervane from after 1850, when they became three-dimensional and were mass produced by companies like J.W. Fiske Works, of New York City, and J. Howard & Co. and A.L. Jewell & Co., of Massachusetts. All were sold in hardware stores and via mail-order catalogs.

Even though these companies had mechanized manufacturing processes for their vanes, much of the work still had to be done by hand by a specialized craftsman. Some were forged out of cast iron, using sand molds, a similar technique used to make the earliest mechanical banks. Most companies, however, specialized in hollow, 3D copper weathervanes, which were produced by hammering two pieces of sheet copper into cast-iron molds, and then soldering them together.

Another amusing weathervane-like device is the whirligig, a figure that showed not only the wind’s direction but also its speed. These wooden figures, usually military men, were hand-carved in the round by local craftsmen. Paddle-like wooden arms were then attached via a rod in the figures’ shoulders. The military dress was usually quite realistic and detailed, so antique whirligigs can be dated by their clothing. Smaller whirligigs are thought to be children’s toys.

Having been constantly exposed to the elements, many antique weathervanes on the market today are damaged or have been repaired. One of the most famous weathervanes is the Indian chief vane from Henry Ford's granddaughter's house in Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan, which sold for $5.84 million dollars at a Sotheby’s auction in New York in 2006. That 1900 vane was made by J.L. Mott Iron Works of New York and Chicago.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

American Folk Art Museum

American Folk Art Museum

The American Folk Art Museum's website showcases current and past exhibitions along with their permanent collection… [read review or visit site]

Alloy Artifacts

Alloy Artifacts

A tool collectors’ dream, this site is a deep repository of photos and info on 20th century hand tools and the co… [read review or visit site]

Anonymous Works

Anonymous Works

This blog combines American primitive folk art, vintage vernacular photography, outsider art, and other interesting… [read review or visit site]

Drainspotting

Drainspotting

Josh and Cam Larios have created this site enabling people to upload and 'tag' photos of historic or artistic manho… [read review or visit site]

The Outsider Art Pages

The Outsider Art Pages

A modern look at folk and outsider art with a focus on what people are doing to keep these traditions alive. The si… [read review or visit site]

A Millers Falls Home Page

A Millers Falls Home Page

Randy Roeder has carved out a niche for himself with his fine website devoted to the history of the Millers Falls C… [read review or visit site]

Folk Art in Bottles

Folk Art in Bottles

Whether you call them Bottle Whimseys, Whimsey Bottles, Puzzle Bottles, or Whimsies, this site showcases great folk… [read review or visit site]

Index of American Design

Index of American Design

The Index of American Design project (1935-1942) was an effort to catalog American decorative arts objects from the… [read review or visit site]

Stoveburner.com

Stoveburner.com

A stunning collection of 162 images of stoveburners, those corroded cast iron elements that power stoves, broilers,… [read review or visit site]



Clubs & Associations

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Vintage Irish Figural Hand & Heart Old Crown Claddagh Weathervane DirectionalBeautiful Nos Fenton Cobalt Maher Lightning Rod Ball Perfect!!Dark Rootbeer Amber Electra Cone Unembossed Lightning Rod Weathervane Glass BallGreat Vintage Racing Horse Weathervane With Vintage Bullet HolesVintage Original Cast Iron Weathervane Arrow Bright Green Glass Shinn/national Fantasy Lightning Rod BallSpectacular Nos Fenton Dark Red Diddie Blitzen Lightning Rod Ball Perfect!!Small Chicken Old Lightning Rod Weather VaneVintage Cast Metal Lightning Rod, Weathervane Arrow Robbins Maryville Mo. #2Beautiful Nos Fenton Sca Maher Lightning Rod Ball Perfect!!Marx 1956 Little Red Schoolhouse Playset W/weathervane Horse & Accessories* C.1906 American Antique Folk Art Horse Weathervane Aafa No Reserve Auction *Amazing Nos Fenton Gold Merc National Belted Shinn Lightning Rod Ball Perfect!!Cow Weathervane Bull Steer Weathered And VandalizedVintage Weathervane-horse And Fire Engine Weather Vane-weather Vane TopperVintage Copper Weather Vane 3d Rooster Topper Top Part Metal Patina WeathervaneAntique Lightning Rod Ball Globe Weather Vane Arrow Hawkeye Blue Vintage Hawkeye Weather Vane Arrow Kite Tail With Blue Glass - NiceAntique Late 1800s Ball Front Weathervane Lightning Rod Arrow Ornate Metal 17"Cherry Red Thompson Flat Quilt Old Lightning Rod BallRare 19th C Sheet Iron Weathervane Of Rooster In Grungy Old Weathered SurfaceAntique Weathervane Lightning Rod Arrow Directional 22 1/2"Vintage Cow Weather Vane Hollow Lightning Rod Weathervane Arrow King Old FarmIncredible Fenton Cobalt Jfg Lightning Rod Ball Perfect Collars!!Old Copper Whale Weathervane Whale Only Repurposed For Wall HangingAntique Weathervane Arrow With Red Glass TailSuperb Nos Fenton Red Shinn Belted Mfg Lightning Rod Ball Perfect!!Windmill Ornamental Wind Wheel Gray Red Garden Farm Weather Vane 8ft Tall Vintage Original Cast Iron Weathervane Arrow Super Rare Fenton Factory Reject Teal Harger Lightning Rod Ball Wow!!!Antique Weathervane Lightning Rod Globe Milk Glass Swirled Miller St LouisVintage Cast Metal Lightning Rod, Weathervane Arrow Robbins Maryville Mo. #1Vintage Cast Iron Arrow Weathervane Lightning RodRose Swirled Slag Glass Hawkeye Pattern Lightning Rod Ball PendantSuper Rare Antique Rose Pink Plain Round Glass Lightning Rod Ball Pretty Light Purple Paneled Lightning Rod Ball PendantVintage Metal Arrow For Weather Vane 20" Long Robbins Maryville, MoUnusually Dark Amber Plain Round 4.5 Inch Old Lightning Rod BallW.c. Shinn Mfg Co. Fenton Art Glass Weathervane Lightning Rod Ball*m* Pristine True Vintage 1950's Weathervane Tailored By Handmacher Skirt Suit Howard Johnsons Simon And Pieman Diecut Restaurant Sign WeathervaneStunning Nos Fenton Green Mast Lightning Rod Ball Perfect!!Antique Ruby Red Lightning Rod BallMilk Glass Lightning Rod BallVintage Plain Round Blue Milk Glass Lightning Rod Ball - Very NiceBeautiful Nos Fenton Cobalt Mast Lightning Rod Ball Perfect!!Antique Glass Lightning Rod Insulator With Tab Vintage Lot Womens Scarves Totes Weathervane Sonna Korea Prints Silk Vintage Wmg Lightning Rod BallVintage Original Weathervane Brass BearingSuper Rare Fenton Factory Reject Cobalt Harger Lightning Rod Ball Wow!!!Vintage Horse Weathervane FigureGbpv - For The Layout Complete Littletown School W/orig Weathervane & LightsDove Atop Golden Weather Vane Burgundy Bells Snow Embossed Vtg Christmas Card Great Vintage Muscle Car Weathervane With Arrow PointerCross Top Lri Lightning Rod Glass Insulator With Insane Milky ImpuritiesVintage Clear Blue Glass Lightning Rod Insulator AntiqueBeautiful Fenton Cobalt Harger Lightning Rod Ball With CapsWeather Vane Rooster 5 Feet Tall Black Garden Mount Yard DecorAntique Eagle Weathervane Or Flagpole Topper