There are few things as American as a John Deere tractor. “Nothing runs like a Deere” is one of the most recognizable marketing slogans out there; Deere is the subject of country music songs (on a recent album, Jason Aldean sings "I’ll take you for a ride on my big green tractor…”); and Deere & Company stands alone as the last of the original U.S. tractor companies still in business.

The roots of the company date to 1837, when John Deere, a Vermont blacksmith, used a steel saw blade to make a plow that efficiently cut through tough soil. The invention was necessitated by Deere’s move that year to Rock River, Illinois, where the soil was stickier than back home in New England.

Deere soon began making steel plows for sale, hawking his creation to farmers along the Mississippi River. Deere acquired business partner after business partner, but each alliance ended in failure until he joined forces with his son Charles, a trained accountant. In 1857, Charles Deere, who would later be responsible for the rapid spread of the company’s popularity after his father’s death, was named vice president.

The Deere plows remained reliant on draft horses, but Charles Deere could see that new types of horse power would be Deere's future. Accordingly, he led the company's drive to appropriate technologies from other firms. By 1889, after the death of John Deere, the company was finally able to advertise its New Deal six-gang plow, which was powered by a steam engine. Advertisements claimed it could plow 20 acres a day at 50 cents an acre.

Steam would be an interim step for Deere, which was setting its sights on the possibilities of internal-combustion engines. What had caught Charles Deere's eye was an 1882 machine resembling a modern-day tractor. That machine was the brainchild of John Froelich, who had found a way to use a gasoline engine to pull a plow.

Froelich’s business, the Waterloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company, was not the only competitor Deere faced. In fact, the early parts of the 20th century saw many battles between Deere and its toughest competitor, International Harvester, which, like Deere, had been formed in part by acquiring other firms. It was a rivalry that would linger long after Charles Deere’s death in 1907.

In 1906, International Harvester had produced an actual tractor, which gave it a competitive edge over Deere. It took Deere until 1911 to advertise a tractor of its own, and even...

Finally, on March 14, 1918, Deere purchased Froelich’s Waterloo for $2,350,000 to get into the tractor business. Still, Deere struggled to design profitable tractors shortly after the acquisition—it wasn't until the early 1920s that Deere found success with the two-cylinder Waterloo Boys. However, because it was a one-model company, Deere was susceptible to market shifts. Rival Henry Ford was producing the Fordson tractor, which he was able to manufacture at a loss because he could offset losses with gains from his automobile line. Deere did not have that luxury.

By the middle of the decade, Deere unveiled the two-cylinder Model D Johnny Popper. Subsequent Deere models were also called Johnny Poppers or Poppin’ Johnnies, and even though Ford and International Harvester had gone to four cylinders, Deere stuck to two. The first Model Ds in 1923 and 1924 had a 26-inch spoked flywheel, which was subsequently changed to a thicker 24-inch wheel, and the steering wheel was moved to the left side of the tractor and connected to the front axle.

In 1926, Deere introduced the Model C. This unique three-row cultivator differentiated itself from rivals like International Harvester’s Farmall, which came in two- or four-row models. The tractor also used power from the engine to power the cultivator. The machine was a success and by 1927, Deere was exporting tractors around the world.

Next up for Deere was the General Purpose (GP) tractor and the GP Wide Tread tractor, released in 1928 and 1929 respectively. In 1934, the Model A was introduced—this two-plow tractor featured an adjustable tread width and burned almost any fuel. A year later, the single-plow Model B appeared—it was almost identical to the Model A, but smaller.

Deere continued to produce different tractor models to adjust to the changes in the market and technological advances. There was the Model G, a three-plow tractor released in 1938; the rare 1936 Model Y (also called the 62, only about 100 were produced), which was later converted to the three-speed Model L; and the 10-horsepower LA, introduced in 1941.

The L and LA models were made until 1946. In the decades that followed, Deere & Company moved into other areas of farm machinery, as well as the manufacture of lawn equipment. But one thing never changed—the company's signature green-and-yellow colors date to Deere's 1905 catalog.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Steel Wheels

Steel Wheels

David Parfitt's excellent and comprehensive tribute to pre-1930s tractors. The well-posed, high resolution photos i… [read review or visit site]

McCormick International Harvester Collection

McCormick International Harvester Collection

Farm and tractor collectors will appreciate this incredible trove of 30,000 images and documents on the Internation… [read review or visit site]

A great reference and community forum on antique tractors. Start with the 39-page master photo list, showing thousa… [read review or visit site]

Discussion Forums

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

1959 John Deere 430 W Antique Tractor No Reserve Gas Farmall Oliver Allis A B G Original John Deere 1520 2wd Gas Tractor1937 John Deere B Unstyled Antique Tractor No Reserve Farmall Oliver Allis A G Very Nice John Deere 2305 4 X 4 Diesel Tractor Only 312 Hours1986 John Deere 750 Diesel TractorUsed John Deere Farm 1520 Tractor Very Nice Condition!!!2004 John Deere 4710 Tractor With 460 Bucket Fully Loaded With Heat A/c Radio MiVery Nice John Deere 4100 Hst 4x4 Tractor 1938 John Deere B Unstyled Tractor Very Nice 2004 John Deere 4710 Tractor With 460 Bucket Fully Loaded With Heat A/c Radio AzJohn Deere 4200 4 Wheel Drive Compact Tractor Diesel 72 MowerVintage 1/16 John Deere Tractor ( Nice )John Deere 2840 Diesel TractorJohn Deere 730 Diesel Antique Tractor2008 John Deere 5325 TractorsVintage John Deere Quality Fertilizers, Advertising Jd Tractor Metal ClipJohn Deere 820 Diesel Tractor Sales. Brochure2008 John Deere 5325 TractorsJohn Deere 317 Puller No Reserve Vintage Lesney Matchbox #50 1964 John Deere-lanz Tractor (box Only)2007 John Deere Tractor 3203401 John Deere Navy TractorVintage Matchbook John Deere Caterpillar Jacuzzi Pumps Interstate Tractor SalemOriginal Circa 1930's John Deere Model A General Purpose Tractor BrochureJohn Deere 2305 John Deere Precision Classics Model A Tractor With 290 Series CultivatorVintage Universal Backup Farm Tractor Light Deere International Harvester Case1962 John Deere Tractor 5010 Brochure Original Vintage 1938 John Deere Tractor & Equipment Pamphlet BookletOne John Deere 316 318 420 Tractor Onan P218g 18hp Engine Pistons & Rod Original Circa 1934 John Deere Model B General Purpose Tractor BrochureJohn Deere 730 720 Tractor Deluxe Seat FrameVintage 1967 John Deere 1020 And 2020 Tractor Brochure Booklet BrochureVintage Arcade John Deere Cast Aluminum TractorVintage Tractor Guide Light John Deere D Allis Ac Case Light 6"1967 John Deere Tractor Moldboard Plows Equipment Full Line Brochure John Deere 1943 Model Bo Tractor Franklin Mint Knife W Pouch Ltd EdMint John Deere 1961 "4010"diesel TractorVintage John Deere Thermometer. 3 X 12 Farm Tractor AdvertisingAntique Tractor Seat Painted Metal Steel 18" X 15" Seat Vintage John Deere ?? John Deere 9320 TractorJohn Deere 720 730 Tractor Battery Box Seat Vintage Snowmobile John Deere Helmet Yellow Small Medium Tractor1954 John Deere Tractor Gl Grassland Drill Equipment Brochure Mint Collectors Edition John Deere 1957 Model "720 Hi Crop" Tractor.Vintage 1993 John Deere Steel Wheel Tractor Bank Community Credit Union D