The Indian was the quintessential American motorcycle. Founded by the Hendee Manufacturing Company in 1901, Indian was up and running a full two years before the formation of Harley-Davidson. The Springfield, Massachusetts, company was an early innovator, introducing electric starters and lights in 1914 and the Powerplus engine in 1916, which was later to become the basis of Indian’s first famous model, the Scout.

The earliest Indian was basically a motorized bicycle. Known as a Camelback for the way in which the combination fuel-and-oil tank followed the contour of the rear fender, the bike had a single concentric carburetor and could achieve a top speed of 25 miles per hour (it’s estimated that the Camelback got about 70 miles per gallon). A cylinder filled with batteries was mounted to the frame’s front downtube. The bike had pedals and a chain, and beneath the frame was a small muffler. Sales in 1902 topped 140 units.

By 1905, spring forks were added to Indian bikes, and the throttle and ignition controls were moved from the engine area to the handlebars. The company offered its growing number of customers a V-twin engine in 1908, and in 1909, the basic Indian was completely redesigned around a loop frame with a torpedo-shaped gas tank mounted between the handlebars and the seat.

Now Indians were beginning to look like what we think of as motorcycles. Rear suspension was added in 1913, and the fire-engine-red Powerplus appeared in 1916—its three-speed transmission produced a top speed of more than 60 miles per hour. Indian also made lightweight motorcycles in the 1910s, including the Model O twin and Model K, an even smaller two-stroke single.

The successful Chief, Big Chief, Scout, and Prince models dominated the company’s output during the 1920s. The Chief, which retailed for $435 in 1922, was marketed as a bike that could pull a sidecar. And it certainly could, thanks to a powerful 1000cc engine.

In 1923, Hendee reorganized and renamed itself Indian Motocycles (that’s right, with no "r"). One of the first bikes from the newly named company was the lightweight Model L Indian Prince, which was manufactured until 1928.

That was also the year the 101 Scout was introduced. Widely considered to be Indian's finest motorcycle, the 101 Scout had a more graceful shape that the Scout that preceded it, ...

The other Indian milestone of the 1920s was the purchase in 1926 of a 4-cyclinder-motorcycle-maker called Ace. The very next year, Indian literally gave the existing Ace line a new coat of paint, lettering the words Indian and Ace on the sides of their gas tanks. That dual branding was probably the reason why many people referred to these bikes as Indian Aces, even though the bikes were sold as Indian Fours.

The handsome Sport Scout followed in the 1930s, which, despite the Great Depression, was a productive decade for Indian. Among the bikes produced in the 1930s were a three-wheel cargo bike called the Dispatch-tow and several models of four-cylinder bikes (the 436 and 438 were two of the best). Indian also branched out from its traditional red paint jobs, incorporating the profile of a Native American chief in full feathered headdress on the sides of its gas tanks—a speedometer and other instruments were bolted to the top. By the 1940s, Indian Fours were favorites of state troopers, but when police contracts ran out in 1942, production of the expensive machines ceased.

During World War II, Indian made a lot of motorcycles for the military—the Indian 841, designed for desert warfare, is among the most collectible Indians around. The 1940s also saw the launch of several bikes for the general public. Chiefs from the 1940s, both pre- and postwar, had gorgeous cowl-like fenders that gave the bikes a streamlined look (decorative fringe below the seats was optional).

Arrows and Scouts brought the company into the 1950s, which was also the decade when the 500cc TT Indian Warrior and its smaller cousin, the Brave, were introduced. But Indian had perhaps put too much of its wartime attention into military contracts, so its profile with the general motorcycling public was low by the end of 1945. In 1953, after several years of changes in ownership and management, the original Indian ran out of gas. Today, since 2006, an entirely new company produces motorcycles bearing the Indian name.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Classic Motorcycle Archive

Classic Motorcycle Archive

This simple website contains photos and descriptions of over a thousand classic antique motorcycles and motorized b… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Indian : Chief 1937 Indian ChiefIndian : Chief 1953 Indian Chief "true 5 Digit Matching Numbers"Indian : Chief 1947 Indian Chief Motorcycle 74 Cu InIndian Motorcycle 741 Nos Motor In Factory Crate With Original DocumentsIndian : Chief 1947 Indian ChiefIndian : Rare Jx-50 Motocross Minibike Dirt Bike-s5k Motor Indian Jx-50 Motocross Minibike Motorcycle Scrambler Italian Morini Franco MotorIndian : Sport Scout 1934 Indian Sport ScoutIndian Motorcycle Chief Front End Mid 20'sIndian : Chief 1947 Indian Chief Motorcycle Recent Tune Up, Runs Great!!!Indian : Me-76 Indian Dirt Bikes, Other Motorcycles, Indian Motorcycles, N.o.s. Indian, 1975Antique 1927 ~ Indian Motorcycle Belt Buckle1920s Indian Motorcycle Original Pocket Sized Record Book Four Chief Scout NosIndian : Tomahawk 1958 Indian EnfieldIndian Motorcycle Sport Scout, Chief Oil Pump Indian : Mm5-a 1976 Indian 50cc Mm5-aIndian Motorcycle Scout Brake Crosshaft Bellcrank LeversVintage Indian Motorcycle Shift KnobIndian Motorcycle Chief,scout, 4- Cylinder Fender TipsIndian Motorcycle Scout Generator Adjuster SpacerIndian Motorcycle 30's Indian Face Horn Chief 4 And ScoutIndian Motorcycle Scout, Jr. Scout HandlebarIndian Motorcycle Scout, Chief, 4-cylinder Front Brake ShoesSmiths Pa Motorcycle Speedometer Ariel Ajs Indian Vintage Vintiage Indian Head Fob Bronze & Enamal Motorcycle Robbins Co AttleboroVintage 40's ~ Indian Motorcycle Belt BuckleIndian Motorcycle Seat And TongueIndian Motorcycle Original 47 Chief Speedo Face, Tail Light, And Ammeter BezelVntage Illustrated Indian Motorcycle Restoration Guide (1995) By Hatfield - VgIndian Motorcycle Scout Shifter Frame Shaft / LeverIndian Motorcycle Chief Late Model Medium Rise HandlebarSplitdorf Spark Plugs For Indian Motocycle Motorcycle Extremely Rare !! Htf ItemIndian Motorcycle Triple TreeVintage Hubley Die Cast Indian Police Dept. Motorcycle ***excellent***1903-53 Indian Motorcycle Buyers Guide Book Chief Scout Ace Sign Jerry HatfieldIndian Illustrated Motorcycle MagazinesIndian Vintage Antique 3.25-18 Motorcycle Tires 18 Inch 4 Ply Scout WarriorIndian Motorcycle Sport Scout, 741 Battery Tray Rare Vintage Indian Motorcycle Dealer John Steele Paterson Nj Advertising Decal2006 Bergamot "indian" Motorcycle Metal Belt BuckleIndian Motorcycle Junior Scout /pony/motoplane Neck PieceIndian Motorcycle Spring Jacket XxlAntique Motorcycle Scrapbook Indian Excelsior Autobike Pope Tricar Michaelson Indian Motorcycle Sport Scout, Jr. Scout Handlebar Original Indian Motorcycle 101 Scout Engine Cam / Drive GearVintage Indian Motorcycle Chief Scout Generator Brush Holder Screw Repair LotIndian Motorcycle Parts Ignition,mirror,roadmaster,script Tank Chrome Emblems Indian Motorcycle Trail Blazers Color Brochure 1944 Ww2 Americas Pioneer1/43 Indian Arrow Motorcycle- Land Speed Eastern Parts Indian Motorcycle Chief Sport Scout Rod Race SetIndian Motorcycle Genuine Parts & Accessories Est.1901 Nice For Man Cave Garage.1936 Motorcycle Adventure Book Bsa Triumph Trophy Tiger Ariel Norton Bmw IndianIndian Motorcycle Chief Fender Bumper-rear. 1999-2003. Chrome.oem.nosFranklin Mint 1942 Indian Model 442 Motorcycle NrfbIndian Motorcycle Chief Spark Plug Wire TubeModel 1942 Indian Motorcycle By Franklin MintVintage Indian Motorcycle Big Chief 74 Sweatshirt Sweater Xl2014 Indian Motorcycle Owners Clock And Owners Belt Buckle Bottle OpenerIndian Motorcycle Script Patch. Oem GilroyOld Vintage Indian Motorcycle Chief Sport Scout Vertical 741 841 Part Lot Pair Of Vintage Indian Motorcycle Tool Open End Wrenches Stamped Indian