As long as human beings have needed to keep their clothing fastened, buttons have been there to do the work. Buttons can be made out of just about anything, from antlers and bone to glass and ceramics to metals and stone. There are "Diminutive" buttons (less than 3/8" across) and "Large" buttons (greater than 1 1/4" wide), "Old" buttons (pre-1918), and "Modern/Vintage" ones (post-1918). Military buttons are in a class by themselves, with categories for flat buttons made of lead or pewter, two-part convex buttons, and buttons produced for officers. But whatever their material, size, age, or lineage, buttons are fascinating little objects, items that are so utilitarian yet so varied, they just about beg to be collected.

Unlike some collectibles, buttons have very few parts. There is the face of the button, of course, which can be painted, embroidered, or carved. Then there’s the back, which is home to the button’s shank. This is the loop that allows you to attach a button to an article of clothing. Some shanks are built into the button—these are called self shanks. Others have shanks made out of small loops of metal, which are attached to the button in any number of ways. Some buttons have no shanks at all—instead, the button is pierced with two, three, or four holes so it can be sewn directly onto a garment.

One of the earliest forms of buttons were the Satsumas, ceramic buttons from Japan. Named for a historic ceramics center on the southernmost island of Japan, Satsumas were first made in the 17th century by Korean potters. These buttons were often painted in extraordinary detail, depicting miniature scenes from Japanese life and the natural world. The buttons didn’t make their way West until the mid-19th century, which is one reason why Satsumas from the 1800s, and even the early 1900s, are highly collectible.

Brass picture buttons from the Victorian era are also collectible. These charming discs were stamped with images taken from everything from operas to children’s books. In fact, if you wanted to tell the world you were a fan of a work of literature, you’d sew buttons featuring scenes from the novel or story on your coat or shirt. Other picture buttons took their cues from nature (flora and fauna), the sciences (stars and moons), or mythology (cupids and fairies).

Black glass buttons from the Victorian era came next. When the Queen’s husband, Prince Albert, died in 1861, the monarch took to wearing black for decades. Much of England mourned with her, prompting a rise in the popularity of black clothing and jewelry. At first, black buttons were made out of jet, a fossilized coal found near Whitby, England. But jet was very expensive, so black glass was used as a replacement.

Some black glass buttons were molded to create reliefs of plants and animals, or even detailed pictorials. Sometimes the buttons appeared to mimic fabrics; other times they were given a silver or iridescent luster to imitate needlework or crochet. Some black glass buttons were faceted while others were painted or enameled.

Another collectible type of glass button hails from Bohemia, which is now part of the Czech Republic. Between the wars, glass artisans made buttons in styles ranging from Art Deco to "realistics," which were buttons shaped like the objects they depicted. After World War II, Bohemian glassblowers produced so-called "moonglow" buttons, which had opaque bases and clear glass faces. Because it was dominated by the Soviets at that time, most of these post-war buttons were produced for export to Russia rather than the West, as evidenced by the button cards bearing Cyrillic script...

From the late 1800s through the 1920s, celluloid buttons were all the rage. Then came the Bakelite buttons, which were common in the United States from the 1920s through the 1940s. Bakelite buttons were sometimes carved and then embellished with a metal escutcheon in the shape of an animal or a plant. Others were decorated with glass sequins or costume jewels. The so-called "cookie" buttons were made out of long sections of laminated Bakelite that were then sliced into wafers, each one of which revealed a cross section of the lamination. Other types of Bakelite buttons were reverse carved and then dyed or painted from the back.

Of course, these types of buttons just begin to scratch the rich surface of this tiny collectible. Some collectors specialize in buttons in the Art Deco style, while others like the more modern look of Lucite. Still others collect based on themes—cats, dragons, Oriental imagery, famous men and women, etc.

Particularly noteworthy are the enamel buttons from the 19th and 20th centuries. Cloisonné buttons were the most difficult to produce because the process demanded that tiny threads of wire be soldered to a base. The resulting cavities were then filled with enamel and the button was fired. Champlevé enamel buttons were no less beautiful but they are generally less expensive to collect because the process of removing material from the button’s surface to create the holes for the enamel was easier to accomplish.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Sewing Machine Collector

Sewing Machine Collector

Geoff and Norma Dickens' reference site on vintage toy sewing machines from the late 1800s. Browse the images alpha… [read review or visit site]

Sensibility Vintage Images

Sensibility Vintage Images

An extensive collection of photos and ephemera illustrating changing fashion styles from 1795 to 1959. Includes por… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Huge Lot 5+ Lbs Pounds Vintage Antique Buttons Czech Glass Rhineston Bakelite*rare Early 1800's 1 Piece U.s. Naval Navy Button By Carter Lombard St.*7 Lbs Antique Vintage Button Lot/huge Old Button Collection-all Types! See Pics!60 Antique Vintage Metal Buttons Victorian Rhinestone Jeweled Glass Old Czech*rare Early 1800's 1 Piece U.s. Naval Navy Button By I. Moore & Co.*Massive Huge 30 Lbs Pounds Button Lot Collection Plastic & Metal Mixed Assorted*rare Early 1800's 1 Piece U.s. Naval Navy Button By Standard Colour.*Antique Brass And Enamel Angel Flower Scene ButtonTruly Fabulous Antique Victorian~ Vtg Buttons Lot~ Estate Collection~ See Pics!!*very Rare One Piece U.s. Infantry "i" Military Uniform Button*25 Antique China Buttons / Calico Stencil Bulls-eyeA Wonderful Collection Of 13 Ww1 Trench Art Button Hooks Hook World War 1Huge Lot Of Collectible Vtg~ Antique Buttons~ Celluloid, Bakelite, Estate Mix2 Antique Japanese Satsuma Buttons Geisha Girl & Boy / Houses56 Small Vintage Bakelite Buttons / Balls Toggles Gears Cookies +++Antique Metal Ivoroid Celluloid Woman Swinging On A Swing Scene ButtonAntique French Enamel Button Young Man W/ Bird On Hand - CharmingLot Of (8) Ca1910 United States Lighthouse Service Figural Brass Uniform ButtonsVintage / Antique Lot 40+ Buttons Pretty Flowers Glass & Plastic FrenchAntique / Vintage Large Lifetime Collection Of Rare Bakelite Lot Buttons Buckles1+lbs Tiny Antique Vintage Button Lot/1200+sm Buttons Huge Variety-style-colorSheep Micro Mosiac Button W Gold Mount Vintage Arita Porcelain Button Colorful Realistic Butterfly Design W/ Back MarkAmazing Antique Victorian Intricately Carved Mop Wolf Head Cloak /cape Clasp 13 Antique & Vintage Glass Paperweight ButtonsHuge Lot Of 500 Assorted Vintage, Glass, Wood, Metal Buttons Vintage Button Lot Bakelite, Celluloid, Wood, Metal, Pierced, CarvedAntique Georgian Victorian Silver Plted Paste Buttons Earrings ?Antique & Vintage Buttons ~ Collectors Card Small & Diminutive Glass Enamel +5 Antique & Vintage Picture Buttons / Roosters / 1 Celluloid Over Metal25 Vintage Glass Flower Buttons / Red & WhiteCard 49 Vintage Metal Buttons, Wonderful Variety, Some Early Back Marks, 1940s Vintage Lot 600 Glass Bakelite Celluloid Metal Plastic Weeber Mixed ButtonsHuge 300 Glass Tiny Small Button Lot Collection Vintage Antique Estate Old Doll+"jacksonian" Clothing Button: GrapesLot Of 21 Antique Vintage Metal, Mother Of Pearl & Black Glass Buttons!13 Vintage Yellow Bakelite Realistic Buttons*gorgeous High Quality Railroad Erie Railway Button By Miller & Co.*Massive Huge 8500+ Tiny Small Button Lot Collection Vintage Antique Estate Old*very Rare Boxed Silver Button General Lafayette Or Napolean*Antique Vintage Brass Metal Buttons Victorian Perfume Velvet Picture Spider BugAntique Vintage Buttons Lot ~ Florals ~ Flowers ~ Metal ~ Glass ~ VictorianAntique Buttons ~ Medium Victorian Era Metals Pretty Florals ++*very Rare 1790's British Livery Button Silver Marks & Maker - Must See*Whackymuseum 12 Ornate Mother-of-pearl Buttons Steels Carved Antique Edwardian5 Antique / Vintage 1 1/4" Metal Shank Buttons Marked Gesetzlich Geschutzt 32 Antique Glass Ball ButtonsAntique French Enamel Button Hand Painted Pink Flower W/ Fancy Scallop Border9 Vintage Bakelite Coat/sweater ButtonsAntique Button~ Pretty Waistcoat Horse Lithograph Under GlassAntique French Enamel Button Oval Matte W Hand Painted Roses - BeautifulBrilliant 1880's Violet Tinted Brass Waistcoat Button W/amethyst Glass JewelButtons Huge 4.5 Lbs Pounds Lot Collection Vintage Antique Estate All Types Old4+ Lbs Antique Vintage Button Lot Huge Old Collection Various Types Buttons N/rAntique Hand Painted Porcelain Button W Violets & Raised Gold Fancy BorderLot Of 63 Antique/vintage Metal Buttons Paris Backs Gay 90's Tinted Pierced, Etc4 Carhartt Brand Overall Buttons1+ Lbs Antique Vintage Button Lot/ Shimmery-shiny Plastics-colors-sets-cardedWow! Rare Antique Gay 90's Button~ Huge, Bakelite W/ Brass, Cut Steel & GlassAntique Vintage Metal Button Lot/ Huge Lot Old Metal Work-overall Buttons