No piece of antique or vintage furniture conveys as much personality and says as much about its owner as a chair, whether it’s a side chair in a hallway, a set of matching chairs in the dining room, or a unique rocking chair on the front porch.
The chair is as old as recorded history itself. The ancient Egyptians had stools, and even wooden folding chairs, with leather seats and fine joinery techniques. The Greeks and Romans came up with chair designs that are still in use today. And in China, fine woodworking and increasingly sophisticated joinery was the norm. The wooden chairs of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) were especially beautiful, with curved pieces carved from a single piece of wood to avoid seams.
At around the same time in Europe, Renaissance craftsmen were producing chairs with open arms and seats to accommodate the billowing women’s fashions of the day. Hard, wooden seats were still the rule, but upholstery was gaining in popularity.
By the 17th century, the chair was becoming something of a small throne, with open arms and legs (called a fanteuil in France), a high padded back (the arms and seat were often also padded), and lots of gilt wood. Wing chairs first appeared in France; intricately carved wooden chairs featuring cane backs and seats made their debut in the Netherlands.
With a taller back, designers turned their collective attention to the chair’s splat, the vertical piece that runs up the center. Woodworkers used the splat for carving, while artisans used it as a canvas for japanning, which was a European variation on Asian lacquerwork.
Chair designers went positively crazy in 18th century England and France. Chair backs featured elaborate scenes stitched into tapestries or stamped into leather. Chair legs were given a cabriole shape, resembling the hind leg of an animal, whose knees were ornately decorated and whose feet often ended in a claw clasping a ball. Upholstered armchairs were on the rise, thanks to the arrival on the scene of a London furniture designer named Thomas Chippendale.
Indeed, 18th-century England produced much of the furniture vocabulary that we still use today. Relatively simple Queen Anne side chairs, wing chairs, and armchairs were popular ...
Meanwhile, in the Colonies, Pilgrim chairs and William and Mary chairs sported lots of turned arms and legs (the sausage style was especially popular), as well as spindle backs. There were even chairs with wainscot. Queen Anne and Chippendale chairs in walnut, cherry, and maple echoed the prevailing winds in England. As America gained its independence, a newfound interest in classicism morphed into the Federal style, championed by furniture maker Duncan Phyfe.
The 19th century brought Victorian furniture to American shores, but there were indigenous designs, too. Chief among them were the Shakers, whose ladder-back, cane-seat rockers are contemporary classics. Windsor chairs were a British invention, but dispensing with the splat and building a low-back Windsor was a purely stateside contribution to the form.
Another 19th-century style of note was Biedermeier of Germany. Biedermeier chairs combined the klismos-style legs of the ancient Greeks with mahogany veneers and caned seats. It was also the century of Thonet, whose bentwood furniture designs have changed little in the 150 years since they were first introduced, and Stickley, whose Mission Oak chairs were a hallmark of the budding Arts and Crafts movement that greeted the 20th century.
Chairs evolved yet again with the arrival of Art Deco. Now manufacturing processes permitted designers to shape woods and materials to fit the prevailing aesthetic. Key designers included Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann and Maurice Jallot, who produced chairs upholstered in leather and fine fabric accented by exotic hardwoods.
Molded laminates, steel framing, and chrome also begin to enter the vernacular, as designers from Finland’s Alvar Aalto to the Bauhaus’s Marcel Breuer moved furniture design from Streamline Moderne to pure Modern. Other pre-war designers include Ludwig Mies van de Rohe, Jean Prouvé, and Eileen Gray, whose Bibendum chair is a cocoon of padded rings on a base of chrome-plated steel.
At mid-century, the husband-and-wife team of Charles and Ray Eames produced chairs of molded plywood and fiberglass for the Herman Miller Furniture Company. Some of these chairs were mounted to static metal legs, others were fitted to be compact rockers. A few years later, Scandinavian Arne Jacobsen designed the Series 7 Chair, whose single piece of molded plywood on a steel-tube base is a wonder of economy and style.
But perhaps the most influential chair designer of the mid-century-modern period was Hans Wegner. His JH 501, a low-backed teak-and-cane number, was so iconic (and imitated), it became known simply as The Chair.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
Work of Charles and Ray Eames
Herman Miller Consortium Collection
Buffalo Architecture and History
Kentucky Online Arts Resource
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Chairs
Source: Google News
Scathain brings passion, beauty and old world charm to area restaurantsOnMilwaukee.com, August 4th
"Tim Dixon asked me to refinish 60 antique chairs in two weeks," says McWilliams. "He told me if I could get it done, there would be more work." McWilliams finished the job. And one thing led to another. Soon, he found himself seeking out artisans and...Read more
Design your yard as a series of roomsPress of Atlantic City, August 1st
Christopher D. Ritzert's quarter-acre garden behind his 1930s stone colonial in Washington, D.C., started out as an unremarkable back yard with a jumble of weeds and neighboring homes in full view...Read more
'Mad Rose' holds grand opening FridayPost Searchlight, July 31st
A prime example is a new bench made by Ron Betts from two antique chairs. A big attraction is a rare round baby crib that occupies a center space. There are hand-made, one of a kind baby and infant clothes. Add to the list, jewelry, lamps, rug and...Read more
A Confusing Look at Folk Art and American ModernismNew York Times, July 30th
Other pairings are less evocative. Two pellucid works by the Precisionist Sheeler showing room interiors furnished with antique chairs, tables and rugs are presented alongside a chair and a table similar to those in the paintings. A seated cat smoothly...Read more
Hold the onions! A Village Valentine's Day storyThe Villager, July 30th
Everybody carried bizarre objects: antique chairs, bagpipes, a boa constrictor. She felt like she was floating, escaping from prison to live in this exciting drug-filled carnival. At her favorite bookstore, St. Mark's Bookshop, she treated herself to a...Read more
Outdoor rooms with not-so-secret gardensChicago Daily Herald, July 27th
"I like the baby antique chairs under the weeping cherry. It's like a little wonderland," Sofia said. "What matters, what's really important when working outdoors is to create a sense of quiet, understated drama with a view of beauty," Ritzert said...Read more
More sex please, but just don't tell us to do itThe Guardian, July 17th
This is why you should think carefully before following the popular path of turning your “passion” – reupholstering antique chairs, say – into a career. Once you've absolutely got to do it, at 9am on a rainy Thursday, you could find yourself worse off...Read more
Mountain Brook decorator fills her home with charming antiques, unique collectionsAL.com, July 13th
A custom-made banquette provides comfortable seating, along with three antique chairs she found while antiquing in Atlanta. More of Thorpe's treasured collections can be found in the study. There she displays her antique horn cups, as well as countless...Read more