Hats have always been the crowning item in a man’s wardrobe. Chiefs in primitive cultures wore elaborate headdresses to identify themselves as leaders of their clans. Jewel-encrusted crowns have been popular with monarchs for millennia. And hats were so familiar as symbols of status to the ancient Romans that newly freed slaves received special hats to make sure they could move about as free men.

In the Western world, felt, leather, fur, and straw have long been the most common materials used by hatters. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, lower-class men in many areas of Europe were forbidden from wearing furs or fine embroidery, and their headwear reflected these laws. Commoners’ hats of this time were often made of felt or skin and looked like caps. Courtiers’ hats, however, were wide, with feathers, embroidery, and jewels. These hats were less practical and more symbolic, with no well-defined brim to shade the eyes or ward off the elements.

It was in the mid-1500s that headwear began to get noticeably taller. Caps were still worn by the lower classes, but taller, brimmed hats, adorned with feathers and made of felt, beaver, or other soft skins, were popular with the wealthy from about 1550 onward. The 1600s saw wider brims in men’s hats, morphing into the Puritan-style wide brim we associate with the pilgrims and Plymouth. Men in France and Spain wore wide, upturned brims like those immortalized in The Three Musketeers.

Brims became narrower in the 1700s, notably in France. Tricorne hats, like those worn by soldiers in the Revolutionary army, were popular with the upper classes. The lower classes wore them as well, though in leather or felt, and without the plumes of the aristocracy. In the second half of the 18th century, the modern top hat began to emerge in England, where relatively narrow-brimmed hats with high, rounded tops became fashionable in the 1780s. The opposite was true for the European and American peasantry, who wore wide brims and low tops, spawning what would become the cowboy hat.

By about 1820, the top hat had virtually replaced the traditional tall English hat. The top hat was worn by all classes of men for all occasions. Variations ranged from simple cylinders to hats with curved sides and upturned brims.

Top hats in various styles would remain popular until 1849, when London hatter William Bowler changed the style drastically by designing a short, rounded hat meant to be worn to the races. In England, the hat was called a bowler, after its creator, but in the United States, the hat became known as a derby, for its association with the track. The bowler was common among all classes for most of the Victorian era, while the top hat was preferred by the upper classes and for formal occasions.

The lower classes of this period often wore caps that we think of as Irish-style or newsboy caps. These were made of felt or tweed wool, and were often made in plaid or herringbo...

In America, different stylistic innovations were afoot. By the second half of the 19th century, cowboy hats were a well-established style. One name in the hat business from that era that is still a powerhouse today is Stetson. Founder John Stetson is said to have got his start in the hat business when he made himself a wide-brimmed beaver-felt hat for a hunting trip. These hats were light and easy to make, requiring no tanning of the material.

Soon Stetson founded his company and popularized the style among cowboys, gentlemen, and even the U.S. military. He called his hat "Boss of the Plains," after his time hunting and working in the American West. The "Boss" was soon the standard for western wear, and Stetson was forever synonymous with the word "hat" in America.

With the rise of industrialization in Western Europe and America, men could afford to own more than one or two hats. Seasonal hats quickly became the rage. In the spring and autumn, men wore derbies or similar hats with a scrunched peak, often called a trilby. Top hats were worn in the winter, and a major innovation in summer wear came at about the turn of the century—straw hats.

The most popular straw hat was the Panama. Men valued them for their elegant style, lightweight construction, and cooling straw weave. A more American and European variation on the straw hat is the straw boater, a low, flat-topped hat with a wide brim and a colored band. At the turn of the 20th century, this was the hot summer look.

Fedoras appeared in the 1920s. This medium-wide brimmed hat with a pinched front became the standard headwear for men throughout the year, though the bowler was still preferred by some. Varying styles of the fedora and trilby continued to emerge. For example, the flat-topped pork pie hat became connected to jazz and blues culture. Then there was the homburg, which was almost the same thing aesthetically as a fedora, except its brim was stiff and fixed rather than bendable.

As the 20th century drew to a close, the brims of hats became smaller, and by the 1960s, hats were no longer a necessary part of everyday fashion at all. To the consternation of many, baseball caps and Irish-style caps replaced many types of more formal men’s hats. In recent years, though, the fedora, pork pie, and trilby have seen a resurgence of popularity among younger generation, for whom all things old are often the most hip.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Des Chapeaux

Des Chapeaux

A French tribute to women's hats and other headwear from the 1940s... primarily magazine images, with some commenta… [read review or visit site]

The Black Tie Guide

The Black Tie Guide

Peter Marshall became an authority on formalwear out of necessity — he needed a tux to wear on the maiden transat… [read review or visit site]

Fashion Columbia Study Collection

Fashion Columbia Study Collection

The Fashion Columbia Study Collection (FCSC) is the digital home of the Columbia College Chicago’s fashion archiv… [read review or visit site]

American Hatpin Society

American Hatpin Society

Who knew there was so much to hatpin collecting? This site is all about great hatpin images - from recent hatpin co… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Most watched eBay auctions    

Antique Vintage Stetson Stratoliner Fedora Hat Perfect 1940s Big Size 7-5/8Dobbs Westward Twenty Felt Fedora Open Road Style Vintage Antique Hat 7 1/4 +boxStetson Open Road Hat 7 3/8 Silver BellyKnox $15 Felt Fedora - Early 1950's Vintage Antique Hat 7 1/4 TaggedVintage Polo Ralph Lauren 5 Panel 3m Hat Rare 1992 Rl2000 1993Vtg Antique Stetson Derby-bowler Hat Black Felt Ribbon 7 3/8 1900-20's SteampunkBeautiful Vintage Pilgrim, Fedora, Light Brown, Size 7 1/4, No BoxGenuine Vintage Lee 1940s Mens Genuine Panama Straw HatStetson Open Road Hat For X Bieber Silver Belly Collar Size 7 1/4Vintage Rare Xl Silk Top Hat Uk 7 3/8, Eur 60, Pami, Good ConditionVintage Men's Jc Penneys/towncraft Panama Hat Size 7 1/2Unused 1950s Dobbs Fifth Ave Ny Feather 7 1/8 Gray Fedora Hat Box Tag Lytton'sVintage Stetson Cowboy Hat 4x Beaver 7 3/8 Silver Belly Kettle Curl Mod CanadianVintage John B. Stetson The Open Road Model 4x Beaver Felt Cowboy HatVintage Stetson Sovereign Chatham Fedora Size 7 5/8 U.s/size 61 Euro FeltVintage Gray Mallory FedoraVintage Hat Stetson Western Cowboy Brown Xxxx 4x Beaver 7 1/4 Brown Resistol 20x Black Gold Hat Size 7 1/4" Used1980's Vintage Borsalino Alessandria Fedora Tan Hare/rabbit Fur Felt 7 1/8 - 57Antique Top Hat Lincoln Bennett & Company Piccadilly Sz 6 7/8Stetson Cowboy Hat In Original Box Royal Western1980's Vintage Borsalino Alessandria Fedora Olive Green "salice" Fur Felt 7 3/8Mens Stetson Hat Stampede Wf20533 1/2 Smoke Grey 71/8 Beaver In Box Vintage Burlington Black Bowler Hat Moss Bross Covent GardenVintage Cavanagh Edge Men’s Fedora Hat - 7 1/8 Brown With Original Box1880s Bowler Hat Marked Staunton Va Original Classic Size 7 1/8 Beaver HangerDobb's Fifth Avenue Charcoal Gray Felt Hat FedoraVintage Luxureze With Form Flow Leather Diplomat Hat Pomeroys 7-1/8 AshDobbs Fifth Avenue Ny Vintage Mens Hat Fedora 7 3/8 Gray Wool W/orig Hat BoxRare Vintage '30s-50s Willoughby 4x Beaver Luxury Felt Fedora Hat France19th Century Beaver? Top Hat, Steampunk, Reenactors, Theatrical Actors!Rare Vintage/antique Silk Top Hat, Dunlap, Ruoffs. Vintage Beaver? Top Hat By Mariner & Co, BostonVintage 1960's Resistol "990" Fedora: Traveler's Hat Cavanagh Edge Xxx 7 1/8Stetson "the Gun Club" Hat~size 7 1/8~~niceGenuine Resistol 4x Beaver Cowboy Hat Grey John Wayne Style VgcWormser Straw Fedora - Vintage Antique Hat 23" No Tag Nucord MilanMens John B. Stetson Size 7 3/4 4x Beaver HatVintage Orvis Lite Felt Fedora - Large / Xtra Large & Feather Band - Gently UsedVintage Barlesoni Qualite Superiore Fur Felt Fedora Size 60 7 1/2Vtg Stetson Cowboy Hat Buffalo Collection 4xxxx Size 7 1/4Vintage Knox Straw Pork Pie Hat Yellow Band New York 7 1/4 Coconut StrawVintage Chmamp Featherweight Fedora "chrome" Color Felt Hat +org Box Size 67/8Battered Old Stetson: Vintage '60s Olive Gray Felt Fedora Hat 7 1/8Antique Dunlap & Co Hatmakers Opera Top Hat Advertising Brush Ny Chicago PhilaThe Metal Hat Saver For Western Hats-"new"install In Your Vehicle-m. F. Products Adam Straw Hat Preowned Brim 1 1/2" Genuine Flex Milan Size 7 1/8Resistol Western Hat 20x Beaver Felt Black Gold Ec 7 1/4Good Condition Black John B Stetson 4x Beaver Western Felt Hat Size 7 1/4Resistol Stagecoach Self Conforming Hat Size 7 1/8Vintage The Detroit News Mesh Snapback HatChampion Sparkplug Trucker Hat....vintage..excellent ConditionVtg 90s Camel Cigarettes Joe Camel Tie Dye Snapback Hat - Kools Marlboro HipsterStetson Cowboy Hat 7 1/4Resistol...cowboy Hat...size 7 1/8"Vintage Men'sboater/skimmer Hat Size 7 1/2-appears To Be In Unworn ConditionStetson Gun Club Cowboy Hat Xxx Borsalino Alessandria Fedora 7 7/8Vintage Mens Fedora Knox Hat New York Black With Ribbon & Red Feather 7 1/4 NiceVintage Tischler Hut German Austrian Hat 16 Pins Goat Brush Whistler Octoberfest