Stained glass got its reputation for subliminal, breath-taking beauty first in medieval Europe, where it was incorporated into stunning Gothic cathedrals with their flying buttresses, rose windows, and sky-high ceilings. These graceful works of architecture wouldn’t be the same with out their rows and rows of stained glass windows, whose intricate designs and images seemed to glow in the sunlight, filling interior spaces with jewel-like color.

The process of adding ground-up metals to molten glass to give it color dates from ancient Roman times, when stained-glass windows first appeared. The technique was perfected around 1150, when pieces of colored glass were assembled into patterns and then fitted between soldered strips of lead. At first these windows were mostly geometric in design, but during the Renaissance, artists would actually paint on the colored glass to create enormous glass paintings, whose religious imagery was illuminated by natural light.

For centuries, the Catholic Church was the only organization in Europe wealthy enough to afford such extravagance. During the Victorian Era, secular stained glass did appear as coats of arms or diamond-shaped Dutch windows, but this was rare.

It wasn’t until the late 19th century that stained glass made its way into laypeople’s homes. In 1889, architect E.S. Prior developed a new kind of glass called slag glass, which had irregular texture and color. This kind of glass was favored by those in the Arts and Crafts movement, who employed stained glass in abstract, geometric patterns to produce slag glass lamps, among other objects. From this innovation, Christopher Whall invented a new style of stained glass that focused on the lines made by the lead and used very little paint.

Some of Whall’s students found their way to the Glass House studios, run by Mary Lowndes and A.J. Drury. Whall also influenced Sarah Purser who founded the Tower of Glass studio in Dublin, run by Whall’s colleague A.E. Childs—the studio led to a revival of stained glass in Ireland. Over the decades, Tower of Glass produced work by influential designers like Michael Healy, Wilhelmina Geddes, and Evie Hone.

Meanwhile, around the turn of the century, American artists John LaFarge and Louis Comfort Tiffany set out to put a modern-day spin on medieval ideas with their stained glass windows, lamps, and works of art glass. LaFarge, like Tiffany, began his career as a painter and brought a painterly sensibility to unpainted glass. Sometimes he would layer pieces of differently colored glass to achieve new hues, and in 1879 he even developed and copyrighted a type of opalescent glass. These two rivals made both church and home windows.

The work of these artists became more intricate as a new process allowed them to assemble their stained glass with copper instead of lead. Tiffany jumped on new electric lamp tec...

After Tiffany’s and LaFarge’s experiments, stained glass became a more common medium for decorative artists, who made stained glass in patterns and images that reflected the movement du jour—Art Nouveau, Arts and Crafts, Art Deco, De Stijl, and Bauhaus. Frank Lloyd Wright designed stained-glass windows in geometric patterns intended to complement the serene lines and patterns of his rooms and their furniture. Piet Mondrian made stained-glass windows that echoed his famous black-on-white grid paintings with their colored squares. Georges Braque, Marc Chagall, and Henri Matisse are just a few of the other artists who executed pieces in stained glass.

During World War II, much of the medieval and Gothic style glass in Europe, usually featuring narrative religious scenes, was destroyed. After the war—particularly in Germany—it was replaced with stained glass in the abstract geometric patterns of the day. In fact, Germany is credited with completely breaking the art of stained glass from its pictorial past, starting with ’20s artists like Johann Thorn Prikker, and continuing after the war with Georg Meistermann, whose symbolic work had a sense of movement, and Ludwig Schaffrath, who created tremendous walls of light.

In France, artist Jean Crotti is credited with developing a technique in the 1930s known as gemmail, in which no lead or copper is used between the pieces of colored glass. Instead, the different pieces of glass are fused together, creating a 3D illusion. Many great paintings have been reproduced in glass using this method.

Stained glass thrived again as an art medium in the 1970s as artists, particularly on the West Coast, experimented with the design, imagery, and illusions that could be produced with glass. Their experiments often featured highly detailed imagery, optical illusions, organic shapes, or jokes on the nature of glass and windows. Jad Fair, Paul Marioni, Fred Abrams, Peter Mollica, Dan Fenton, Narcissus Quagliata, Otto B. Rigan, Kathie Stackpole Bunnell, James Hubbell, Dick Weiss, and Judy Raffael are among these modern innovators.

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Recent News: Stained Glass

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Restored stained glass windows at Holyoke City Hall get replaced (photos)
MassLive.com, May 29th

52715 -Holyoke City Hall - Northeast Stained Glass of Newton NJ is returning two of the Holyoke City Hall refurbished stained glass windows in the auditorium. There are eight more in need of restoration according to James Pinto, owner of Northeast Glass...Read more

Roanoke church plans "Prom for Everyone" to protect stained glass windows
WDBJ7, May 28th

The church hopes to to extend their life with new ventilated glass coverings that will also allow people to see the stained glass from the outside. But the work doesn't come cheap. To help with the $65,000 price tag, church members are throwing a party...Read more

Stained-glass thieves target two local churches
Columbus Dispatch, May 27th

Two Columbus churches have been targeted by thieves for their stained-glass windows. Several windows were taken from Old First Presbyterian Church in Olde Towne East during two break-ins since May 18, said the Rev. Deb Bergmann, pastor. Less than 3 ...Read more

Stained Glass Theater Receives Large Donation
Four States Homepage, May 26th

"This was really a life saver for Stained Glass Theater," said Jeremey Wolfe, Stained Glass Theater Board President. The Stained Glass Theater is working towards rehabilitation after losing its original building to the 2011 tornado. "The old building...Read more

Stained Glass Windows Stolen from Columbus' Oldest Church Congregation
ABC6OnYourSide.com, May 26th

Burglars first busted into the church the weekend of May 16th and stole several stained glass pieces, then returned a week later when they walked off with even more glass, as well as breaking into the Pastor's study and an office belonging to a...Read more

Volunteers create stained-glass windows for historic Questa church
Santa Fe New Mexican, May 25th

Walking through the studio tucked into a back room at CarQuesta, an auto parts shop on N.M. 522, deacon and stained-glass artist Marcus Rael explained how the undertaking is turning out much like the renovation itself — a return to tradition but with...Read more

Lewis & Clark Library Stained Glass Windows Have A Future
CBS Local, May 25th

ST. LOUIS COUNTY, Mo. (KMOX) – Here's a follow-up to a story that KMOX News first brought you several months ago. Part of the effort to save the old branch of the Lewis & Clark library in north St. Louis County was to keep the historic stained glass...Read more

Stained-glass windows of Paris's Sainte-Chapelle restored
BBC News, May 19th

One of the wonders of medieval Europe is officially back on display in the centre of Paris. The stained glass windows of the Sainte-Chapelle have been painstakingly taken down and cleaned to remove centuries of dirt. The work has been done to mark 800 ...Read more