In 1901, J. N. Vance founded the New Crystal Glass Company in Bellaire, Ohio, with the help of Edward Muhleman. By December of that year, the new company’s name had changed to Imperial Glass Company, and Imperial’s new furnace produced its first glass in January 1904. From 1904 to 1909, Imperial targeted mass consumers with glassware items like tumblers, as well as jelly jars and lamp shades. Many of these items were imitations of cut glass, known as near-cut.

The company grew quickly. In 1905, new Sales Manager Victor G. Wicke sealed a wholesale deal with F. W. Woolworth Co. By 1907, its two furnaces were producing nearly at capacity. Imperial took its next step toward success in 1909 when it introduced its first lines of carnival glass, prompted in part by similar moves by Fenton, a nearby glass firm. Its first color of carnival glass was Rubigold (known today as marigold), and the line became Imperial’s most popular thus far, selling well both in the U.S. and abroad, until it was discontinued in the late 1920s.

In 1911 and 1912, Imperial introduced its Nucut and Nuart lines, respectively. Nucut was a line of imitation cut glassware, which was popular at the time; the Nuart line imitated Tiffany glass and was produced at first as lamp shades and later as vases.

Always attempting to respond to market trends, Imperial took a leap of faith into the growing art glass market in the 1920s. In 1923, Imperial released its Free Hand line, which was designed by art glass experts from the Netherlands. These pieces came in multiple colors and were extremely expensive, which contributed to their poor sales. Imperial released its Lead Lustre and Satin Iridescent Colors art glass lines in 1924 to help drive its art-glass sales, but Imperial never found success in this market, and Free Hand was discontinued in 1928. Today, however, these pieces are extremely collectible.

With the coming of the Depression, Imperial took a huge economic blow, as did many of its competitors. In February 1931, the company filed for bankruptcy and was reorganized in August as the Imperial Glass Corporation, with Earl W. Newton as its first president.

Under the leadership of Newton—with the help of designer Carl W. Gustkey—Imperial rebounded. In 1936, responding to the increasing popularity of elegant glass, Imperial released what would become its most successful line: Candlewick. The name was inspired by a Colonial-style needlework technique called candlewicking, and the design featured colorless pieces with small decorative glass beads around the top of each piece. By the 1950s, Imperial was producing more than 200 items in the Candlewick line, which was competing with Fostoria’s American line and Cambridge’s Rosepoint.

Around the same time as the introduction of Candlewick, Imperial began producing a line that would become almost as successful—Cape Cod. Newton secured a deal with Quaker Oats to...

The 1950s brought increasing scarcity of resources and stiff competition from cheap foreign glassware. As it moved into the 1960s, Imperial hoped to maintain its footing by reissuing some of its old lines, including some of its carnival glass. These new lines included New Carnival and Collectors Crystal.

But a sour economy and continued competition ultimately got the best of Imperial. In 1973, it became a subsidiary of New Jersey’s Lenox, Inc. Eight years later, New York investor Arthur Lorch bought Imperial from Lenox, but his inexperience in glass did not help the company’s fortunes. In 1982, Imperial was sold again to investor Robert Stahl and finally went out of business in 1984.

In its long life, Imperial created a vast array of products—more than 700 decorative and table pieces, including vases, bowls, candlesticks, dishes, jars, and baskets, along with 15 full lines of tableware. Many of its vases featured its signature heart-and-vine motif. In addition to Cape Cod and Candlewick, Star Holly (introduced in 1951) and Imperial Jewels (introduced 1916) were also quite successful.

Imperial created a handful of trademarks for its pieces over the decades, but two are more common and distinctive than the rest. The first was the Imperial Iron Cross, which appeared in 1913 on the No. 582 Fancy Colonial pattern. This mark is the intersection of two arrows at 90-degree angles, with the word IMPERIAL divided into four parts—“IM,” “PE,” “RI,” and “AL”—spaced around the two arrows. The second mark was introduced in 1951: an “I” superimposed over a “G.” Still, not all pieces are marked, so collectors should take other factors into consideration when trying to identify Imperial.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Pattern Glass School

Pattern Glass School

If you need schooling on Victorian-era pressed glass tableware aka EAPG (Early American Pattern Glass) aka Pattern … [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Discussion Forums

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Carnival Magnificent Old Imperial 8 Piece Wine Set In Electric PurpleAntique Imperial Grape Carnival Glass Wine Set Fabulous Color Decanter Wow !!Imperial Scroll Embossed Antique Carnival Berry Bowl ~electric Purple~gorgeous!Carnival Absolutely Phenomenal Purple Imperial Grape Wine Glass "electric Blue"Carnival Gorgeous Seven Piece Octagon Wine Set In MarigoldCarnival Super Mid Size Helios Ripple Large VaseCandlewick 4 Pc. Relish Set, Collection Of Mary Wetzel-tomalkaCarnival Three Beautiful Ripple Vases In Marigold. Three For OneCarnival Glass.imperial Grape 6 1/2 Inch Plate.electric Radium Iridescence.vgc.Imperial Gold Shoji Trellis 6 Rocks GlassesImperial Glass (ig) Sunset Ruby Carnival Field Flower Pitcher And Cups SetImperial Glass Shoji Trellis Martini Pitcher With Spoon - VaseImperial Glass Ultra Blue Clydesdale Horse Figure ~ Heisey MoldImperial Candlewick Vinegar & Oil Cruets With Tray. 3 Bubble StoppersImperial Glass Shoji Trellis 4 Gold Tumblers Set #2Imperial Glass Shoji Trellis Gold 4 Tumblers Hollywood RegencyPair Imperial Glass Shoji Trellis Gold Tumblers 2 Hollywood RegencyImperial Glass Gold Tumblers Toril De Oro Mint In Box! 6 Hollywood RegencyImperial's Old Green Loganberry VaseElegant Imperial Candlewick Footed Covered Bowl Salt & Pepper Shakers Vintage Imperial Marigold Carnival Glass Rooster On A NestImperial Glass Grape Carafe Green Silvery Carnival With Straw MarkCarnival Dynamite Curled Rib 8 1/2" Marigold VaseReally Nice Marigold Imperial Wine Decanter Nice Color Great Color & IridescenceVintage 6" 400/183 Three-toed Candlewick Mayonnaise Bowl - Imperial Glass Vintage Set 400/550 Colored W/ Three Other Candlewick Ashtrays-imperial GlassImperial Gold Spanish Windows Tumblers Glasses - Set Of 6Pristine Imperial Candlewick Cake Stand- 3 Ball Pedestal 11"Vintage Candlewick 400/87f Fan Vase W/ Floral Variation Cut PatternImperial Glass Caramel Slag Scottie Dog BookendsHtf Imperial Candlewick Dome Footed Cream & Sugar Imperial, Ruby Stained, Zipper Loop Table LampVintage Imperial Beaded Bullseye 11 1/2" Marigold Carnival Glass VaseSet 8 Northwood Grape & Cable Punch Bowl Cups Carnival Glass Amethyst Vtg Lot NrFlying Swans Caramel Slag Glass SetVintage Imperial Carnival Glass Lustre Rose Lustre Rare Smoke Pitcher 8-1/4" Candlewick Reference Books By Mary M. Wetzel-tomalka - Set Of 2 Imperial Glass Candlewick Open Handled 7" Bowl Lot X 2Imperial Red Robin Mug ***red, Good Color***Candlewick Tidbit Tray Imperial Glass Heart Shaped Handle 8 1/2" Wide PerfectImperial Milk Glass Pineapple Lidded Bowl/jar For Jam Or Marmalade, Nice!Vintage Imperial Milk Glass Trivet Ash Tray Colonial EagleRare Antique Chocolate/slag Glass Footed Celery Dish/spooner!!Scarce Imperial Candlewick 8 1/4" Footed Cake StandVintage Imperial Glass Candlewick Butter Dish Lid Elegant Depression ExcellentCarnival Glass Imperial Corn Vase In Blue Ig On BaseElegant Imperial Glass Candlewick 4 3/8" Domed Cigarette Box W Lid, Trinket BoxCarnival Glass Grape Design Punch Bowl Stand With CupsVintage Imperial Old Williamsburg Wine Glasses In Cobalt Blue (set Of Four)Vintage Imperial Marigold Carnival Glass Lustre Rose Creamer And Sugar Bowl SetFabulous Vintage Carnival Glass Imperial Poinsettia Milk Pitcher MarigoldCarnival Glass Field Flower Tumblers MarigoldVenus Rising Imperial Glass Deco Nude Figurine Bashful Charlotte PinkCandlewick - The Jewel Of Imperial Price Guides - Mary M. Wetzel-tomalka 6 Candlewick GobletsVintage Imperial Glass Candlewick Sugar And Creamer With Tray Very Nice!Imperial Grape Pattern Tumbler ***purple, Great Color***Vtg. Imperial Milk Glass - Trivet Ash Tray Wall Hanging - Set Of 4 - Orig. BoxVintage Imperial Glass Light Green Lace Edge Bowl Daisy And Buttons(10) Antique...vintage...h. C. Fry Glass Blue... Finger Bowls