Carnival glass, or inexpensively made glassware treated to have an iridescent sheen, has captivated collectors for years. Its eye-catching multicolor shimmer, often resembling oil on water, seems to change colors when viewed at different angles. Over the years, it's been dubbed "Taffeta," "Cinderella," and "Poor Man's Tiffany," as it gave the average housewife the ability to adorn her home with fancy vases and decorative bowls.
In 1907, Fenton Glass Company of Williamston, West Virginia, produced the first carnival glass, a style it referred to as "iridescent ware." Fenton called its first line Iridill and labeled it "Venetian Art." The idea was to mass-produce a beautiful product that could compete with the expensive, iridescent art glass made by Tiffany and Steuben.
This new kind of glass did not catch on in the way brothers Frank and John Fenton had hoped, but other manufacturers followed in Fenton's footsteps, employing the same iridization techniques, also called doping. The process involved spraying a pressed glass piece with metallic salts when it was hot from the mold and then re-firing it. Even though carnival glass was made in molds, it was often hand-finished by artisans—those piece are more sought-after today.
In 1908, Harry Northwood's glass company introduced its own iridescent ware called "Golden Iris," which was known for its marigold color. Dugan and Imperial glass companies soon jumped on the bandwagon. Millersburg only produced carnival glass for two years, but today its version is considered some of the finest.
Since iridescent ware was so cheaply made, most consumers didn't see it as quality glass and refused to pay top dollar for it. As its value plummeted, iridescent ware was soon being given away as prizes a carnivals, where midway winners could go home with shimmering vases, pitchers, goblets, tureens, or candy bowls.
This new market for carnival glass was a boon for Fenton, which produced iridescent ware in 150 patterns up until the late 1920s. Carnival glass was sold for mere pennies at five-and-dimes, and it could be bought in lots at minimal cost. For this reason, it was also given away as promotions at movie theaters and in grocery stories. For example, Imperial struck lucrative deals with companies like Woolsworth's and Quaker Oats.
In total, there are around 2,000 different patterns of carnival glass. Fenton's earliest patterns included Waterlily and Cattails, Vintage, Butterfly and Berries, Peacock Tail, R...
Dugan started out making carnival glass with molds they already had—vase patterns like Target and Wide Rib, Quill, Honeycomb, Jeweled Heart, Vineyard, and Pulled Loop—but soon they made patterns specifically for iridescent ware, like Farmyard, Christmas Compote, Heavy Iris, and Roundup.
With so much competition, glass companies distinguished themselves by developing their own unique carnival treatments. In most pieces of carnival glass, the main color of the piece was usually named for the base color before the glass was treated. Northwood’s marigold, which featured an orangish treatment on a clear base, was an exception to this rule. Northwood also developed distinctive carnival colors in amethyst, cobalt blue, and green, as well as in pastels, ice blue and ice green, and white.
Dugan, meanwhile, figured out how to create yet another brand of orange. The company began with a basic marigold spray, but it applied the color to glass made with bone ash, creating a peach opalescent color. Millersberg excelled in a particularly bright and shiny form of iridescent glass it called radium. Imperial made its mark with its purple and helios colors—the latter being a silvery treatment on greenish glass—as well as smoke, which was a gray treatment applied to clear glass. And Fenton was known for its vivid red, especially in the early '20s.
One early version of carnival glass known as Vaseline or uranium glass was produced by spraying uranium salts on a piece. These pieces can be identified today by their green luminescence in UV light.
Cambridge, U.S. Glass, Westmoreland, Fostoria, Jenkins, McKee, and Higbee also produced their own versions of carnival glass, and it was manufactured all over the globe, in places like England, Scandinavia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Australia, Argentina, and Mexico.
By 1925, carnival glass started to fall out of favor with Americans, and many U.S. glass companies quit producing it during the Great Depression. European glass makers continued to produce it until the 1940s. Sometime after World War II, this once-dismissed iridescent ware was dubbed carnival glass, and it became collectible.
Later in the 20th century, glass companies began to produce iridescent glass again, although these second-generation pieces do not interest collectors. The most sought-after carnival glass pieces are from the heyday of carnival glass, which was 1907-1930. Thus, collectors should be wary of these reproductions, which mimic the original carnival glass patterns and colors.
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Recent News: Carnival Glass
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Carnival glass show is making a returnHarborough Mail, September 16th
Carnival glass is the name given to pressed glass that was made in the early 1900s, through the Art Nouveau and Art Deco periods up to the present day. The event is being held at The Three Swans Hotel from Friday, September 19, until Sunday, September ...Read more
Brice Stump: With antiques, memories are what matterDelmarva Daily Times, September 13th
It seems, when their parents or grandparents passed and their houses were cleaned out, one of the dearest things family members wanted to take home was the mantel clock, the mixing bowls, rolling pin, grandmother's dishes, carnival glass and those ...Read more
Antiques & Collectibles: Twentieth Century snack sets dish up new farePress of Atlantic City, September 12th
Answer: Your "Harvest" pattern carnival glass snack sets were made during the 1970s by the Indiana Glass division of Lancaster Colony Corp. Established in 1897 as Beatty-Brady Glass Co. by James Beatty and George Brady, the company's name was ...Read more
Bena Mae's Kitchen: Clutter BegoneThe News Journal, September 12th
They knew my tastes, my passions for floe blue, carnival glass, depression glass, old ironstone, wooden bread bowls, stone crocks and things of that ilk. And they drew me in like a fisherman with a large mouth bass on his line. They hooked me every time...Read more
Volunteer Firefighters Watch As Home Goes Up In FlamesFOX 29, September 4th
She said their home was full of antiques, like her grandmother's sewing machine, old records, newspapers and books. "There's my antique color glass. I collected carnival glass. This is my china when I was a little girl that was in my hope chest," Tracy...Read more
Multi-vendor emporium moves to Prescott Valley PlazaPrescott Valley Tribune, August 27th
Shabby chic also reigns with vintage styles, whitewashed antique trunks, depression, milk and carnival glass. Luebke also takes specialty orders, so if you are looking for that old birdcage or perhaps an Elvis bobble head, he may be able to find it...Read more
After nearly 40 years, Norfolk antique shop closing its doorsNorfolk Daily News, August 20th
The shop has carried a wide variety of antiques, including old military memorabilia, jewelry and carnival glass. Mrs. Naslund said she believes her husband's interest in antiques was sparked by his uncle. Naslund agreed before adding the idea of...Read more
Heart of America Carnival Glass Association AuctionMaine Antique Digest, August 14th
A glass bell made as a 1912 souvenir for the Portland, Oregon, convention of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (BPOE)was the key item at the Heart of America Carnival Glass Association convention sale on May 3, selling for $11,000 (no buyer's ...Read more