Carnival glass, or inexpensively made glassware treated to have an iridescent sheen, has captivated collectors for years. Its eye-catching multicolor shimmer, often resembling oil on water, seems to change colors when viewed at different angles. Over the years, it's been dubbed "Taffeta," "Cinderella," and "Poor Man's Tiffany," as it gave the average housewife the ability to adorn her home with fancy vases and decorative bowls.
In 1907, Fenton Glass Company of Williamston, West Virginia, produced the first carnival glass, a style it referred to as "iridescent ware." Fenton called its first line Iridill and labeled it "Venetian Art." The idea was to mass-produce a beautiful product that could compete with the expensive, iridescent art glass made by Tiffany and Steuben.
This new kind of glass did not catch on in the way brothers Frank and John Fenton had hoped, but other manufacturers followed in Fenton's footsteps, employing the same iridization techniques, also called doping. The process involved spraying a pressed glass piece with metallic salts when it was hot from the mold and then re-firing it. Even though carnival glass was made in molds, it was often hand-finished by artisans—those piece are more sought-after today.
In 1908, Harry Northwood's glass company introduced its own iridescent ware called "Golden Iris," which was known for its marigold color. Dugan and Imperial glass companies soon jumped on the bandwagon. Millersburg only produced carnival glass for two years, but today its version is considered some of the finest.
Since iridescent ware was so cheaply made, most consumers didn't see it as quality glass and refused to pay top dollar for it. As its value plummeted, iridescent ware was soon being given away as prizes a carnivals, where midway winners could go home with shimmering vases, pitchers, goblets, tureens, or candy bowls.
This new market for carnival glass was a boon for Fenton, which produced iridescent ware in 150 patterns up until the late 1920s. Carnival glass was sold for mere pennies at five-and-dimes, and it could be bought in lots at minimal cost. For this reason, it was also given away as promotions at movie theaters and in grocery stories. For example, Imperial struck lucrative deals with companies like Woolsworth's and Quaker Oats.
In total, there are around 2,000 different patterns of carnival glass. Fenton's earliest patterns included Waterlily and Cattails, Vintage, Butterfly and Berries, Peacock Tail, R...
Dugan started out making carnival glass with molds they already had—vase patterns like Target and Wide Rib, Quill, Honeycomb, Jeweled Heart, Vineyard, and Pulled Loop—but soon they made patterns specifically for iridescent ware, like Farmyard, Christmas Compote, Heavy Iris, and Roundup.
With so much competition, glass companies distinguished themselves by developing their own unique carnival treatments. In most pieces of carnival glass, the main color of the piece was usually named for the base color before the glass was treated. Northwood’s marigold, which featured an orangish treatment on a clear base, was an exception to this rule. Northwood also developed distinctive carnival colors in amethyst, cobalt blue, and green, as well as in pastels, ice blue and ice green, and white.
Dugan, meanwhile, figured out how to create yet another brand of orange. The company began with a basic marigold spray, but it applied the color to glass made with bone ash, creating a peach opalescent color. Millersberg excelled in a particularly bright and shiny form of iridescent glass it called radium. Imperial made its mark with its purple and helios colors—the latter being a silvery treatment on greenish glass—as well as smoke, which was a gray treatment applied to clear glass. And Fenton was known for its vivid red, especially in the early '20s.
One early version of carnival glass known as Vaseline or uranium glass was produced by spraying uranium salts on a piece. These pieces can be identified today by their green luminescence in UV light.
Cambridge, U.S. Glass, Westmoreland, Fostoria, Jenkins, McKee, and Higbee also produced their own versions of carnival glass, and it was manufactured all over the globe, in places like England, Scandinavia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Australia, Argentina, and Mexico.
By 1925, carnival glass started to fall out of favor with Americans, and many U.S. glass companies quit producing it during the Great Depression. European glass makers continued to produce it until the 1940s. Sometime after World War II, this once-dismissed iridescent ware was dubbed carnival glass, and it became collectible.
Later in the 20th century, glass companies began to produce iridescent glass again, although these second-generation pieces do not interest collectors. The most sought-after carnival glass pieces are from the heyday of carnival glass, which was 1907-1930. Thus, collectors should be wary of these reproductions, which mimic the original carnival glass patterns and colors.
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Recent News: Carnival Glass
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'Project Keepsake' Collects Life StoriesWUTC, December 15th
Nancy Ratcliffe wrote about two pieces of Carnival glass that her grandmother purchased from the rolling store. Mitzi Boyd wrote about an old pound cake pan she inherited from her beloved, Nanny Keith. Bob Wright wrote about his mother's guitar. Renea ...Read more
Concord holds fall commencementIndependentherald.com, December 13th
This legacy of giving is further reflected in the collection of carnival glass that belonged to their late sister, Grace Wilkes, and that is displayed in the Wilkes Museum in University Point. (Ms. Wilkes was unable to attend the ceremony.) A reception...Read more
Unconventional Holiday ShoppingThe Forum Newsgroup, December 11th
In the kitchen, there were a number of commemorative bicentennial carnival glass plates for around $10 each, presented to a collector of carnival glass born in 1976. If you want the best selection at these sales, arrive early, but if you want the best...Read more
Tom and Jerry:Bee news.com, December 2nd
Wayne Shanley prepares a Tom and Jerry for customers at Schwabl’s, 789 Center Wayne Shanley prepares a Tom and Jerry for customers at Schwabl's, 789 Center Road in West Seneca, and serves it in a vintage carnival peach lustre glass...Read more
Small, local retailers offer emphasis on customer service, unique itemsCharlotte Observer, November 28th
Also available in the vintage item showcase was a bonsai tree fashioned from delicate colored glass, pieces of iridescent carnival glass that have become popular collectibles, and Janet, one of only 5,000 dolls produced by a Chinese manufacturer for ...Read more
A Goddess of Harvest Bowl Tops Auction at $52500Maine Antique Digest, November 26th
A Goddess of Harvest bowl by Fenton Art Glass Company led what may be the highest-grossing carnival glass auction in history. The 267-lot Poucher carnival glass collection auction, held September 13 in Kansas City, Missouri, at the Embassy Suites...Read more
Thanksgiving memories – food, family and time to count our blessings: Guest ...MassLive.com, November 24th
My mother's carnival glass bowl was filled to the brim with mixed nuts. I think we owned two nutcrackers so we all waited patiently (or not) to crack open walnuts, pecans, brazil nuts, etc. We really looked forward to this bi-annual ritual. I often...Read more
Heart of America Carnival Glass Association AuctionMaine Antique Digest, August 14th
A glass bell made as a 1912 souvenir for the Portland, Oregon, convention of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks (BPOE)was the key item at the Heart of America Carnival Glass Association convention sale on May 3, selling for $11,000 (no buyer's ...Read more