Carnival glass, or inexpensively made glassware treated to have an iridescent sheen, has captivated collectors for years. Its eye-catching multicolor shimmer, often resembling oil on water, seems to change colors when viewed at different angles. Over the years, it's been dubbed "Taffeta," "Cinderella," and "Poor Man's Tiffany," as it gave the average housewife the ability to adorn her home with fancy vases and decorative bowls.
In 1907, Fenton Glass Company of Williamston, West Virginia, produced the first carnival glass, a style it referred to as "iridescent ware." Fenton called its first line Iridill and labeled it "Venetian Art." The idea was to mass-produce a beautiful product that could compete with the expensive, iridescent art glass made by Tiffany and Steuben.
This new kind of glass did not catch on in the way brothers Frank and John Fenton had hoped, but other manufacturers followed in Fenton's footsteps, employing the same iridization techniques, also called doping. The process involved spraying a pressed glass piece with metallic salts when it was hot from the mold and then re-firing it. Even though carnival glass was made in molds, it was often hand-finished by artisans—those piece are more sought-after today.
In 1908, Harry Northwood's glass company introduced its own iridescent ware called "Golden Iris," which was known for its marigold color. Dugan and Imperial glass companies soon jumped on the bandwagon. Millersburg only produced carnival glass for two years, but today its version is considered some of the finest.
Since iridescent ware was so cheaply made, most consumers didn't see it as quality glass and refused to pay top dollar for it. As its value plummeted, iridescent ware was soon being given away as prizes a carnivals, where midway winners could go home with shimmering vases, pitchers, goblets, tureens, or candy bowls.
This new market for carnival glass was a boon for Fenton, which produced iridescent ware in 150 patterns up until the late 1920s. Carnival glass was sold for mere pennies at five-and-dimes, and it could be bought in lots at minimal cost. For this reason, it was also given away as promotions at movie theaters and in grocery stories. For example, Imperial struck lucrative deals with companies like Woolsworth's and Quaker Oats.
In total, there are around 2,000 different patterns of carnival glass. Fenton's earliest patterns included Waterlily and Cattails, Vintage, Butterfly and Berries, Peacock Tail, R...
Dugan started out making carnival glass with molds they already had—vase patterns like Target and Wide Rib, Quill, Honeycomb, Jeweled Heart, Vineyard, and Pulled Loop—but soon they made patterns specifically for iridescent ware, like Farmyard, Christmas Compote, Heavy Iris, and Roundup.
With so much competition, glass companies distinguished themselves by developing their own unique carnival treatments. In most pieces of carnival glass, the main color of the piece was usually named for the base color before the glass was treated. Northwood’s marigold, which featured an orangish treatment on a clear base, was an exception to this rule. Northwood also developed distinctive carnival colors in amethyst, cobalt blue, and green, as well as in pastels, ice blue and ice green, and white.
Dugan, meanwhile, figured out how to create yet another brand of orange. The company began with a basic marigold spray, but it applied the color to glass made with bone ash, creating a peach opalescent color. Millersberg excelled in a particularly bright and shiny form of iridescent glass it called radium. Imperial made its mark with its purple and helios colors—the latter being a silvery treatment on greenish glass—as well as smoke, which was a gray treatment applied to clear glass. And Fenton was known for its vivid red, especially in the early '20s.
One early version of carnival glass known as Vaseline or uranium glass was produced by spraying uranium salts on a piece. These pieces can be identified today by their green luminescence in UV light.
Cambridge, U.S. Glass, Westmoreland, Fostoria, Jenkins, McKee, and Higbee also produced their own versions of carnival glass, and it was manufactured all over the globe, in places like England, Scandinavia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Australia, Argentina, and Mexico.
By 1925, carnival glass started to fall out of favor with Americans, and many U.S. glass companies quit producing it during the Great Depression. European glass makers continued to produce it until the 1940s. Sometime after World War II, this once-dismissed iridescent ware was dubbed carnival glass, and it became collectible.
Later in the 20th century, glass companies began to produce iridescent glass again, although these second-generation pieces do not interest collectors. The most sought-after carnival glass pieces are from the heyday of carnival glass, which was 1907-1930. Thus, collectors should be wary of these reproductions, which mimic the original carnival glass patterns and colors.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
David Doty's Carnival Glass Website
Pattern Glass School
Clubs & Associations
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Carnival Glass
Source: Google News
Business Spotlight: Mr. and Mrs. 'Jones'Springfield Business Journal, February 1st
If variety is the spice of life, Relics Antique Mall LLC is the whole spice cabinet. In the 90,000-square-foot expanse, a $17,500 pair of brass sconces sit next to a $50 “portrait of an older woman” and just around the corner is a $5 box of glass...Read more
Eisenberg pig-to-market fur clip popular with collectorsPress of Atlantic City, January 29th
Question: I paid $5 at a yard sale for a metal, enamel and rhinestone brooch that is a pig dressed in a bonnet and shawl carrying a basket of flowers. It is 3½ inches high, marked "Eisenberg Original" and set in a hinged frame with prongs that attach...Read more
New museum exhibit features three local journalistsThe Garden City Telegram, January 28th
Displayed in a case near the museum's gift shop and Finney County Veteran's Exhibit, the pieces include bowls, vases and plates made of Goofus Glass, an early version of Carnival Glass that was decorated with unfired paint. Meanwhile, the Finney County ...Read more
Artist profile: Chris OliverSiskiyou Daily News, January 28th
This involves placing gold nuggets on the tubing and heating it; as the impurities are burned out of the gold, the glass acquires a lovely pink tone seen in “cranberry” or “carnival” glass. Oliver also uses silver to produce a white or silvery effect...Read more
Joe Rosson: Arsenic added to glass made it opalescent when heatedKnoxville News Sentinel, January 23rd
Frank ended up in Williamstown, where, in 1907, he essentially invented Carnival Glass. The depression and war years were hard on Fenton Art Glass, and they mainly produced utilitarian wares that people needed. By the late 1940s, a new generation was ...Read more
Piapot Antique and Collectibles Show will be good despite economymysask.com, January 15th
The event will feature Canadiana items; toys; coins; furniture; farm collectibles; 1940-60s, depression and carnival glass; sports cards; history books; china and jewelry. There is also some artistic pieces including one potter from Eastend who will...Read more
Cowboy RadioWilson County News, January 13th
Incidentally, the Fenton Art Glass Company began in 1905 and produced crystal, carnival glass, opalescent, milk glass, Vasa Murrhina and various other types of art glass. Q: During the 1940s, I wrote dozens of letters to major motion picture stars...Read more
Carnival Glass Presentation & Exhibit Coming to Palmetto Historical ParkThe Bradenton Times, October 15th
PALMETTO — The Palmetto Historical Park and Manatee Agricultural Museum is sponsoring a free presentation, "Carnival Glass - The Magic and the Mystery," on Friday, November 13th, 10:30 AM and again on Saturday, November 21st, 1:00 PM in the ...Read more