When bisque dolls began appearing in France during the 1850s, their matte finish offered a trendy, realistic alternative to the glossy china dolls popular at the time. Though both were made from porcelain, collectors refer to unglazed tinted dolls as bisque and shiny glazed dolls as china, while the term porcelain is often reserved for contemporary dolls.

Most bisque dolls were manufactured in France or the Thuringia region of Germany, an area famous for its natural clay deposits. Successful German firms like Kämmer & Reinhardt, Kestner, Heubach Koppelsdorf, and Simon & Halbig competed with French producers such as Bru Jne, Jumeau, Huret, and Steiner.

Early bisque doll heads were pressed into molds by hand, but eventually, this thick clay paste was improved with a thinner, pourable slip that resulted in a smoother surface texture and more intricate detailing. Most items had a mold number marked into the interior portion of the head, and sometimes a company name was stamped on the head or chest, too.

Bisque dolls were generally fired once, then painted to create skin tones and facial features, and finally fired again. These dolls are sometimes referred to as “blonde bisque” as they were typically produced with a light blonde shade of molded hair. However, a smaller segment of bisque products, called Parian dolls, were made from unpainted white porcelain. The first Parian mixture was developed in the late 1850s, possibly by John Mountford of the Copeland & Garrett company (later known as Spode).

Also called stone china, statuary porcelain, or carrara, Parian became fashionable for its similarity to expensive white marble: When finished, Parian dolls have a silky smooth surface and are semi-translucent. Most Parian doll heads were manufactured in Germany, and their porcelain parts were mounted onto cotton or leather bodies filled with fabric and sawdust. These expensive dolls were often purchased to decorate adult drawing rooms, rather than as playthings for children.

Though Parian dolls had a brief moment of success alongside tinted bisque, their popularity declined in the 1880s. Meanwhile, the market for skin-toned bisque dolls continued to boom, in part because of their heightened realism.

Bisque figures fall into three types—adult fashion dolls, bébé or baby dolls, and character dolls, which imitated a certain costume or personality. The most common bisque dolls f...

The first bisque dolls came with molded hair, eyes, and mouths, but eventually incorporated glass eyes that opened and closed, complex wigs made from human or animal hair, and even inset teeth. While some bisque heads and limbs came already attached to a stuffed cloth body, often the finest porcelain parts were sold separately for home assembly. These ornate heads were made with small holes below the neckline so they could be hand sewn onto bodies made from fabric, leather, composition, or wood. On some Parian busts, the careful treatment of the shoulders and neckline suggests that these were actually packaged as decorative art objects to display in the home, for these details would have been obscured if a doll was fully assembled and clothed.

Originally, the most intricate heads were produced in Germany and shipped for sale in France and the United States, though toward the end of the 19th century, French companies began manufacturing their own detailed heads to match their dolls’ ornate accessories. Many of the most innovative design advancements also occurred in France, like Ainé Blampoix’s patent for applying glass eyes or Mlle Huret’s swivel neck that made heads easy to tilt and turn.

Besides their delicate facial features, doll heads were lavished with decorative touches, including miniature flowers, combs, feathers, lace, and jewels. In keeping with prevailing trends of the Victorian era, the most exquisite bisque dolls came with elaborately styled wigs of real hair pinned to a cork pate, or pierced ears with tiny glass earrings. Other dolls were made with carefully painted feet, sometimes covered in patterned stockings or trendy leather boots.

In Paris, the Passage Choiseul became the locus of doll fashion, where milliners, wig-makers, corset and dress designers, and cobblers all produced exquisitely detailed accoutrements. Known as “fashion dolls” or “Parisiennes,” the bisque dolls assembled here wore elaborate outfits mirroring current trends. These dolls also acted as miniature mannequins, which could be exported abroad so that affluent women could keep abreast of clothing styles in France.

Despite the prevailing belief that fashion dolls were only for adult women, the introduction of doll advertising and display stands aimed directly at children suggests that many of these high-priced bisque dolls were actually meant for kids, albeit very wealthy ones.

In the late 19th century, the first significant numbers of male dolls were also made with bisque. These included the small, six-inch versions used as butlers in doll houses, but also larger varieties imitating elegantly dressed gentlemen in fanciful foreign costumes. Because these figures typically utilized the same molds and patterns as female dolls, it was easier to disguise them as young boys rather than men, whose rounded faces more closely resembled a female doll.

In the early 20th century, bisque was gradually replaced by a variety of other materials, like composition and plastic, as the baby-doll fad dominated the market. During the 1970s and '80s, a revival of interest in classic bisque designs inspired many expensive reproductions aimed at adult doll collectors. Today, typically the most desirable antique bisque dolls are the early products of reputable French companies like Jumeau, Bru, and Huret, or German-made character dolls.

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Library hosts antiques appraisal event
Chippewa Herald, October 22nd

Advertising: including posters, lithographed tin, paper and figural objects. Folk art: including carvings, quilts, weathervanes, windmill weights and “outsider” art. Assorted toys: including dolls (bisque, composition and plastic), windups and...Read more

From militaria to film memorabilia
Nafferton Today, October 20th

There is a good selection of bisque head, composition and other dolls including Chad Valley Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs set at £400 - £600, Deans Rag Book Disney figures, German porcelain by Simon and Halbig, Armand Marseille etc. Teddy bears and...Read more

She was a real doll
Salisbury Journal, October 16th

husband Alan ran the Doll Museum in the town for the last 32 years, where Daphne would make the dolls, most notably the four foot Princess Diana doll with her accompanying baby William doll, along with hundreds of effigies made from wax and bisque...Read more

Tale of Alabama Indestructible Dolls fascinating part of Roanoke history
The Birmingham News - al.com, October 10th

Ella Louise Guantt, who would later marry Samuel Swainswright "Bud" Smith, became a doll inventor by accident in 1897, when a neighbor girl named Verna Pitts broke her porcelain bisque doll and came to "Miss Ella" for help. Ella, who loved children ...Read more

100 YEARS OF KEWPIES: Hickman High School embraces unusual mascot
Columbia Missourian, October 10th

The ceramic bisque dolls of her Kewpies, which sold from 25 cents to $1.25, became ubiquitous after their arrival in 1912. ... Apparently, the school secretary owned a Kewpie doll, as they were popular figurines then, and she kept it on her desk. At...Read more

Bonhams Sells Most Expensive Doll in the World for £242500
artnet News, September 26th

Two other Kämmer & Reinhardt dolls, designed by Berlin artist and professor Lewin-Funcke, rounded out the evening's top three lots, all of which doubled or tripled their pre-sale estimates. A bisque head doll modeled after one of Lewin-Funcke's four ...Read more

Life-like Porcelain Doll Sets Auction Record for Any Doll
ArtfixDaily, September 25th

A beautiful bisque head doll by Kammer & Reinhardt, with a white cotton dress and light brown shoulder length hair, sold for £170,500 against £40,000-60,000 estimates. The artist Professor Lewin-Funcke designed dolls for Kammer & Reinhardt and this...Read more

Tableware by any name just as sweet
HeraldNet, September 25th

Kestner, Simon & Halbig, Armand Marseille, and Gebruder Heubach made bisque heads for the dolls. If you find a manufacturer's mark on the doll's head on the back of the neck, you can identify the maker. Dolls with composition forearms and lower legs...Read more