When bisque dolls began appearing in France during the 1850s, their matte finish offered a trendy, realistic alternative to the glossy china dolls popular at the time. Though both were made from porcelain, collectors refer to unglazed tinted dolls as bisque and shiny glazed dolls as china, while the term porcelain is often reserved for contemporary dolls.

Most bisque dolls were manufactured in France or the Thuringia region of Germany, an area famous for its natural clay deposits. Successful German firms like Kämmer & Reinhardt, Kestner, Heubach Koppelsdorf, and Simon & Halbig competed with French producers such as Bru Jne, Jumeau, Huret, and Steiner.

Early bisque doll heads were pressed into molds by hand, but eventually, this thick clay paste was improved with a thinner, pourable slip that resulted in a smoother surface texture and more intricate detailing. Most items had a mold number marked into the interior portion of the head, and sometimes a company name was stamped on the head or chest, too.

Bisque dolls were generally fired once, then painted to create skin tones and facial features, and finally fired again. These dolls are sometimes referred to as “blonde bisque” as they were typically produced with a light blonde shade of molded hair. However, a smaller segment of bisque products, called Parian dolls, were made from unpainted white porcelain. The first Parian mixture was developed in the late 1850s, possibly by John Mountford of the Copeland & Garrett company (later known as Spode).

Also called stone china, statuary porcelain, or carrara, Parian became fashionable for its similarity to expensive white marble: When finished, Parian dolls have a silky smooth surface and are semi-translucent. Most Parian doll heads were manufactured in Germany, and their porcelain parts were mounted onto cotton or leather bodies filled with fabric and sawdust. These expensive dolls were often purchased to decorate adult drawing rooms, rather than as playthings for children.

Though Parian dolls had a brief moment of success alongside tinted bisque, their popularity declined in the 1880s. Meanwhile, the market for skin-toned bisque dolls continued to boom, in part because of their heightened realism.

Bisque figures fall into three types—adult fashion dolls, bébé or baby dolls, and character dolls, which imitated a certain costume or personality. The most common bisque dolls f...

The first bisque dolls came with molded hair, eyes, and mouths, but eventually incorporated glass eyes that opened and closed, complex wigs made from human or animal hair, and even inset teeth. While some bisque heads and limbs came already attached to a stuffed cloth body, often the finest porcelain parts were sold separately for home assembly. These ornate heads were made with small holes below the neckline so they could be hand sewn onto bodies made from fabric, leather, composition, or wood. On some Parian busts, the careful treatment of the shoulders and neckline suggests that these were actually packaged as decorative art objects to display in the home, for these details would have been obscured if a doll was fully assembled and clothed.

Originally, the most intricate heads were produced in Germany and shipped for sale in France and the United States, though toward the end of the 19th century, French companies began manufacturing their own detailed heads to match their dolls’ ornate accessories. Many of the most innovative design advancements also occurred in France, like Ainé Blampoix’s patent for applying glass eyes or Mlle Huret’s swivel neck that made heads easy to tilt and turn.

Besides their delicate facial features, doll heads were lavished with decorative touches, including miniature flowers, combs, feathers, lace, and jewels. In keeping with prevailing trends of the Victorian era, the most exquisite bisque dolls came with elaborately styled wigs of real hair pinned to a cork pate, or pierced ears with tiny glass earrings. Other dolls were made with carefully painted feet, sometimes covered in patterned stockings or trendy leather boots.

In Paris, the Passage Choiseul became the locus of doll fashion, where milliners, wig-makers, corset and dress designers, and cobblers all produced exquisitely detailed accoutrements. Known as “fashion dolls” or “Parisiennes,” the bisque dolls assembled here wore elaborate outfits mirroring current trends. These dolls also acted as miniature mannequins, which could be exported abroad so that affluent women could keep abreast of clothing styles in France.

Despite the prevailing belief that fashion dolls were only for adult women, the introduction of doll advertising and display stands aimed directly at children suggests that many of these high-priced bisque dolls were actually meant for kids, albeit very wealthy ones.

In the late 19th century, the first significant numbers of male dolls were also made with bisque. These included the small, six-inch versions used as butlers in doll houses, but also larger varieties imitating elegantly dressed gentlemen in fanciful foreign costumes. Because these figures typically utilized the same molds and patterns as female dolls, it was easier to disguise them as young boys rather than men, whose rounded faces more closely resembled a female doll.

In the early 20th century, bisque was gradually replaced by a variety of other materials, like composition and plastic, as the baby-doll fad dominated the market. During the 1970s and '80s, a revival of interest in classic bisque designs inspired many expensive reproductions aimed at adult doll collectors. Today, typically the most desirable antique bisque dolls are the early products of reputable French companies like Jumeau, Bru, and Huret, or German-made character dolls.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)



This densely packed index of antique and vintage dolls claims to offer over 10,000 images of dolls from the 1800s … [read review or visit site]

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Rhonda Wilson's collection of 1950s dolls, organized by name (Ginny and friends, Littlest Angel and friends, etc.) … [read review or visit site]

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylee's extensive collection of vintage dolls from the 1930s to 90s. Click the balloons to browse. Though Kaylee s… [read review or visit site]

Museum of Childhood

Museum of Childhood

Embrace your inner child on this website from the Victoria and Albert Museum, filled with high-quality images and i… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Discussion Forums

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll #2*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Dark Skin Bisque Doll #3Old Antique German Bisque Head Simon Halbig And Heinrich Handwerck Doll C.1920Antique German Bisque Turned Doll Head 1123 Abg KestnerRare Bleuette Size Friend Mon Cherie Limoges French Antique Doll *~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll Scottish Girl?*~*estate Find~*~ Antique Bisque Doll Jumeau 14" Unknown Antique Character Baby Unique Features !!!*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque *native American Indian Doll*Antique French Sfbj 245 Rare Googly Googlie Bisque Doll Large Blue Glass Eyes*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll Scottish Boy?Antique #8 Simon Halbig S & H Jointed Doll 20 In.*~*estate Find~*~ Antique Bisque Doll SfbjAntique French Bisque Doll Sfbj 60 Bluette 12 O Mouth Vtg Retro Home DecorativeRare Antique Mask Faced Hug Me Kiddies Kid Little Bright Eyes Googly Doll Antique German Heinrich Handwerck #4 Simon Halbig 24" Doll For RepairRare Large 37 Tall German Antique 142 J D Kestner Antique Doll & Original DressVintage German Bisque Doll*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll10" Antique Petite Rare Cabinet Size Composition Body14" Antique Jd Kestner 211*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll #8Antique Sweet Painted Character Baby Bp... 13 1/2"...~ Pretty!!antique 27.5" K*r Simon Halbig Child Doll .... Repainted Body ~Beautiful Antique Replica Sailor Dress For Bru Jne Or Jumeau Doll Beautiful Antique Replica Dress For French Bru Jne Or Jumeau Doll Small Antique Halbig Bisque German Girl Doll 126 2/0 All OriginalAntique German Kestner 146 Bisque Head Doll K 1/2 14 1/2 GermanySweet French Jullien Bisque/comp Artist Doll By Margaret-anne Wolf 4u2dressRare All Bisque Antique Pouty Character Doll House Gebruder Heubach Jd Kestner ?Genuine Antique French Bisque Doll Sfbj Paris 6 - 21 InchesLarge 24" Antique Kestner J.d.k. 214 German Doll Tlc For Parts And RepairGerman Doll Large Bisque Turned Shoulderhead Alt Beck Germany 19" Leather Decor*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll **head Only No Body***~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Baby Doll*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll *kestner*Rare Antique German 257 J.d. Kestner Baby Doll W/ Antique Dress & Bonnet Three 19c Antique Small China Bisque Head Dolls With Cloth Bodies*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll **native American Indian**Large 27" Antique Bergmann German Waltershausen Doll Tlc For Parts And Repair*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll #5Victorian Style Dress For Antique French Fashion Lady Poupee DollLot Of 3 German Antique Bisque Head Mignonette Pocket Dolls W/composition BodiesLarge German Bisque Head Doll Handwerck Germany 26" Ball Joint Bjd Pierce Ear AsAntique German Kestner Head On A&m Doll Body, Tlc*~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll #10Early High Quality Bisque Bust - Alt, Beck Gottschalck - From Msueum Collection!Antique German Bisque Doll Kr Kammer Halbig 117n Flirty Google Eyes Bjd DarlingLot Of 5 German Antique Bisque Mignonette Pocket Dolls NudeAntique Rare Nice Pair Of Shoes Bru Size 9 ( 3,15 Inches) Antique 12" Kammer & Reinhardt K*r Bisque Head Kaiser Baby Doll #100 Mh22Phenomenal 17" Kammer & Reinhardt K * R Simon Halbig 115 A Phillip Toddler LrBeautiful Antique Replica Dress For French Bru Jne Or Jumeau Doll *~*estate Find~*~ Antique German Bisque Doll **chinese Clothing**Antique Bisque German Mignonette Doll 4-1/4" Fixed Glass Eyes Marked 36 11 10Darling Artist Reproduction Of Rare Antique J D Kestner 221 Googly Eyed Doll Spectacular 18" Black/brown Bru Jne 1980's Doll Barbara Smith Vintage Red DressAntique Miniature All Bisque DollAm Germany Antique Doll Armand Marseille Blue Eyes 13" Tall Rare Small Size Simon Halbig German Bisque Doll 1078 7 1/2"