When bisque dolls began appearing in France during the 1850s, their matte finish offered a trendy, realistic alternative to the glossy china dolls popular at the time. Though both were made from porcelain, collectors refer to unglazed tinted dolls as bisque and shiny glazed dolls as china, while the term porcelain is often reserved for contemporary dolls.

Most bisque dolls were manufactured in France or the Thuringia region of Germany, an area famous for its natural clay deposits. Successful German firms like Kämmer & Reinhardt, Kestner, Heubach Koppelsdorf, and Simon & Halbig competed with French producers such as Bru Jne, Jumeau, Huret, and Steiner.

Early bisque doll heads were pressed into molds by hand, but eventually, this thick clay paste was improved with a thinner, pourable slip that resulted in a smoother surface texture and more intricate detailing. Most items had a mold number marked into the interior portion of the head, and sometimes a company name was stamped on the head or chest, too.

Bisque dolls were generally fired once, then painted to create skin tones and facial features, and finally fired again. These dolls are sometimes referred to as “blonde bisque” as they were typically produced with a light blonde shade of molded hair. However, a smaller segment of bisque products, called Parian dolls, were made from unpainted white porcelain. The first Parian mixture was developed in the late 1850s, possibly by John Mountford of the Copeland & Garrett company (later known as Spode).

Also called stone china, statuary porcelain, or carrara, Parian became fashionable for its similarity to expensive white marble: When finished, Parian dolls have a silky smooth surface and are semi-translucent. Most Parian doll heads were manufactured in Germany, and their porcelain parts were mounted onto cotton or leather bodies filled with fabric and sawdust. These expensive dolls were often purchased to decorate adult drawing rooms, rather than as playthings for children.

Though Parian dolls had a brief moment of success alongside tinted bisque, their popularity declined in the 1880s. Meanwhile, the market for skin-toned bisque dolls continued to boom, in part because of their heightened realism.

Bisque figures fall into three types—adult fashion dolls, bébé or baby dolls, and character dolls, which imitated a certain costume or personality. The most common bisque dolls f...

The first bisque dolls came with molded hair, eyes, and mouths, but eventually incorporated glass eyes that opened and closed, complex wigs made from human or animal hair, and even inset teeth. While some bisque heads and limbs came already attached to a stuffed cloth body, often the finest porcelain parts were sold separately for home assembly. These ornate heads were made with small holes below the neckline so they could be hand sewn onto bodies made from fabric, leather, composition, or wood. On some Parian busts, the careful treatment of the shoulders and neckline suggests that these were actually packaged as decorative art objects to display in the home, for these details would have been obscured if a doll was fully assembled and clothed.

Originally, the most intricate heads were produced in Germany and shipped for sale in France and the United States, though toward the end of the 19th century, French companies began manufacturing their own detailed heads to match their dolls’ ornate accessories. Many of the most innovative design advancements also occurred in France, like Ainé Blampoix’s patent for applying glass eyes or Mlle Huret’s swivel neck that made heads easy to tilt and turn.

Besides their delicate facial features, doll heads were lavished with decorative touches, including miniature flowers, combs, feathers, lace, and jewels. In keeping with prevailing trends of the Victorian era, the most exquisite bisque dolls came with elaborately styled wigs of real hair pinned to a cork pate, or pierced ears with tiny glass earrings. Other dolls were made with carefully painted feet, sometimes covered in patterned stockings or trendy leather boots.

In Paris, the Passage Choiseul became the locus of doll fashion, where milliners, wig-makers, corset and dress designers, and cobblers all produced exquisitely detailed accoutrements. Known as “fashion dolls” or “Parisiennes,” the bisque dolls assembled here wore elaborate outfits mirroring current trends. These dolls also acted as miniature mannequins, which could be exported abroad so that affluent women could keep abreast of clothing styles in France.

Despite the prevailing belief that fashion dolls were only for adult women, the introduction of doll advertising and display stands aimed directly at children suggests that many of these high-priced bisque dolls were actually meant for kids, albeit very wealthy ones.

In the late 19th century, the first significant numbers of male dolls were also made with bisque. These included the small, six-inch versions used as butlers in doll houses, but also larger varieties imitating elegantly dressed gentlemen in fanciful foreign costumes. Because these figures typically utilized the same molds and patterns as female dolls, it was easier to disguise them as young boys rather than men, whose rounded faces more closely resembled a female doll.

In the early 20th century, bisque was gradually replaced by a variety of other materials, like composition and plastic, as the baby-doll fad dominated the market. During the 1970s and '80s, a revival of interest in classic bisque designs inspired many expensive reproductions aimed at adult doll collectors. Today, typically the most desirable antique bisque dolls are the early products of reputable French companies like Jumeau, Bru, and Huret, or German-made character dolls.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)



This densely packed index of antique and vintage dolls claims to offer over 10,000 images of dolls from the 1800s … [read review or visit site]

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Rhonda Wilson's collection of 1950s dolls, organized by name (Ginny and friends, Littlest Angel and friends, etc.) … [read review or visit site]

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylee's extensive collection of vintage dolls from the 1930s to 90s. Click the balloons to browse. Though Kaylee s… [read review or visit site]

Museum of Childhood

Museum of Childhood

Embrace your inner child on this website from the Victoria and Albert Museum, filled with high-quality images and i… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Discussion Forums

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Antique French Emile Jumeau Portrait Bebe Doll , Size 10 ! A Very Special Bébé** Rare Antique German Doll Kestner Simon Halbig 1249 Santa DollRare French Or German Antique Kestner Simon Halbig ? Closed Mouth Doll Antique Bebe Jumeau Closed Mouth Sgdg Size 8 48 Cm 18,89 Inch Perfect ConditionRare Paris France Antique Unis French 301 Bleuette Doll Antique Kestner Hilda Baby Bisque Doll Made In Germany20" Jumeau Antique French Bebe Doll In Nice Condition " Bebe Reclame "size 9Rare Antique Fashion Doll F.g Closed Mouth Size 1 13,8 Inch (35 Cm) Circa 1885Antique All Bisque German Simon & Halbig Antique 6" Mignonette DollRare Large Antique Kestner All Bisque Doll 150 Made In GermanyRare Antique Cabinet Size French Or German Bisque Doll Needs A Dentist!Antique French Bb Jumeau Mold 1907 Size 11 Circa Xxeme Attic Condition !Antique Litho Wood Doll Trunk W/ Victorian German Dollhouse Family Xmas Scene!!!Antique Heubach Bisque Doll HeadAntique French Bisque 11" Doll - Jumeau - Christening OutfitAntique German All Bisque Miniature 5" Dollhouse Doll Kestner 208 Glass EyesAntique Victorian Patriotic Marotte Jester Rattle German Bisque Head Doll NrSweet Old Bisque Dollhouse Mignonette Doll 3.5" As Is Antique German All Bisque Miniature 5" Dollhouse Doll Kestner 720 Human Hair WigLot Of 4 Vintage German Armand Marseille Bisque Head Dolls! Leather Bodys! Nr!Small Antique Bisque Head Doll- German Or French- Great Quality !30" Antique German Simon&halbig Santa Bisque Doll W Marked Kestner Body FabulousArtist Reproduction Paris France French Jumeau Antique Doll Bleuette Companion 2 Bisque Porcelain Dolls - "cat", 1890-1920, Mobile Arms, Legs, HeadsSwivel Head Doll, 1890-1920, Colored, Open Mouth, Teeth, Black Glass EyesAntique French Bisque 11" Doll - JumeauAntique German All Bisque With WardrobeAntique 29" German Heinrich Handwerck & Halbig 6 1/2 Doll - Needs To Be RestrungAntique German Bisque Glass Sleep Eye Doll W/ Gottschalk Bedroom Xmas Items!!Antique Kestner All Bisque Doll 150, Approx 5 Inches Tall, Made In GermanyAntique Vintage Porcelain Pincushion Germany Half Doll Basket Dresden FlowersPretty Antique Bisque Kestner 150.1 Doll Needs Md Antique German Heubach Bisque 'prince Stuart' 17" Doll Jointed Composition BodyAntique German All Bisque Tiny Piano Baby Doll Rare Glass Eyes And Mohair Wig!Antique Victorian German Bisque Head Musical Wind-up Marotte Jester Doll RattleSchoenau & Hoffmeister German Bisque Mechanical Pull Toy With Bisque Head DollsSimon & Halbig 1329 Asian Doll ,11in." Perfect Bisque ,sleep Eyes,germanyLarge Antique Vintage Porcelain Pincushion Germany Half Doll Art Deco BlueBeautiful Antique Dress For A Bisque French Or German Doll Antique 15" Boy Or Girl Doll Early Kestner Character? Pouty Mouth Marked '4' Antique Vintage Porcelain Pincushion Germany Half Doll Woman With Bird~ Beautiful!!! Antique #143 Kestner Character Child Doll Head... Head Only ~Antique Vintage Porcelain Pincushion Germany Half Doll Flapper Fasold Stauch BoxLovely Antique Doll Parian Bisque Dollhouse Alice Headband 7 1/2" Estate Find Armand Marseille 351 / 3k 'dream Baby’ 13" Antique German Bisque DollAntique Schoenhut Humpty Dumpty Circus Wood & Bisque Head Lady Horse Rider Doll23" Antique German Kestner "k" Early Bisque Socket Head Doll Hh Wig&pate As Is~~Antique Bisque Head Googly Doll With Child 12aAntique 10" German Doll Solid Dome Shoulder Plate Tlc Closed Mouth Marked '2' Large Antique Vintage Porcelain Pincushion Germany Half Doll Girl ChildLg 24inch Antique Heinrich Handwerk Simon & Halbig 4 1/2 German Bisque Head DollAntique German All Original Bisque Toddler Doll 1361, By Alt, Beck & GottschalckKammer & Reinhart Child Doll 27 Bisque Head Composition Body 8 Inch GermanyAntique Vintage Silk French Fashion Dress Doll 15-16"2 Bisque Porcelain Dolls - "boy & Girl", 1890-1920, Mobile Arms, Legs, Heads26" Eden Bebe, French Bisque Doll, Lovely Blue Paperweight Eyes, Rare Large SizeAntique Bisque Doll, Leather Body, Marked 639 Germany, Glass EyesLovely Antique Vintage Parian Doll Lace & Damask Dress Antique 14 1/2" German Bisque Painted Porcelain Doll W/ Jointed Composition BodyOutstanding Kammer & Reinhardt / Simon & Halbig Big 29 In. Beauty

Recent News: Bisque Dolls

Source: Google News

KOVEL'S ANTIQUES: Antique pet cages find new life as folk art
Florida Times-Union, October 8th

Doll, Hertel and Schwab, No. 142, bisque head, sleep eyes, painted hair, composition, velvet romper, early 190s, 16 inches, $180. ? Omega wristwatch, Constellation, stainless steel case, yellow tone accents, woman's, 6 inches, $300. ? Sampler, verse ...Read more

Review | Ballet's risk with 'Coppélia' pays off
The Courier-Journal, October 3rd

Here, the walls can glow and there are strange, large dolls resembling a general, Atilla the Hun, Queen Victoria, a gypsy, Napoleon, an oversized German Bisque doll and an unfinished doll, whose heads were created by Allison Anderson. The choreography ...Read more

Julia Winds Up the Toy, Doll, and Advertising Game
Maine Antique Digest, September 29th

As of the conclusion of Julia's toy, doll, and advertising auction on June 19 in Fairfield, Maine, Julia had sold that division of his auction company to Morphy Auctions, Denver, Pennsylvania. That left Julia's ... be with Morphy. Another is that Julia...Read more

Dolls and teddy bears are stitched into treasured childhood memories for Karen ...
Auckland stuff.co.nz, September 28th

Dolls and teddy bears are stitched into treasured childhood memories for Karen Staniland of Bethells. Her lifelong love began with her 5th birthday photo holding her first doll- a hard plastic kewpie, delicately dressed in a pink knitted outfit by her...Read more

It's always something
Burlington Times News, September 27th

It seems like every month, every week and every day has been claimed for some commemoration or other. The origins of many are lost, but these occasions are proclaimed by corporations, politicians, special interests, various other organizations, and ...Read more

MAHONEY: Hamilton's incredible valley of the dolls
Hamilton Spectator, September 24th

Dolls. Doll clothes. Doll supplies. "When a child comes in with a broken doll, that supersedes everything," says Gail. They'll put other work on hold. "A four-year-old came through the door the other week, crying and poured her broken doll out of a bag...Read more

Early 20th century French doll brings six figures at auction
Arizona Daily Star, September 19th

WHAT: A fine and rare bisque head doll incised “A. Marque” that sold for $115,900 recently in a toy and doll auction at Morphy Auctions dates from the golden age of French character doll making. The 22-inch girl doll is from a group created by French...Read more

What's It Worth? German bisque doll, circa 1905
Chico Enterprise-Record, August 27th

In the secondary market, most dolls are identified by the maker of the bisque head. Some bodies are marked, but many are not. Most molds have numbers corresponding to the style of face and size of doll. Your doll has both Heinrich Handwerck and Simon ...Read more