When bisque dolls began appearing in France during the 1850s, their matte finish offered a trendy, realistic alternative to the glossy china dolls popular at the time. Though both were made from porcelain, collectors refer to unglazed tinted dolls as bisque and shiny glazed dolls as china, while the term porcelain is often reserved for contemporary dolls.
Most bisque dolls were manufactured in France or the Thuringia region of Germany, an area famous for its natural clay deposits. Successful German firms like Kämmer & Reinhardt, Kestner, Heubach Koppelsdorf, and Simon & Halbig competed with French producers such as Bru Jne, Jumeau, Huret, and Steiner.
Early bisque doll heads were pressed into molds by hand, but eventually, this thick clay paste was improved with a thinner, pourable slip that resulted in a smoother surface texture and more intricate detailing. Most items had a mold number marked into the interior portion of the head, and sometimes a company name was stamped on the head or chest, too.
Bisque dolls were generally fired once, then painted to create skin tones and facial features, and finally fired again. These dolls are sometimes referred to as “blonde bisque” as they were typically produced with a light blonde shade of molded hair. However, a smaller segment of bisque products, called Parian dolls, were made from unpainted white porcelain. The first Parian mixture was developed in the late 1850s, possibly by John Mountford of the Copeland & Garrett company (later known as Spode).
Also called stone china, statuary porcelain, or carrara, Parian became fashionable for its similarity to expensive white marble: When finished, Parian dolls have a silky smooth surface and are semi-translucent. Most Parian doll heads were manufactured in Germany, and their porcelain parts were mounted onto cotton or leather bodies filled with fabric and sawdust. These expensive dolls were often purchased to decorate adult drawing rooms, rather than as playthings for children.
Though Parian dolls had a brief moment of success alongside tinted bisque, their popularity declined in the 1880s. Meanwhile, the market for skin-toned bisque dolls continued to boom, in part because of their heightened realism.
Bisque figures fall into three types—adult fashion dolls, bébé or baby dolls, and character dolls, which imitated a certain costume or personality. The most common bisque dolls f...
The first bisque dolls came with molded hair, eyes, and mouths, but eventually incorporated glass eyes that opened and closed, complex wigs made from human or animal hair, and even inset teeth. While some bisque heads and limbs came already attached to a stuffed cloth body, often the finest porcelain parts were sold separately for home assembly. These ornate heads were made with small holes below the neckline so they could be hand sewn onto bodies made from fabric, leather, composition, or wood. On some Parian busts, the careful treatment of the shoulders and neckline suggests that these were actually packaged as decorative art objects to display in the home, for these details would have been obscured if a doll was fully assembled and clothed.
Originally, the most intricate heads were produced in Germany and shipped for sale in France and the United States, though toward the end of the 19th century, French companies began manufacturing their own detailed heads to match their dolls’ ornate accessories. Many of the most innovative design advancements also occurred in France, like Ainé Blampoix’s patent for applying glass eyes or Mlle Huret’s swivel neck that made heads easy to tilt and turn.
Besides their delicate facial features, doll heads were lavished with decorative touches, including miniature flowers, combs, feathers, lace, and jewels. In keeping with prevailing trends of the Victorian era, the most exquisite bisque dolls came with elaborately styled wigs of real hair pinned to a cork pate, or pierced ears with tiny glass earrings. Other dolls were made with carefully painted feet, sometimes covered in patterned stockings or trendy leather boots.
In Paris, the Passage Choiseul became the locus of doll fashion, where milliners, wig-makers, corset and dress designers, and cobblers all produced exquisitely detailed accoutrements. Known as “fashion dolls” or “Parisiennes,” the bisque dolls assembled here wore elaborate outfits mirroring current trends. These dolls also acted as miniature mannequins, which could be exported abroad so that affluent women could keep abreast of clothing styles in France.
Despite the prevailing belief that fashion dolls were only for adult women, the introduction of doll advertising and display stands aimed directly at children suggests that many of these high-priced bisque dolls were actually meant for kids, albeit very wealthy ones.
In the late 19th century, the first significant numbers of male dolls were also made with bisque. These included the small, six-inch versions used as butlers in doll houses, but also larger varieties imitating elegantly dressed gentlemen in fanciful foreign costumes. Because these figures typically utilized the same molds and patterns as female dolls, it was easier to disguise them as young boys rather than men, whose rounded faces more closely resembled a female doll.
In the early 20th century, bisque was gradually replaced by a variety of other materials, like composition and plastic, as the baby-doll fad dominated the market. During the 1970s and '80s, a revival of interest in classic bisque designs inspired many expensive reproductions aimed at adult doll collectors. Today, typically the most desirable antique bisque dolls are the early products of reputable French companies like Jumeau, Bru, and Huret, or German-made character dolls.
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Toy story: the best-loved toys revealed at new exhibition by Sydney Living ...Sydney Morning Herald, March 21st
One treasured doll comes with startling blue eyes, one leg and a finely modelled and painted bisque head. It belonged to Kathleen Rouse (1878-1932), the younger of the two daughters of Edwin and Bessie Rouse of Rouse Hill House, owned by Sydney ...Read more
A Visual Guide to What to Try at Nijiya, the Japanese Supermarketthebolditalic, March 19th
Fun fact #1: For whatever reason, Kewpie gets its namesake from the German-made bisque doll Kewpie. Fun fact #2: Some people are so obsessed with Kewpie mayo that they have their own nickname — “mayora” (almost literally, a mayo person)...Read more
Antiques by Terry and Kim KovelBuffalo News, March 13th
Some of his characters were turned into dolls by George Borgfeldt in Germany. The bisque head has a flanged neck. The face has side-glancing eyes with thick dark eyeliner and curly eyelashes, a tiny nose and painted hair or a wig. These dolls are very...Read more
Strongsville Girl Scouts rev up at Powder Puff Derby: Strong Pointscleveland.com, March 12th
Learning Express also donated four Girl Scout Dolls to the top four Grand Champion Winners. The Grand Championship Winners are: ... with a hunk of freshly baked bread. Customer favorites include Chicken Potpie, Lobster Bisque and Vegetarian Split Pea...Read more
'Who's Your Baby?' doll exhibit opensThisWeekNews, March 10th
The exhibit includes bisque dolls from Germany, Saucy Walkers, the Dionne quints, Tiny Tears and Dream Babies from the early 1900s to the last quarter of the 20th century, along with photos of doll mothers, many of whom are familiar Worthington names...Read more
1920s googly-eyed doll brought $24k at auctionTyler Morning Telegraph, March 9th
Some of his characters were turned into dolls by George Borgfeldt in Germany. The bisque head has a flanged neck. The face has side-glancing eyes with thick dark eyeliner and curly eye lashes, a very tiny nose and either painted hair or a wig. These...Read more
WHAT A DOLL! Collector showing, sharing Nancy AnnsGreen Valley News, March 7th
Upon their release in 1936, the 3½- to 7-inch dolls were made of bisque. In 1948, plastic replaced the bisque, but the lavish dresses and trims continued to attract young girls. In the late 1940s, Nancy Ann was the highest volume doll maker in the U.S...Read more
When is a 'tuffet' just a footstool?Las Vegas Review-Journal, February 28th
The dolls were made in several sizes. A 14½-inch Floradora doll with bisque shoulder head and hands, sleep eyes, wig and kid body could be bought at a department store for 50 cents in 1909 (when the average worker made 22 cents an hour). Floradora ...Read more