When bisque dolls began appearing in France during the 1850s, their matte finish offered a trendy, realistic alternative to the glossy china dolls popular at the time. Though both were made from porcelain, collectors refer to unglazed tinted dolls as bisque and shiny glazed dolls as china, while the term porcelain is often reserved for contemporary dolls.
Most bisque dolls were manufactured in France or the Thuringia region of Germany, an area famous for its natural clay deposits. Successful German firms like Kämmer & Reinhardt, Kestner, Heubach Koppelsdorf, and Simon & Halbig competed with French producers such as Bru Jne, Jumeau, Huret, and Steiner.
Early bisque doll heads were pressed into molds by hand, but eventually, this thick clay paste was improved with a thinner, pourable slip that resulted in a smoother surface texture and more intricate detailing. Most items had a mold number marked into the interior portion of the head, and sometimes a company name was stamped on the head or chest, too.
Bisque dolls were generally fired once, then painted to create skin tones and facial features, and finally fired again. These dolls are sometimes referred to as “blonde bisque” as they were typically produced with a light blonde shade of molded hair. However, a smaller segment of bisque products, called Parian dolls, were made from unpainted white porcelain. The first Parian mixture was developed in the late 1850s, possibly by John Mountford of the Copeland & Garrett company (later known as Spode).
Also called stone china, statuary porcelain, or carrara, Parian became fashionable for its similarity to expensive white marble: When finished, Parian dolls have a silky smooth surface and are semi-translucent. Most Parian doll heads were manufactured in Germany, and their porcelain parts were mounted onto cotton or leather bodies filled with fabric and sawdust. These expensive dolls were often purchased to decorate adult drawing rooms, rather than as playthings for children.
Though Parian dolls had a brief moment of success alongside tinted bisque, their popularity declined in the 1880s. Meanwhile, the market for skin-toned bisque dolls continued to boom, in part because of their heightened realism.
Bisque figures fall into three types—adult fashion dolls, bébé or baby dolls, and character dolls, which imitated a certain costume or personality. The most common bisque dolls f...
The first bisque dolls came with molded hair, eyes, and mouths, but eventually incorporated glass eyes that opened and closed, complex wigs made from human or animal hair, and even inset teeth. While some bisque heads and limbs came already attached to a stuffed cloth body, often the finest porcelain parts were sold separately for home assembly. These ornate heads were made with small holes below the neckline so they could be hand sewn onto bodies made from fabric, leather, composition, or wood. On some Parian busts, the careful treatment of the shoulders and neckline suggests that these were actually packaged as decorative art objects to display in the home, for these details would have been obscured if a doll was fully assembled and clothed.
Originally, the most intricate heads were produced in Germany and shipped for sale in France and the United States, though toward the end of the 19th century, French companies began manufacturing their own detailed heads to match their dolls’ ornate accessories. Many of the most innovative design advancements also occurred in France, like Ainé Blampoix’s patent for applying glass eyes or Mlle Huret’s swivel neck that made heads easy to tilt and turn.
Besides their delicate facial features, doll heads were lavished with decorative touches, including miniature flowers, combs, feathers, lace, and jewels. In keeping with prevailing trends of the Victorian era, the most exquisite bisque dolls came with elaborately styled wigs of real hair pinned to a cork pate, or pierced ears with tiny glass earrings. Other dolls were made with carefully painted feet, sometimes covered in patterned stockings or trendy leather boots.
In Paris, the Passage Choiseul became the locus of doll fashion, where milliners, wig-makers, corset and dress designers, and cobblers all produced exquisitely detailed accoutrements. Known as “fashion dolls” or “Parisiennes,” the bisque dolls assembled here wore elaborate outfits mirroring current trends. These dolls also acted as miniature mannequins, which could be exported abroad so that affluent women could keep abreast of clothing styles in France.
Despite the prevailing belief that fashion dolls were only for adult women, the introduction of doll advertising and display stands aimed directly at children suggests that many of these high-priced bisque dolls were actually meant for kids, albeit very wealthy ones.
In the late 19th century, the first significant numbers of male dolls were also made with bisque. These included the small, six-inch versions used as butlers in doll houses, but also larger varieties imitating elegantly dressed gentlemen in fanciful foreign costumes. Because these figures typically utilized the same molds and patterns as female dolls, it was easier to disguise them as young boys rather than men, whose rounded faces more closely resembled a female doll.
In the early 20th century, bisque was gradually replaced by a variety of other materials, like composition and plastic, as the baby-doll fad dominated the market. During the 1970s and '80s, a revival of interest in classic bisque designs inspired many expensive reproductions aimed at adult doll collectors. Today, typically the most desirable antique bisque dolls are the early products of reputable French companies like Jumeau, Bru, and Huret, or German-made character dolls.
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Historical Steilacoom home gears up for the holidays with weekend open houseBellingham Herald, November 13th
A native of Germany who moved to the Tacoma area with her husband in the 1980s, Bolz now lives on Hood Canal in a Bavarian-styled home that displays the thousands of antique dolls and toys she's collected over the years. She loaned some of her...Read more
Old doll is a treasure and a mysteryCentral Kentucky News, November 2nd
You have a fine porcelain/bisque doll. Bisque is unglazed porcelain. She is very high quality. Dolls like this were for the daughters of well-to-do families. A poor family could never have paid its $4 price in the early 1900s. She was meant to be...Read more
Art and a view are the focus of this Ritz-Carlton condoBaltimore Sun, October 30th
Three Lladro figurines, along with a bisque doll covered in satin and feathers, sit atop the table next to a contemporary lamp with a light brown base and a rectangular cream shade. This vignette sets the tone for the home's transitional furnishings in...Read more
Tale of Alabama Indestructible Dolls fascinating part of Roanoke historyThe Birmingham News - al.com, October 10th
Ella Louise Guantt, who would later marry Samuel Swainswright "Bud" Smith, became a doll inventor by accident in 1897, when a neighbor girl named Verna Pitts broke her porcelain bisque doll and came to "Miss Ella" for help. Ella, who loved children ...Read more
Life-like Porcelain Doll Sets Auction Record for Any DollArtfixDaily, September 25th
A beautiful bisque head doll by Kammer & Reinhardt, with a white cotton dress and light brown shoulder length hair, sold for £170,500 against £40,000-60,000 estimates. The artist Professor Lewin-Funcke designed dolls for Kammer & Reinhardt and this...Read more
Ann Cannon: So much depends upon one old dollSalt Lake Tribune, August 25th
So my maternal grandmother gave me her doll a long time ago. A great big beautiful bisque girl with blue glass eyes and a mohair wig made in Germany. It was hard for my grandmother to hand over that doll — especially to me, because the sad truth is...Read more
Floating fence surrounds house and doll-making atelier by UID ArchitectsDezeen, July 25th
A narrow white wall appears to hover around the perimeter and garden of this house and atelier – the third project on Dezeen this week by Japanese office UID Architects (+ slideshow). Atelier-bisque doll by UID Architects. UID Architects – the ...Read more
Bulldog leads way at Hartleys' toy and doll auction in IlkleyIlkley Gazette, May 5th
The best price in the sale, £2,400, went to a delightful 28-inch Gaultier bisque doll with Gresland body, in spite of a fine hair crack to the head, and the following lot, a Simon & Halbig 28” example, rose to £1400. Among the miscellaneous toys, the...Read more