During the 14th century, dolls modeled on adult figures were popular among the most affluent families of Europe, and the exquisite craftsmanship of French dolls made them among the most desirable. Children of wealthy aristocrats were given entire rooms filled with sets of dolls whose attire and accessories were as ornate as if they'd been made for real people.

France’s most lasting contribution to doll development was the creation of the fashion doll or “Parisienne.” Though popularized during the 19th century, these dolls had actually been used for more than 400 years to display clothing samples being considered by the royal court. By the 1800s, women far from Paris were ordering French fashion dolls to be sent by mail so that local tailors and dressmakers could re-create royal clothing styles.

Parisiennes generally had heads and hands made from bisque or porcelain, with bodies of cloth, leather, wood, or composite materials. Fashion dolls typically came fully dressed in clothes of luxury materials like silk, cashmere, or velvet. They also frequently included undergarments, shoes, jewelry, and accessories, along with wigs made from real human hair. A commentator at the Paris Exhibition of 1849 remarked that these miniature mannequins had become “indispensable for the general export of fashionable novelties, for it has been realized that without the aid of the doll the tradespeople do not know how to sell their goods.”

The renowned Jumeau doll company, founded in Paris in 1842, produced superior fashion dolls with leather bodies and heads of wood, papier-mâché, or wax. By the 1860s, Jumeau was creating elaborate dolls with porcelain heads as well as simpler dolls marketed to less-wealthy families. Jumeau dolls were known for their skillfully executed glass eyes, whereby the translucent glass pupil was inset into a white form, then coated with clear glass to increase its depth.

Like most French doll makers, Jumeau imported its heads from Germany until 1873, when the company opened its own porcelain factory. Although many French companies relied on bisque parts made by German doll makers, the neighboring industry represented a strong challenge to the French doll market. In fact, the intense competition between German and French makers led to the 19th-century equivalent of attack ads, as seen in a Jumeau advertising pamphlet which was written from a doll’s perspective and mocked the inferiority of German products.

A few other French doll makers crafted Parisiennes to rival Jumeau’s, yet were managed by groundbreaking female entrepreneurs, like Adelaide Calizte Huret and Leontine Rohmer. Huret eventually forced Rohmer out of business on the basis of copyright infringement, since Rohmer’s detailed dolls and pivoting-head designs bore a remarkable resemblance to Huret’s.

In addition to fostering female business leadership, the French industry also produced some of the first dolls with darker skin tones, ranging from those with completely black bi...

In 1855, former clockmaker Jules Steiner obtained a patent for a new style of doll incorporating “automata” which allowed the toy to walk and speak on its own. As the craze for windup dolls spread among adults, other companies like Bru, Theroude, and Jumeau produced a variety of these figures. One of the most astounding automata creations was Roullet & Decamps’ “Fumeur” or “Smoker,” which could actually smoke a cigarette using a piping mechanism in its right arm to pull smoke through the body and exhale it out the mouth.

Though Jumeau did sell some complete automata dolls, the company primarily manufactured the heads for these dolls, while the more complicated mechanical parts were produced by others like Lambert or Vichy. Gustave Vichy’s highly realistic mechanical dolls, which were designed to play music and perform complex movements, won the Grand Prize at the Paris Exposition in 1900.

By the 1880s, however, a new form had begun to overtake these adult doll styles: the bébé. Francois Gaultier’s business was one of the first to produce these detailed baby dolls, which allowed children to play the role of parents. In 1899, Bru, Jumeau and several other companies merged to become the “Société Francaise de Fabrication de Bébés et Jouets,” or SFBJ, a trade organization which would last through the 1950s. Though their dolls were often still labeled by the traditional company names in addition to the new SFBJ imprint, their quality greatly declined.

Shortly after the turn of the century, the French developed yet another new adult doll called the boudoir doll, which followed in the footsteps of the Parisiennes. Boudoir dolls were never meant as toys, but were designed explicitly as decorative objects for adult women to display in their bedrooms.

The onset of World War I finally brought an end to the heyday of French doll manufacturing, though the industry continued to produce smaller numbers of dolls in response to worldwide trends throughout the 20th century, like the Shirley Temple character dolls of the 1930s.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Dollreference.com

Dollreference.com

This densely packed index of antique and vintage dolls claims to offer over 10,000 images of dolls from the 1800s … [read review or visit site]

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Rhonda Wilson's collection of 1950s dolls, organized by name (Ginny and friends, Littlest Angel and friends, etc.) … [read review or visit site]

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylee's extensive collection of vintage dolls from the 1930s to 90s. Click the balloons to browse. Though Kaylee s… [read review or visit site]

Museum of Childhood

Museum of Childhood

Embrace your inner child on this website from the Victoria and Albert Museum, filled with high-quality images and i… [read review or visit site]



Clubs & Associations

Discussion Forums

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Antique French Bru Circle Dot Bebe Closed Mouth Molded Chest Plate Bisque DollRare Antique French Or German Fashion Lady Doll Poupee W/ Rare Pale Bisque Very Rare Paris France Rare French Antique R.d Rabery & Delphieu Doll Antique Nice Bebe Jumeau Depose Size 12 - 26,8 68 Cm Closed Mouth With The BoxAntique Nice Bebe Jumeau Reclame Size 5 15 " (38 Cm) Exeptionnal Little Antique French Bru Jne Baby Leon Casimir Bru Circa1879/80Antique Huge,33" French Dep/ German For French Market.circa 1900s /tlc Beautiful Dress For Antique French Fashion Doll 18inch.(1860years)Antique French All Bisque Mignonette Body 1875-80, Original Outfit, Parts/repairAuthentic Antique Victorian Chatelaine For French Fashion Doll Rose Gold FilledRare Antique Crinoline Hoop Petticoat For French Fashion Doll!Rare Antique Dolls Mechanical Automation Toy Clown & Acrobat Circus Act Antique French All Bisque Mignonette Body 1875-80, Original Dress, Parts/repairVintage Antique French Paris Jumeau Sfbj Doll 60 - Large 23 Inch DollAntique Beautiful Bebe Fg Closed Mouth T.9 23,6 " (60 Cm) PerfectGreat Old Bebe Etienne Denamur T. 13 - 27,6" (70 Cm)Pretty Antique Vintage Dress French Fashion Poupee Doll 18"Lot Antiques DollAntique Shoes Pair And Socks Signed Bru Jne Paris T. 10 3,15" (8 Cm)Vintage Silk & Velvet Dress For French Fashion Doll About 17" (43 Cm)Antique Bebe Steiner Paris Fre C5 Closed Mouth 1er Periode 12,6" (32 Cm) DamagedFrench Bebe Jumeau Repro Doll Dress W/ Narrow Neck , Steiner, Bru, HalbigVintage Dress For French Jumeau Bru Steiner Eden Bebe Or German Doll 17-18" Antique Bisque Doll 14" Kestner ? Doll-i Think Closed Mouth Antique Original French Nursing Red Cross Uniform For Bleuette Doll, 1914.French Bleuette Doll.sfbj 60 8/0 27 CmBreathtaking 1868 French Fashion Doll Dress Old Skirt For French Fashion DollsAntique Mohair Doll Wig Jumeau Bebe Poupee French German Bisque Antique Hm Embroidered Sheer Cotton Md/sz Doll Dress/ Pink Silk Slip French BebeJudy Ann "french" With Starburst Box, StickerAntique Hat / Bonnet For Jumeau Bru Steiner Bebe Or German Doll 12-14"Antique French Fashion Francois Gaultier Fg Size 0 Bisque Doll Head Orig Wig Theriault's Dollmasters Doll Dress Bebe Poupee Repro Antique CostumeExquisite Three Piece French Fashion Doll DressSmall Pair Of Socks Old Jumeau PerfectRare 25" Schmitt Original Bebe Doll Marked Sch 4.5 French Bisque Socket HeadRare Antique Original French Bisque Bebe Steiner DollHn-antique 13" French Bru Jne Bisque+composition Doll-blue-grey Eyes+blonde HairFrench Paper Papier Mache Antique Mannequin Millinery Head Circa 1850 Folk ArtAntique French Victorian C1870 Silk Tufted French Fashion Doll 4" Jewelry Box NrVintage Small Doll Wig Jumeau Bebe Poupee French German Bisque Antique Small Mohair Doll Wig Jumeau Bebe Poupee French German Bisque Antique Victorian Ecru Gauze/floral Lace Pleated Flounce 3.5"x38" French DollLarge Artist Reproduction Of Antique Bru Jne Paris France French Doll Vintage Dress Costum For French Jumeau Bru Steiner Eden Bebe Or German Doll 26" Antique Or Vintage French Fashion Doll Dress For 12 Inch DollMiniature Lot For Fashion Doll = Sterling Perfume + Pencil + Box + Fan + BookAntique Vntg ~ Doll Or Baby Shoes Boots ~ Glass Buttons On Three Straps ~ 4-3/4"Beautiful Artist Reproduction Of Paris France French Antique Tete Jumeau Doll Sweetest Antique Reproduction Dress For French Or German 16-19" DollNoreserve Rare 1930s Antique Bakelite Golliwog Doll Pin For French & German Doll~ Antique! Lot Of 17 French & German Doll Hands For Repair .... As Is ~Becassine Abc Book Reproduced In Doll Size For Antique French Doll Bleuette. 20" Antique Petite Francaise French Bisque Head Compo Body Doll By VerlingueTiny Dress For Antique French Or German DollAntique French Fashion Doll Watch Pin For 15"+Antique Miniature Toy Doll Arm/hand Display Prop Jumeau Steiner Bru 7 1/4" HighAntique Doll Baby Clothing 1900 Leather Line French German Vintage Retro Collect'09 Barbie 50th French Parisian Bon Anniversaire Mini Convention Package Tpivc