During the 14th century, dolls modeled on adult figures were popular among the most affluent families of Europe, and the exquisite craftsmanship of French dolls made them among the most desirable. Children of wealthy aristocrats were given entire rooms filled with sets of dolls whose attire and accessories were as ornate as if they'd been made for real people.

France’s most lasting contribution to doll development was the creation of the fashion doll or “Parisienne.” Though popularized during the 19th century, these dolls had actually been used for more than 400 years to display clothing samples being considered by the royal court. By the 1800s, women far from Paris were ordering French fashion dolls to be sent by mail so that local tailors and dressmakers could re-create royal clothing styles.

Parisiennes generally had heads and hands made from bisque or porcelain, with bodies of cloth, leather, wood, or composite materials. Fashion dolls typically came fully dressed in clothes of luxury materials like silk, cashmere, or velvet. They also frequently included undergarments, shoes, jewelry, and accessories, along with wigs made from real human hair. A commentator at the Paris Exhibition of 1849 remarked that these miniature mannequins had become “indispensable for the general export of fashionable novelties, for it has been realized that without the aid of the doll the tradespeople do not know how to sell their goods.”

The renowned Jumeau doll company, founded in Paris in 1842, produced superior fashion dolls with leather bodies and heads of wood, papier-mâché, or wax. By the 1860s, Jumeau was creating elaborate dolls with porcelain heads as well as simpler dolls marketed to less-wealthy families. Jumeau dolls were known for their skillfully executed glass eyes, whereby the translucent glass pupil was inset into a white form, then coated with clear glass to increase its depth.

Like most French doll makers, Jumeau imported its heads from Germany until 1873, when the company opened its own porcelain factory. Although many French companies relied on bisque parts made by German doll makers, the neighboring industry represented a strong challenge to the French doll market. In fact, the intense competition between German and French makers led to the 19th-century equivalent of attack ads, as seen in a Jumeau advertising pamphlet which was written from a doll’s perspective and mocked the inferiority of German products.

A few other French doll makers crafted Parisiennes to rival Jumeau’s, yet were managed by groundbreaking female entrepreneurs, like Adelaide Calizte Huret and Leontine Rohmer. Huret eventually forced Rohmer out of business on the basis of copyright infringement, since Rohmer’s detailed dolls and pivoting-head designs bore a remarkable resemblance to Huret’s.

In addition to fostering female business leadership, the French industry also produced some of the first dolls with darker skin tones, ranging from those with completely black bi...

In 1855, former clockmaker Jules Steiner obtained a patent for a new style of doll incorporating “automata” which allowed the toy to walk and speak on its own. As the craze for windup dolls spread among adults, other companies like Bru, Theroude, and Jumeau produced a variety of these figures. One of the most astounding automata creations was Roullet & Decamps’ “Fumeur” or “Smoker,” which could actually smoke a cigarette using a piping mechanism in its right arm to pull smoke through the body and exhale it out the mouth.

Though Jumeau did sell some complete automata dolls, the company primarily manufactured the heads for these dolls, while the more complicated mechanical parts were produced by others like Lambert or Vichy. Gustave Vichy’s highly realistic mechanical dolls, which were designed to play music and perform complex movements, won the Grand Prize at the Paris Exposition in 1900.

By the 1880s, however, a new form had begun to overtake these adult doll styles: the bébé. Francois Gaultier’s business was one of the first to produce these detailed baby dolls, which allowed children to play the role of parents. In 1899, Bru, Jumeau and several other companies merged to become the “Société Francaise de Fabrication de Bébés et Jouets,” or SFBJ, a trade organization which would last through the 1950s. Though their dolls were often still labeled by the traditional company names in addition to the new SFBJ imprint, their quality greatly declined.

Shortly after the turn of the century, the French developed yet another new adult doll called the boudoir doll, which followed in the footsteps of the Parisiennes. Boudoir dolls were never meant as toys, but were designed explicitly as decorative objects for adult women to display in their bedrooms.

The onset of World War I finally brought an end to the heyday of French doll manufacturing, though the industry continued to produce smaller numbers of dolls in response to worldwide trends throughout the 20th century, like the Shirley Temple character dolls of the 1930s.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)



This densely packed index of antique and vintage dolls claims to offer over 10,000 images of dolls from the 1800s … [read review or visit site]

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Vintage Dolls of the 50s

Rhonda Wilson's collection of 1950s dolls, organized by name (Ginny and friends, Littlest Angel and friends, etc.) … [read review or visit site]

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylees Korner of Collectible Dolls

Kaylee's extensive collection of vintage dolls from the 1930s to 90s. Click the balloons to browse. Though Kaylee s… [read review or visit site]

Museum of Childhood

Museum of Childhood

Embrace your inner child on this website from the Victoria and Albert Museum, filled with high-quality images and i… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Discussion Forums

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

Pretty Antique French Sfbj 60 8/0 27cm Bleuette Doll With Her Own TeddyAntique French Emile Jumeau Portrait Bebe Doll , Size 10 ! A Very Special Bébé**Rare Antique Bebe Jumeau Closed Mouth Sgdg Size 14 29,52 Inch Perfect ConditionAntique Gorgeous Phenix Steiner .bru Gaultier JumeauAntique Nice Bebe Jumeau Size 6 (15,35 Inch) Perfect Condition Antique Bebe Jumeau Reclame Open Mouth Size 20 InchAntique French Market Sonnenberg Fashion Lady Doll Beautiful Eyes To DressAntique Body Fashion Doll (14,17 Inch)Antique S.f.b.j. Bleuette Doll 301 Mold # 4 Paris France French Bisque Doll HeadAntique/vintage Mohair Doll Wig Jumeau Bebe Poupee Bru Steiner French GermanAntique Lt Blonde Vntg German/french Mohair Doll Wig W /pate-hand Tied-10-11"22" Antique Sfbj Paris France French Doll On Original Composition Body W/labelRare French Or German Antique Kestner Simon Halbig ? Closed Mouth Doll Rare 19thc Antique French Bisque Cloth Poupée Boudoir Doll-handpainted FeaturesAntique 21" Simon Halbig Dolly Face Child Bisque Doll French Leather Shoes Nice!Lovely Old Small Cloth Shoes For Antique French Boudoir Or Fashion DollJb-antique Victorian White Lace Dress Shoes 4 French/german Bisque Fashion Doll Artist Reproduction Of Antique Paris France French Bru Jne Doll Antique Original Sfbj Paris Bisque Doll Head With Jointed BodyAntique Doll Sfbj Pairis Body Only 10" 11" French Wood Composition Repair #2Antique Mohair Doll Wig Jumeau Bebe Poupee Bru Steiner French GermanRare Paris France Antique Unis French 301 Bleuette Doll Antique Hat Beautiful Doll Jumeau Size 11/12Antique French Bisque 11" Doll - Jumeau - Christening OutfitAntique French Bisque 11" Doll - JumeauAnt./vintage Ensemble Pinafore Dress And Hat Jumeau Bebe Poupee Steiner Fg BruVintage Unis France 251 Doll Antique Doll Leather Body Bisque Head Original Clothes Shoes Earrings Hat 26"Antique Bisque Head French Doll Sfbj-60-paris 21 InchesFabulous Antique Very Old Andreas Voit French Type Papier Mache Doll C.1845Antique German French Bisque Glass Eyes Swivel Neck Yellow Boots Doll House DollAntique Human Hair Small Doll Wig Jumeau Bebe Poupee Bru Steiner French GermanAntique French Bisque 11" Doll - Gauthier Or JumeauFrench Doll Or Kestner Mignonette Cabinet Size Doll All OriginalVery Large Rare Artist Reproduction Of Antique Paris French Lady Grace Doll20" Antique Doll 191 S #4 ~ ?? Kammer & Reinhardt Sfbj French German Bisque ??Antique Cotton Bobbinette Hoop/petti Enfantine French Fashion Huret Doll15-18"Antique Vintage French Tambour Net Lace Shawl Wedding Gown Use Doll Bear RepairVintage Unis France 301 20" DollAntique Style Papeterie Travel Stationery Case For French Fashion DollArtist Reproduction Paris France French Jumeau Antique Doll Bleuette Companion Antique Nineteenth Century French Fashion Doll Leather ShoesAntique Vintage French Tambour Net Lace & Chantilli Lace Pillow Cover Doll Bear French Bleuette Premiere Antique Reproduction Doll 11" 29cmFrench Style Silk Dress & Hat To Fit 21"/23" Antique/reproudction DollAntique French Or German Fashion DollSilk Doll Shoes Antique French / German Bisque Or Composition. 3 1/4 X 1 3/814" Antique Doll Cuno Otto Dressel German Germany Leather Body Character ?? Antique French Doll Sfbj 301Antique Mohair Small Doll Wig Jumeau Bebe Poupee Bru Steiner French GermanBeautiful French Fashion Antique Repro Bisque Doll Leather Body - Head Repairs Beautiful Three (3) Piece Of Undergarments For Jumeau Bebe Steiner Fg PoupeeWax Over Doll Straw Stuff Antique French German 28" Clothes Layer 1880 Toy Old AAntique 8.5" French Doll Bisque Composition/paper Mache 12/0 Sfbj? Large Vintage Antique German~feather French Cancan Hat Lady In Purple-half DollAntique French Or German Bisque And Kid Leather 16" DollComposition Body For Antique German Or French Bisque Head Doll31" Simon & Halbig 117 French Doll Reproduction Bisque Porcelain CompositionAntique Sterling Silver Princess Child Doll Purse Victorian Chatelaine French Antique Fine Tulle Tambour? Lace French German Dolls Victorian