During World War II, Lionel’s Irvington, New Jersey factory was kept busy fulfilling government war contracts for binnacles and other navigational aids for ships, a particularly important task in the days before radar. On the side, Lionel also produced an assemble-it-yourself train-in-a-box made of cardboard, with wood for the axles. It included everything from a locomotive and caboose to 198 inches of O-gauge track. The company also sold a wood pull train for patriotic kids who had donated their old Lionels to scrap drives.
In 1945, Lionel achieved two technological breakthroughs. The first was the creation of an automatic knuckle coupler, which was opened by a combination of trip devices in special sections of track that activated an onboard electromagnet. The next year, the company introduced a steam locomotive that actually belched smoke. The puffs were the result of an ammonium nitrate pellet placed on a specially engineered dimple in the train’s headlight to produce nitrogen oxide.
One of its first postwar trains was the No. 671, a black behemoth with a 6-8-6 wheel configuration. Radio receivers in each car of a No. 671 set were designed to trigger coupling and uncoupling of cars. It was supposed to be a truly electronic train set, but it didn’t work very well.
To increase the play value in layouts, in 1947 Lionel introduced its Automatic Milk Car, which featured a little man that popped out of the car to push milk cans onto an awaiting platform. Other vintage Lionel accessories that are today quite collectible are the water tower, coal elevator, magnetic crane, and operating watchman.
Lionel’s No. 726 Berkshire followed in 1948, as did the 20-wheel GG-1. A replica of the Pennsylvania train of the same name, with styling by industrial designer Raymond Loewy, Lionel’s GG-1 could draw power from either the third rail in the tracks or lines strung overhead.
These were impressive trains, but all would be eclipsed by the F3 diesels Lionel introduced that same busy year. Until now, kids had only East Coast and Midwestern trains to play with, but the Santa Fe F3 changed all that. With its bright red nose, classic yellow detailing, and sleek aluminum body, the Santa Fe became the Lionel to play with and collect. Other F3s in this iconic O scale line are the Milwaukee Road, Illinois Central, Wabash, Southern, and, later, the B&O.
To power its new diesel line, in 1948 Lionel introduced the ZW transformer, which was strong enough (275 watts) to move four model trains at once. And as the decade ended and the 1950s began, Lionel trumpeted a new featured, Magne-Traction, which used magnets in its engines to increase pulling power, speed, and control...
The 1950s began as a decade for Lionel to reap what it had sowed. By 1953 it was the largest toy manufacturer in the world, and every year, it seemed, brought some new, even-more-wonderful machine. The innovations were not just limited to the new diesels, either. 1957 saw the debut of the No. 746 Norfolk & Western, a powerful looking streamline steamer with gorgeous lines and a handsome, rounded nose.
But in the 1950s, air travel was replacing train travel, and a new network of interstate freeways was replacing the nation’s railroad system. Thus, Lionel struggled to create products that would keep it relevant.
Predictably, a pink train for girls in 1957 bombed, although vintage examples of this so-called Lady Lionel are highly sought by collectors today. Even more prized are the companion baby-blue trains made for boys, which were so scorned they were not even released. To capitalize on the infamous reputations of these two disasters, Lionel reissued both as collectibles in 1991.
No better were the trains made to help fight the Cold War in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Some featured flat cars that carried ominous chambers labeled "Radioactive Waste." Other cars were configured to fire missiles at enemies or to explode and break apart on contact.
By the end of the 1950s, with the Cowen family selling its shares to a group of investors that included former Joseph McCarthy lawyer Roy Cohn, once-great Lionel was on thin ice. In the 1960s, it dabbled in science kits and introduced lesser versions of earlier achievements, but by 1967, Lionel would file for bankruptcy. It would do so again in 2004 and 2008.
Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)
Postwar Lionel Trains Library
Airfix Model Railways
Tech Model Railroad Club of MIT
Clubs & Associations
- Lionel Collectors Club of America
- Lionel Operating Train Society
- Train Collectors Association
- National Model Railroad Association
- Toy Train Operating Society
- National Association of S Gaugers, Inc.
- Train Collectors Society (U.K.)
Other Great Reference Sites
Most watched eBay auctions
Recent News: Postwar Lionel Model Trains
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Closing of Nashua hardware store evokes fond memoriesNashua Telegraph, September 19th
A bunch of Facebook responders remember, as does Archambeault, the iconic Lionel train clicking, clacking and tooting its way around Toyland's brightly lit Christmas trees and toy displays. And who can ever forget Christmas at Osgood's? “Walking home ...Read more
Q: Why was Grandma J.'s Grandma J.'s basement 'the most fun basement ever ...TwinCities.com-Pioneer Press, September 18th
which were white dotted swiss, left over from a dress she had made for me. It was homey and cheerful, as basements go. "But on to the best part! On the far side of this basement was a huge table with a Lionel train set, complete with tracks and tunnels...Read more
Big Texas Train Show exhibits historical models in HoustonYour Houston News, September 11th
Pat Ryan of Humble holds a pre-World War II "O" gauge Lionel train engine during the set up of the Big Texas Train Show at the George R. Brown Convention Center in Houston, Texas on Friday, Sept. 5, 2014. Choo Choo! Alan Warren ...Read more
Choo Choo!Your Houston News, September 10th
Staff photo by Alan WarrenPat Ryan of Humble holds a pre-World War II "O" gauge Lionel train engine during the set up of the Big Texas Train Show at the George R. Brown Convention Center in Houston, Texas on Friday, Sept. 5, 2014. Choo Choo!...Read more
Dinner Train Survival: Tale of Two Trainswhotv.com, September 8th
He said that he had a Lionel train set as a kid. “Then life happens, you put your trains in the closet,” he said. But when grandkids came along, out came the trains, and memories of how much he liked trains. “You hear about a place like Boone where you...Read more
Lincoln Park Zoo to give Lionel Trains a new brand platformChicago Business Journal, September 5th
But next month, at the Lincoln Park Zoo, Lionel will unveil its first-ever life-sized train installation. Dubbed the Lionel Train Adventure, the ride is being introduced as yet another attraction to pull in more visitors to one of Chicago's most...Read more
Lincoln Park Zoo creates place for macaques to monkey aroundChicago Sun-Times, September 4th
On Thursday, the zoo lifted the curtain, giving the press a tour of the grounds, which will also feature a new dining area, new restrooms and a much-hyped Lionel train ride. The train is scheduled to open Oct. 2, but the zoo stopped short of giving an...Read more
Lionel for Ladies?Rochester Democrat and Chronicle (blog), August 23rd
According to Ron Hollander's All Aboard! The Story of Joshua Lionel Cowen and His Lionel Train Company (2000), the toy stove, at $29.50, cost as much as Mom's gas stove. Purchasing the toy stove commanded more than a public school teacher made in a ...Read more