The electric guitar may be the icon of American popular music in the 20th century, but rock ’n’ roll as we know it today would not have been possible without the amplifier. With the emergence of the now-familiar rock line-up of guitar, bass, drums, and vocals in the 1950s and 1960s, guitarists needed a way to be heard over the noise of their fellow musicians.

Clarence Leonidas "Leo" Fender was the first to address this need. Along with Clayton Orr “Doc” Kaufman, Fender began making amps in 1945 under the brand name K&F. After Doc left K&F in 1946, Fender founded the Fender Electric Instrument Company. Ever since, Fender has been one of the leading names in amplifiers, and its products from this period consistently rank among the most valuable and collectible.

The company released the first true Fender amp in 1947: the Model 26. More models soon followed, including the Super, the Princeton, the Deluxe, and the Professional. The amps from this period are known today as “woodies” for their main material.

Fender's design changed rapidly over the years. Amps made from 1948 to 1953 are commonly known as “TV amps” due to their shape—square, with a rounded cutout for the speaker, which made it resemble the televisions of the time. Because the required woodwork and carpentry were fairly unattractive, Fender covered these amps in tweed, which became a distinctive look until the early 1960s. In 1953, the company switched to the “wide panel” design, which featured a slightly more rectangular shape and a square cutout for the speaker.

The most collectible Fender amps were produced from 1955 to 1960, though amps from the early and mid-1960s are also quite prized. These amps were more powerful than their predecessors and have a better sound. In fact, many guitarists consider the Tweed Bassman produced during this period to be the best rock guitar amp ever made.

The amps made from 1955 to 1960 feature a “narrow panel” shape, which has less space above and below the speaker, making for a slicker look. In 1959, Fender switched to the “browns,” named for the color of the control panel, knobs, and a vinyl covering called Tolex. Fender produced these amps alongside white or “blond” Tolex amps.

In 1963, Fender switched designs yet again to the “blackface” look, which sported black Tolex and the now-familiar silver sparkle cover over the speaker. These amps also had buil...

Fender was acquired by CBS in 1965, and many guitarists and collectors mark that year as the start of a drastic decline in quality. Some of the flaws were small but embarrassing—the rear panels of amplifiers made in late 1965 and early 1966, for example, are stamped with the words “Division of Colombia Records Division,” even though the name of the record label was actually spelled Columbia.

By the time Fender had come under the auspices of CBS, it already had major competition from overseas. In 1962, Jim Marshall made his first amplifier with the help of his chief technician, Ken Bran, in Hanwell, England, where imported Fender amplifiers were prohibitively expensive. As rock drummers became louder and increasingly aggressive in the 1960s, guitarists needed something that could push their work through the noise.

A drummer himself, Marshall began with the Fender Bassman as an inspirational model. The very first amp he built had four inputs and two volume controls, in addition to treble, bass, middle, and presence knobs—just like the Bassman. From the start, the tone of the Marshall amplifier was different from that of the Fender, thanks largely to the British, postwar leftover parts he used.

The first amplifier Marshall produced on a large scale was the JTM45; the JTM stands for Jim and Terry Marshall (Terry was Jim’s son). The first 100 of these amplifiers are particularly rare and collectible—they sport enameled metal name plates embossed with the word “MARSHALL” in block letters.

Unfortunately, the pair of 12-inch speakers Marshall used in the JTM45 kept overloading and blowing out, so he modified the design to power four 12-inch speakers. Thus the modern Marshall speaker cabinet was born. Marshall began producing 50- and 100-watt models, which had become extremely popular by 1964.

Fender and Marshall remain the most recognized brands of guitar amps today, but they are far from the only ones. The British brand Vox, founded in 1958 by Jennings Musical Instruments, had a particularly influential impact on rock ’n’ roll, especially in England—their AC-15 and AC-30 amplifiers were used by bands like The Shadows and The Beatles.

Although Gibson is known more for its guitars, it also produced a few amplifiers. Originally, each amplifier was conceived as being tied to a specific guitar, rather than a stand-alone piece of equipment that could be used with an array of instruments. So when Gibson released its first electric guitar—the E-150—in the late 1930s, it decided to release an amplifier to go with it, the EH series. From World War II to 1967, Gibson built its amps in Kalamazoo, Michigan, and those from the late 1940s and 1950s are considered fairly collectible, though generally less so than their Fender counterparts.

Epiphone also produced amplifiers during this period. One of note is the Professional, which took the then-common concept of the integrated guitar-amplifier to its logical conclusion—the Professional was packaged and sold with a guitar, and all of the controls for the amplifier itself were located on the body of the guitar! The two were connected via a multi-pin cable so the guitarist could control the volume and tone of the amplifier from the instrument.

Other noteworthy brands include Ampeg, Gretsch, Magnatone, and Danelectro (the Montgomery Ward brand).

Beyond their manufacturer, amps can be considered valuable or collectible based on their association with specific artists. The Fender Dual Showman is closely associated with surf guitarist Dick Dale, while the words Marshall and Hendrix are often lumped together. More recently, Jack White of the White Stripes frequently played a Danelectro Silvertone 1485 when his band was becoming popular, which launched the amplifier from relative obscurity into the spotlight.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Vintage Danelectro

Vintage Danelectro

This site is as cool as the Nat Daniels’s designed Danelectro guitars and amplifiers that grace its easy-to-navig… [read review or visit site]

Vintage Guitars Info

Vintage Guitars Info

This great reference site features detailed sections on vintage guitar makers, including Gibson, Fender, Martin, Gr… [read review or visit site]

Vintage Guitar and Bass

Vintage Guitar and Bass

Want to see all the old brochures and ads for your favorite vintage axe? Check out this great site, which showcases… [read review or visit site]

Clubs & Associations

Other Great Reference Sites

Most watched eBay auctions    

1961 Fender Twin AmpVintage 1960s Gretsch 6152 Tremelo Reverb Tube Amplifier Amp Valco CompactVintage Gibson Ga-8 Gibsonette Guitar Amp, No Reserve!1964 Fender Reverb Unit Vintage Tube Guitar Tank Effect Amplifier Pedal 1963Vintage 1960's Fender Tube Amp 4 Speaker Model 6g12 Amplifier Marshall Class5 5w Tube Guitar Amp Head C5hVintage 1950's Era Gibson Ga-6 Amplifier For RepairFender 57 Tweed Deluxe Amp HeadVintage 1965 Gibson Skylark Tremolo Vacuum Tube Guitar Amp Ga 5t AmplifierFender Champion 600 Tube Guitar Amplifier NrNational Westwood 1964-65 N-6422tr Original Valco Tube Amplifier No Reserve! Marshall Jcm800 2203 Vintage Series 100 Watt Guitar AmpVintage 1970s Traynor Mark Iii Ygl 3 Tube Amplifier Head 100w As IsOrange Amps Ob1-500 Bass Amplifier Head White/orangeCarvin Vintage 16 Guitar Amplifier Nos Tubes 5w/16w Triode Pentode Amp W/coverAmpeq J12 Guitar Amplifier Vintage 1970s Traynor Voice Master Yvm 1 Tube Amplifier Head 50w As IsGibson Amplifier# Peavey Jsx Joe Satriani Tube Guitar Amp Head & FootswitchFender Vibro-champ Amp ChassisVintage Carvin Valve Master 100 Tube Guitar Amp Head Project 12ax7 5881Fender Musicmaster Bass Amp - Guitar/harp Amp - 6v6 - In Excellent ConditionMaestro Ga-1rt Ga5-t Tweed Tube Amp Project -- Made By Gibson -- Vintage 1960'sVintage Oahu Lap Steel Amp Rola Speaker 1942Fender Guitar Amp Princeton Chorus Pr82 2x10 Guitar Amplifier Foot Pedal MusicFender Bandmaster Amp1968 Fender Bandmaster Tube Amp Vintage 1968 Fender Silverface Bassman Amp Head Drip Edge 50 Watts No Reserve!Special Edition Fender Stratocaster *mint* W Road Runner Hard Case & Line 6 Amp Orange Amplifiers Or Series Or15h 15w Compact Tube Guitar Amp HeadAmpeg Portaflex Pf-500 Bass Amplifier Head 500 WattOrange Tiny Terror Tt15h 15/7 Watt Mini Tube Head Electric Guitar AmpFender Acoustasonic 150 Combo Acoustic Guitar Digital Amplifier 150w Brown UsedMesa Boogie Transatlantic Ta 15head Guitar Amplifier Gig Bagand FootswitchVintage Polytone Baby Brute Guitar Amplifier Amp Nr Nice! Check Out Video LinkFender Pro Junior Lll Tube Amplifier Near Mint! No Reserve! Fender Hot Rod Deville 212 Iii Guitar Amp Peavey 6505mh 20w Guitar Amplifier Head1949 National Lap Steel Hawaiian & 1951 Magna (magnatone) M-192-5-d AmplifierVox Pathfinder 15r V9168r 15w Guitar Combo Amp, Reverb, Untested Sold As IsOrange Thunderverb 200 200 Watt Guitar Amp BlackVintage 1939 Gibson Eh-185/eh-150 Steel Electric Guitar Tube Amplifier Amp Tweed*vintage * Crate Stealth All Tube 100 Watt Guitar Amp Head This Things Got Tone!Vox Nt15h 15 Watt Guitar AmpPeavey Megabass Digital Bass System Amplifier Head W/ Freq. CrossoverVintage Leilani Lap Steel Guitar Amp Not Working For Parts Or Repair OnlyVox Ac30ch Custom 30w Tube Guitar Amp Head Orange Tiny Terror 15 Watt Tube Guitar Amp HeadTransformers For Fender Vibro-champ AmpFender Limited Edition Blue Junior Amp - Jr Tube AmplifierAmpeg Svt-350 Bass Amp (solid State)Marshall Bass Amp Head B450 Model Bass AmplifierTeisco Checkmate 17 Vintage Japanese Tube AmplifierOrange Terror Bass 1000 Watt Class D Hybrid Bass Amplifier Head - No ReserveFender Frontman 212r 100 Watt Guitar Amp W/ Foot SwitchVintage Rare Harmony Guitar Amplifier Model 200 1950'sPeavey Classic 30 Tweed Guitar Amp - Needs RepairPeavey Classic 30 Tube AmpOrange Tiny Terror Electric Guitar Amp Amplifier Head All Tube Mik KoreaMarshall Mg 15 Msii Mini Full Stack Amp Guitar Amplifier