Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.

At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.

For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.

Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.

Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.

Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.

Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...

In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.

Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.

The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.

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Recent News: 78 Records

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Put another dime in
Chico News & Review, May 28th

In 1987, I bought an old Rock-Ola jukebox that played 78 RPM records. It didn't work, so I had to figure out how to repair it. I had been messing around with electronic and mechanical stuff since I was a boy, and the jukebox really intrigued me. Within...Read more

Homecoming gig in Glusburn for jazz queen Clare Teal
Craven Herald, May 27th

Clare, born in 1973, developed an early interest in jazz through her father's collection of 78rpm records, becoming "obsessed" with big band singers like Ella Fitzgerald. Studying music at Wolverhampton University, she forgot her clarinet for an exam...Read more

Something Old, Something New
Pacific Northwest Inlander, May 27th

A cast-iron pan or 78-rpm record becomes a clock face. Turquoise-glass insulators become globes on light fixtures. A door salvaged from the 1930s high school near Casey's Kingston, Idaho, home turns into a rustic hall tree with old-school hinge pins...Read more

11 Intriguing Appearances On At.Long.Last.A$AP
Stereogum, May 27th

Fox's pained borderline-falsetto feels like it's crackling off the surface of an old 78 RPM record, as old-soul world-weary as one can sound while still convincingly pulling off a lament about being “still too young” for his situation. He also appears...Read more

The Odyssey of R. Crumb
Wall Street Journal, May 27th

In Milford, I discovered old music could be found on old 78-rpm records. The first one I bought was “Down in the Cemetery” by Billy Bird, a blues singer. I'd never heard anything like that. It was so unslick, so lacking in showbiz professionalism...Read more

Revisiting The Crystal Clarity Created By The 'Decca Sound' Revolution
St. Louis Public Radio, May 26th

And the introduction of magnetic tape not only allowed longer recording takes than the four minutes for each side of an old 78 RPM shellac, but a new ease in editing out bad takes. And fortunately for listeners, Decca, which was known in this country...Read more

House of the week: Turners Cross, Cork €195000
Irish Examiner, May 23rd

Thankfully, Ossory Place bucks that 'ex-rental' expectation and occasional dread: it still presents as a sort of period timepiece, and even has a working old radiogram and 78 RPM records in its front room... sorry, parlour, and good 'brown' furniture...Read more

NV Energy can't accept paradigm shift: Letter
Reno Gazette Journal, May 20th

Buggy whips, 78 rpm records, Swiss movement watches and Kodachrome roll film have all fallen to paradigm shifts. Automobiles and digital technology replaced them. Paradigm shifts always reset any advantages to zero. Does NV Energy really believe it ...Read more