Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.
At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.
For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.
Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.
Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.
Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.
Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...
In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.
Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.
The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.
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Recent News: 78 Records
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Time to beat winter blues at Louth's RiverheadLouth Leader, January 25th
Join the 78RPM Jazz Band for a musical tonic to dispel those winter blues as they present their 'Musical Flu Jab (or Winter Sunshine Part Two)' in Louth. The performance will take place at 7.30pm on Sunday February 1 at the Riverhead Theatre. The band ...Read more
The 78 Project Movieblueridgemuse, January 25th
A new partnership emerged Saturday night with the Blue Ridge Music Center on the Parkway joining forces with The Floyd Country Store to screen The 78 Project Movie. Country Store owner Dylan Locke said the store co-sponsored the screening as part of a ...Read more
A Review of Noël Coward's 'Private Lives' in HartfordNew York Times, January 23rd
The oft-cited line “Certain women should be struck regularly, like gongs” is spoken by Elyot after a scene in which he has done just that, but then his ex-wife has also kneed his groin forcefully and broken a 78-r.p.m. record over his head. Darko...Read more
Roy Forbes on a quest for fireVancouver Sun, January 23rd
For Forbes, there is only one way to listen to classics like Billie Holliday and Hank Williams: Straight back to 78 RPM shellac records, a metal needle and one of those old RCA Victor phonographs. Yes, Roy Forbes is the real deal: A true records purist...Read more
A whole lotta Dixie rockSouth Wales Evening Post, January 23rd
And after playing them on an old Edison 78rpm Victrola, they agreed the songs were in fact fine country music, and the Lost Highway of Hank Williams and AC/DC's Highway To Hell were the exact same road. The band took a name which plays on that of the ...Read more
Turning the tables on technology with '78 Project' recordingsNewsworks.org, January 14th
(Sarah Law/for The 78 Project). Those familiar with records will probably know that they are made of vinyl and spin at 33 1/3 revolutions per minute, or at 45 for a single. A 78 spins more than twice as fast – 78 rpm -- and is made of acetate, a far...Read more
Elvis Presley's first record, 'My Happiness', auctions for $300000Economic Times, January 9th
The 78 rpm record, with its tattered yellow label, sold for $240,000. But the total buyer's price includes a premium of 25 per cent, or $60,000, that goes to the auction house, Graceland Auctions. Bidding for the record started at $50,000. Other items...Read more
Briefs: Schools of Choice openings; 78 rpm record appreciation program; Coffee ...The Daily Tribune, January 8th
Briefs: Schools of Choice openings; 78 rpm record appreciation program; Coffee hours with state rep. State Representative Jim Townsend, D-Royal Oak, will hold coffee hours to meet with local citizens. Photo submitted by Jim Townsend. Posted: 01/08/15, ...Read more