Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.
At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.
For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.
Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.
Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.
Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.
Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...
In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.
Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.
The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.
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New Teac sound system with retro credCNET, December 10th
The new Teac LP-P1000 music center is a throwback to the 1950s with a modern twist. This product is essentially a three-speed turntable that supports 33 1/3, 45 and 78rpm vinyl recordings. The LP-P1000 also comes with a retro styling, sporting both...Read more
December heralds community Christmas celebrationsThe Livingston County News, December 10th
The Annual Arts & Crafts Show returned to the Town Hall and had a steady stream of traffic. 78RPM's performance at the Dansville Presbyterian Church set the stage for the rest of the day's festivities. The evening featured the lighting of the Christmas...Read more
Crony Democracy And Japan's Nuclear DisasterThe Market Oracle, December 10th
It was built for the early years of black-and-white television, the George Orwell era of atomic weapons, mass communication with bakelite radios, 78 rpm records and the leaden prose of a select few leading national newspapers dictating and dominating...Read more
Couple devotes home to rock 'n' rollBrandon Valley Challenger, December 10th
One juke box in their basement, which is devoted to the '50s, plays 78 rpm records. Another plays 45s. Cheryl said she has loved to dance since she was a child growing up in Centerville. She would look through the windows of the dance hall. “I couldn't...Read more
Celebrating Harry Smith's 'Anthology of American Folk Music' | Concert previewThe Seattle Times (blog), December 10th
The compilation's 84 tracks, recorded on 78 rpm records between 1927-32, came from what critic Greil Marcus later dubbed “the old, weird America”: haunting, nasal voices of Appalachia; dreamlike tales of murder and metamorphosis; work songs from ...Read more
'The Rise & Fall of Paramount' makes a historical impressionCreative Loafing Atlanta, December 10th
In late September, a collector in Grants Pass, Ore., paid $37,100 for a 78 rpm recording by Tommy Johnson, a legendary musician from the Mississippi Delta whose influence on American blues arguably rivals better known artists, such as Skip James, Son ...Read more
Old tattoos made new for artist brimming with ideaBellingham Herald, December 9th
That's not surprising from someone who gravitates to old things: 78 rpm records, blues and rockabilly music, clothing, movie posters, advertisements. He collects facts and stories as well. At the drop of hat — a fedora, in his case — he'll recall...Read more
Does anyone really need a USB turntable?Digital Spy UK, December 9th
There's a 33rpm/45rpm speed button, of course, but no 78rpm for the granddads, and no pitch-shifting fader for the wannabe-DJs either. If we were being picky, we'd have liked a holder to keep the arm in place when we're moving the record player about, ...Read more