Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.

At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.

For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.

Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.

Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.

Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.

Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...

In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.

Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.

The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.

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Recent News: 78 Records

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Patricia Linder Bryant
Indianapolis Star, August 26th

She loved performing in musicals at Purdue and went on to record a 78 RPM album to help launch her singing career. Pat lived a full life and was guided by her faith in God. Her most cherished memories were those of raising her children on Potters Pike...Read more

Gilliam Banmon 'GB' Grayson - a Johnson County fiddler
The Tomahawk, August 26th

I own two of their 78-rpm records; one is on the Gennett label and one is on the Victor label. The one on the Victor label is playable but unfortunately the one on the Gennett label has been broken. Side A of the Victor has “The Red and Green Signal...Read more

Tom Piazza turns to fiction to explore intensely personal stories: Katrina and ..., August 24th

two young children, has been growing more dissatisfied. Craig also has his own collected talismans of life in New Orleans, lovingly listed: a photo of himself backstage at Jazz Fest, a signed Fats Domino poster, an old 78 rpm record on an obscure...Read more

How One Seattle DJ Is Keeping 78-rpm Culture Alive (blog), August 18th

If Seattle can support HISSSSSSS, a monthly DJ night devoted to cassettes, it can probably sustain one dedicated to 78-rpm shellac. It helps if the person behind the decks is Jeffery Taylor, co-owner of Wall of Sound record store and cocurator of...Read more

Music Journalist Chronicles The 'Wild Obsessive Hunt' For Rare 78 RPM Records
NPR, August 11th

With almost all the music you'd ever want to listen to available online digitally, the obsessive hunt for scratchy, fragile 78 RPM records may seem anachronistic. But author Amanda Petrusich says that those early records, which hold between two and...Read more

Music journalist chronicles the "wild obsessive hunt" for rare 78 rpm records
Minnesota Public Radio News, August 11th

With almost all the music you'd ever want to listen to available online digitally, the obsessive hunt for scratchy, fragile 78 RPM records may seem anachronistic. But author Amanda Petrusich says that those early records, which hold between two and...Read more

Brampton man's passion for jazz music fuels his hobby for collecting records
Mississauga, August 8th

BRAMPTON—When it comes to music, Brampton's Ken McPherson would rather be stuck in the '20s. McPherson, 60, is a collector of 78 rpm (revolutions per minute) records, mainly from jazz and dance bands from early '20s to late '30s, and says the organic ...Read more

Ghost Woman Blues
Livemint, July 29th

Perhaps, the most mysterious figure of the lot (Robert Johnson notwithstanding) is Geeshie Wiley, the singer and guitarist who cut three 78-rpm records in 1930 and 1931 with her partner Elvie Thomas, and promptly disappeared without a trace. Wiley's ...Read more