Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.

At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.

For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.

Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.

Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.

Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.

Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...

In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.

Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.

The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.

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Recent News: 78 Records

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Herald-Mail Media, August 2nd

Crowell and Shanholtzer were particularly proud of the "home scene" they set up in a corner of the bedroom featuring a large Victrola Credenza that plays old 78-rpm records. Shanholtzer made it work after getting technical advice from a company that ...Read more

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Vulture, August 1st

Last night, I went to an event where my friend and fellow music writer Amanda Petrusich read from her recent book Do Not Sell at Any Price, which is about the nearly 100 percent male subculture of 78 RPM record collectors. She spoke candidly about how ...Read more

A Voice from Long Ago: Sashimukhi, not Gauhar Jaan, was the first Indian voice ...
The Indian Express, August 1st

“A brass/metal horn was used as the microphone for recording, and they would place a wax-coated disc on the turntable and rotate it at 78 rpm. Artistes would bring their mouths close to the recording horn and sing. The voice would then pass through the ...Read more

15 Minutes with Lewis Durham, August 1st

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The Complete History of Pop Hits With Featured Rappers Dropping Verses
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Actually, Young Blue Eyes did receive his propers on the label of the 78-RPM record, which read “Tommy Dorsey and his Orchestra” and, in very small print at the bottom, “Vocal refrain by Frank Sinatra and The Pied Pipers.” But the entry on Billboard's...Read more

Ghost Woman Blues
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Explore the magic of Vilayat Hussein Khan, a great guru who was also an ideal ..., July 24th

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For millennia now, humanity has dreamed of alchemy — turning base metals to gold. For maybe a couple of months now, humanity has dreamed of turning a tortilla into a 78 RPM record. And now, one of those dreams has finally become a reality. Not the ...Read more