Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.
At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.
For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.
Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.
Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.
Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.
Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...
In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.
Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.
The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.
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Recent News: 78 Records
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Grammy regularsChampaign/Urbana News-Gazette, February 1st
Martin and Hennessey started Archeophone Records in 1998, sort of as a hobby, when he was collecting 78-rpm recordings and burning out on his work toward a Ph.D. in English at Indiana University. "We both loved popular music and wondered what ...Read more
Today in Music History - Feb. 1mysask.com, January 31st
It was designed as a rival to Columbia's 33 1/3 rpm long-playing disc, introduced the previous year. The two systems directly competed with each other to replace 78 rpm records, bewildering consumers and causing a drop in record sales. By the end of...Read more
Neeti Upadhye joins the vinyl revivalRochester Democrat and Chronicle, January 31st
I turned to the all-knowing Google to research the various formats and the pros and cons of each: 10-inch 78 rpm records are made of breakable shellac and can only hold one song per side (these are rare nowadays), 12-inch 331/3s are pressed on vinyl...Read more
Hank Williams recordings get Grammy nominationWBIR-TV, January 31st
In 1950, the singer recorded "The Garden Spot Programs," a series of radio shows sponsored by Naughton Farms, a mail-order plant nursery in Waxahachie, Texas. The shows were forgotten almost immediately after they aired. If it weren't for collector...Read more
Alan Lomax Archive Celebrates the Folklorist's Centennial With 6-LP Box SetBroadway World, January 31st
Fans will also get access to rare exclusives including a 78-rpm record from Lomax's own collection, a copy of the Grammy-winning set of Lomax's 1938 Library of Congress recordings with Jelly Roll Morton, and the exclusive Alan Lomax Centennial T-shirt...Read more
This guy turned a Millennium Falcon toy into a turntableConsequence of Sound, January 28th
In the Star Wars universe, the Millennium Falcon could make the Kessel Run in less than 12 parsecs. In the real universe, it can spin a vinyl record at 78 RPM. A few years ago, a Texas-based instrument repairer named Marco Garza bought an original 1977 ...Read more
Go Out This Week: Ricky Skaggs, 'The 78 Project Movie,' Tournées French Film ...Memphis Commercial Appeal, January 26th
armed with a vintage microphone, an authentic 1930s Presto direct-to-acetate disc recorder, and blank 78-rpm lacquer discs to capture performances of public-domain songs in a single take, replicating the “field recording” style of such...Read more
Briefs: Schools of Choice openings; 78 rpm record appreciation program; Coffee ...The Daily Tribune, January 8th
Briefs: Schools of Choice openings; 78 rpm record appreciation program; Coffee hours with state rep. State Representative Jim Townsend, D-Royal Oak, will hold coffee hours to meet with local citizens. Photo submitted by Jim Townsend. Posted: 01/08/15, ...Read more