Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.

At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.

For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.

Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.

Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.

Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.

Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...

In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.

Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.

The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.

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Recent News: 78 Records

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Yale School of Music's gifted musicians a click away -- via live streaming
New Haven Register, August 30th

Yale is able to record the performances, as it has done for decades (originally on 78-rpm records), but the end user at home is not able to record; this avoids more complex issues of copyright. Yale has ASCAP, BMI and SESAC licenses – the “societies ...Read more

It's Only Rock'n'Roll, But They Like It: New Books from Robert Christgau and ...
Hyperallergic, August 29th

The first one he ever heard and examined was his parents' 78 r.p.m., multi-disc cast recording of Rodgers and Hammerstein's South Pacific, which opened on Broadway in 1949. “Pop music is always about tunes….,” Christgau writes in Going Into the City...Read more

Discs revive memories of Happy Gang host
London Free Press, August 28th

A Free Press story said Stewart had all of Allen's 78 rpm records from The Happy Gang era. Still, it is unlikely Stewart had the Audiodisc label recordings found in the London collection. Audiodisc was an NYC-based firm that provided “recording blank” ...Read more

How One Seattle DJ Is Keeping 78-rpm Culture Alive
TheStranger.com (blog), August 18th

If Seattle can support HISSSSSSS, a monthly DJ night devoted to cassettes, it can probably sustain one dedicated to 78-rpm shellac. It helps if the person behind the decks is Jeffery Taylor, co-owner of Wall of Sound record store and cocurator of...Read more

Music journalist chronicles the "wild obsessive hunt" for rare 78 rpm records
Minnesota Public Radio News, August 11th

With almost all the music you'd ever want to listen to available online digitally, the obsessive hunt for scratchy, fragile 78 RPM records may seem anachronistic. But author Amanda Petrusich says that those early records, which hold between two and...Read more

Music Journalist Chronicles The 'Wild Obsessive Hunt' For Rare 78 RPM Records
NPR, August 11th

With almost all the music you'd ever want to listen to available online digitally, the obsessive hunt for scratchy, fragile 78 RPM records may seem anachronistic. But author Amanda Petrusich says that those early records, which hold between two and...Read more

Brampton man's passion for jazz music fuels his hobby for collecting records
Mississauga, August 8th

BRAMPTON—When it comes to music, Brampton's Ken McPherson would rather be stuck in the '20s. McPherson, 60, is a collector of 78 rpm (revolutions per minute) records, mainly from jazz and dance bands from early '20s to late '30s, and says the organic ...Read more

You can make a tortilla into a 78 RPM record, play it, and then eat it
CBC.ca, July 8th

For millennia now, humanity has dreamed of alchemy — turning base metals to gold. For maybe a couple of months now, humanity has dreamed of turning a tortilla into a 78 RPM record. And now, one of those dreams has finally become a reality. Not the ...Read more