Before iTunes, CDs, 8-tracks, LPs, or even seven-inch EPs, 78s were the main medium for recorded music, so-called because they were played at 78 rotations per minute (rpm). Produced primarily by Victor, Columbia, Brunswick, and Capitol, 78s were first invented by Emile Berliner in the late 19th century.
At first, Berliner made the “plates,” as the records were called, out of celluloid and rubber-based materials, but in 1894 he switched to shellac, inspired by its transformative impact on the telephone industry. Early shellac 78s measured seven inches across, but by 1900 they were generally 10 or 12 inches in diameter.
For years, early radio stations in both the U.S. and Britain did everything they could to drive 78s out of the market. At the time, most radio stations provided listeners with live music—recorded music represented a threat to their business model. Thus, they discouraged their listeners from spending money on “canned” music. In England, the Musicians Union went so far as to require radio stations to pay the Union for every minute they played records instead of live music.
Thanks to these policies and the poor sound quality of 78s, records took a while to catch on. In the 1920s, Thomas Edison released a competitor to the 78, the Edison disc, which was much thicker (a full quarter-inch!) and featured better audio quality. But the Edison disc required its own expensive phonograph, and it was discontinued in 1929, the same year opera star Arturo Toscanini declared that he would never record anything because a record could not fully capture the beauty of his voice.
Even so, record companies released a wide variety of genres on 78s, from classical to pop to recorded animal noises. In fact, classical releases spawned the origin of the term “album”: because each side of a 78 could only hold about five minutes of music, hour-long symphonies had to be divided into six discs, which were bound together in something resembling a photo album. Seventy-eights were better suited to short pop songs, but this length limitation would prove to be the format’s biggest weakness in the decades to come.
Still, 78s gradually gained acceptance, helped along by the popularity of jukeboxes after the Depression. Then, in 1942, the American Federation of Musicians declared that it would not record anything that did not directly help the American war effort—shellac was scarce, and it was an important material during wartime. The moratorium on record manufacturing lasted until 1944. When production got back on track, though, much of the shellac used for new records was recycled, which resulted in lower-quality discs.
Even so, shellac was on its way out anyway. In 1948, Columbia released the 10-inch LP; when Victor responded with the 45 in 1949, the “War of the Speeds” was on, and the industry soon switched from shellac to vinyl, which was much more durable and allowed for thinner grooves and, thus, longer playing times per side...
In the mid-1950s, seven-inch vinyl singles began cutting into the popularity of 78s even more. Indeed, 1958 was the last year the 78 was the best-selling format in the United States; within five years, 78s were no longer produced in any Western countries, though foreign labels like EMI’s Indian division kept producing them for a bit longer.
Since then, the 78 rpm speed and format have been revived a few times as a promotional gimmick, but these records are generally pressed on vinyl rather than shellac. One example was the Sundown Playboys’ “Saturday Nite Special” in 1971.
The most collectible 78s today are those from the late ’50s, when 78s were less common and releases were often pressed on multiple formats. In the U.K., for example, Elvis Presley’s “A Mess of Blues” is highly collectible as a 78 because it is much easier to find as a seven-inch vinyl single.
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Recommended books, Aug. 24SFGate, August 21st
The Wild, Obsessive Hunt for the World's Rarest 78 rpm Records. By Amanda Petrusich. (Scribner; 260 pages; $25). Petrusich's personal journey through the lives and legacies of junkmen hobbyists reshuffles twice-told stories and makes of them something ...Read more
State offering cultural and historical events throughout fallCoastal Point, August 21st
Hear 78 rpm recordings of this inspirational music played on authentic Victor Talking Machines, and explore how the Victor Talking Machine Company's Camden, N.J. factory led the fight to make the world safe for democracy. Johnson Victrola Museum, 375 S...Read more
King Creosote interview: Why there's no place like homeThe Independent, August 21st
Pop became global when the first 78 rpm disc was pressed, potentially transporting locally recorded music to anywhere on Earth. Pop has continued its progress towards becoming a universal language in the 21st century, with nearly all of it available in...Read more
The Bizarre History Of X-Ray Records And Early Music PiracyGizmodo Australia, August 20th
These 78 rpm, normal furrow (i.e. non-LP) discs contain about two to three minutes of voice or music recordings, says Hajdú. So that is how the first X-ray records were born in the studios of the Hungarian Radio, and as Hajdú emphasises, today we see...Read more
Oyler: Granddaughter's passion for music stirs scores of memoriesTribune-Review, August 20th
My enjoyment of music dates back to listening to 78 rpm records on a windup Victrola at my father's family home in the mid-1930s. “The Wreck of the Old 97” and “John Henry” were natural introductions to folk music as well as to country and Western music...Read more
'Do Not Sell at Any Price,' by Amanda Petrusich review: disc diggersSFGate, August 14th
Do Not Sell at Any Price. The Wild, Obsessive Hunt for the World's Rarest 78 rpm Records. By Amanda Petrusich. (Scribner; 260 pages; $25). For connoisseurs of old-time music, Skip James' 1931 recording "Devil Got My Woman" is an undisputed landmark...Read more
New York Writer Takes Us Back To The Heyday Of 78 RPM RecordsWUWM, July 30th
If you're older than, say, 35, you probably have heard of the 78 RPM record, even if you haven't actually heard one. The 78s heyday was in the first half of the 20th Century, before they gave way to LPs, and 45s, and later eight-track tapes and...Read more
'Do Not Sell at Any Price: The Wild, Obsessive Hunt for the World's Rarest 78 ...Dallas Morning News, July 26th
Midway through her thoughtful, entertaining history of obsessed music collectors and their quest for rare early 78 rpm records, writer Amanda Petrusich has a revelation. Focusing on one particular seeker and his knack for finding obscure titles others...Read more