In 1661, only a year into his tenure as England’s Postmaster General, Henry Bishop declared the invention of a new stamp-mark to ensure prompt delivery of the mail. The seal would be affixed to each letter, “shewing the day of the moneth that every letter comes to this office, so that no letter Carryer may dare to detayne a letter from post to post.” This system was immediately adopted by the British Royal Mail, creating the world's first stamped-mail service. “Bishop marks,” as these early stamps are called, featured a circle shape divided in two parts, with the upper half indicating the day and the lower half the month. The marks were used in various forms up through 1787, when the British post began transitioning to stamps with more detailed information.

The postal system Bishop managed only delivered mail between the post offices of major towns; smaller localities and even specific neighborhoods in large cities were left out. In 1680, the demand for local delivery in London inspired William Dockwra to open an independent postal service. Dockra’s staff of rebel couriers, who referred to themselves as “the undertakers,” appointed hundred of houses as receivers, where letters could be left for collection every hour and then taken to larger distribution offices. The delivery fees were one penny for letters traveling within the city, and two pennies for those to the suburbs.

Like the official Bishop system, Dockwra also used a hand-stamp to verify paid postage. These stamps were triangular in shape and inscribed with the words “Penny Post Paid” and a single centered initial, which indicated the collection office. The British government’s postal monopoly shut down Dockwra’s service within two years, but continued operating a local “Penny Post” using a remarkably similar triangular stamp. Letters marked with Dockwra’s original stamps are extremely rare and highly valued today.

When Rowland Hill published his pamphlet advocating Post Office reform more than 100 years later in 1837, postage prices had gone up considerably, but the stamping system was basically unchanged. Hill's criticisms focused on these exorbitant fees, and his broadside was directed toward an official Commission of Inquiry that had been organized to investigate Royal Post Office mismanagement.

One of Hill’s proposals was prepaid postal stationery, including letter-sheets, wrappers, and envelopes, as well as smaller stamped labels, which he described as “bits of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, and covered at the back with a glutinous wash.” Hill also suggested that postage be uniformly charged by weight, rather than the existing system based on destination proximity and pages per letter.

In the summer of 1839, a Parliamentary “Penny Postage” bill was passed; by May of the following year, Britain’s first adhesive stamps were printed. These first two stamps, known as the Penny Black and Two Pence Blue, featured an engraved portrait of Queen Victoria with the word “Postage” along the top edge and the price written along the bottom. The lower two corners also included a letter code indicating the individual stamp’s placement on each printed sheet. Original stamp sheets were imperforate, and included directions for placing the postage above and to the right of the handwritten address. Adhesive stamps became compulsory for the British post in 1853.

The first canceller used for British stamps was shaped like a Maltese cross and required red ink. However, Royal Mail officers soon realized how easy these cancellation marks wer...

Notably, the words “Great Britain” weren’t included anywhere on these first adhesive stamps, essentially because England was the only country in the world issuing paper stamps at the time. The omission became standard, and has been maintained on all official British postage ever since.

Other countries were relatively slow to adopt adhesive stamps, though Great Britain encouraged each of the postal services in its colonies to release their own. One of the rarest stamps ever produced was an imitation of England’s original penny stamps issued by the island colony of Mauritius. After stamps ordered from the United Kingdom were indefinitely delayed, the Governor of Mauritius asked a local engraver to create a red one-cent and blue two-cent stamp designed after England’s Penny Black and Two Pence Blue. Five hundred of each kind were produced, and all sold out within a few days of their release in September of 1847.

Other British colonial rarities include the Lady McLeod shipping stamps from Trinidad in 1847, the plain stamps issued in Hamilton, Bermuda beginning in 1848, and Guyana’s famed one cent, black-on-magenta stamp of 1856.

Britain’s first commemorative stamps were technically produced in 1887, on the 50th anniversary, or “Golden Jubilee,” of Queen Victoria’s ascension to the throne. However, these designs were used throughout the remainder of Victoria’s reign, unlike more modern commemoratives which have a limited production run. The country’s first commemorative specially designed for a current event were created by Harold Nelson for the British Empire Exhibition in 1924. In addition to the exhibition title and requisite bust of King George V, the image also showcased a symbolic roaring lion.

Early British commemoratives always featured portraits of royalty, though designers experimented with increasingly diverse and informal imagery during the 20th century. For example, in 1948 the Silver Anniversary of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth was celebrated with stamps based on Dorothy Wilding’s photographs of the royal couple.

The first commemorative stamps without a royal figure were those honoring William Shakespeare’s Quatercentenary in 1964. During the following years, the British Royal Mail increased its output of commemorative lines, releasing several series each year on subjects ranging from historic events and national monuments to artwork and wildlife.

Notable designers for early British stamps include Bertram Mackennal and G.W. Eve, who along with engraver J.A.C. Harrison created many classic portraits and pictorial designs. Their “Sea-Horses” series of 1913 is very desirable among collectors, and depicts Britannia’s chariot pulled by a team of equine creatures and flanked by a bust of King George V. As an avid philatelist, George V specifically asked that Mackennal and Eve use the older intaglio printing process for these stamps, which was out of fashion due to the popularity of letterpress technology.

The most prolifically reproduced design in British philatelic history is the Machin series of stamps, first issued in 1967. Featuring a portrait of Queen Elizabeth originally sculpted by Arnold Machin, thousands of different versions of these stamps have since been created, and its design is still issued by the British post today.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Collect GB Stamps

Collect GB Stamps

A large and well-organized database of British stamps from 1840 to the present, browsable by year, by specific issu… [read review or visit site]

British Postal Museum and Archive

British Postal Museum and Archive

This extensive website from Britain's Postal Heritage Trust is a deep resource on all things postal. Start with the… [read review or visit site]

Alphabetilately

Alphabetilately

First shown in 2008 to celebrate the Smithsonian National Postal Museum's 15th anniversary, Alphabetilately is esse… [read review or visit site]



Clubs & Associations

Most watched eBay auctions    

Gb Gv Waterlow Seahorses Sg Spec # N72(1) (sg 403) 1913 £1 Mint Um Cat £4800Gb Qv Sg43 Penny Red Plate Collection 240 Stamps Plate ReconstructionGb Collection Of Um Gv With Seahorses To £1 Sg403 Sg Cat £10,200Sg4 1840 2d Deep-blue Plate 1 (nc) Re-entry C£1200.00Gb Used Abroad In Islay Peru C42 5 Shilling Plate 1 Not Priced Stanley Gibbons!!Gb Edvii Som House Sg Spec # M56(1) (sg 320) 1912 £1 Mint Um Cat £3000Gb Gv Dlr Seahorses Sg # N70(4) (sg 413) 1915 10/- Mint Um Cat £4250Great Britain Victoria 1d Plum Shade (sg 31) Scarce Fine-used (a1207)Gb Used Abroad In Buenos Ayres Argentina B32, Combination 1d, 4d & 2x 6d Gb Qv Sg # 207 1887-92 5d Mint Um Cat £1100Gb Qv Pl 1 Sg # 129s 1867-78 £1 Mint Part O.g. Cat £62501d Mulready Cover(497)Gb Gv Puc Sg # 438 (sg Spec 209) 1929 £1 Mint Um Cat £1100Early 4 Margin 1d Black Forgery Sent Through The Post-rare(497)-3 ScansMulready Front And Part Back With Superb Brown Red Cross UnusualGb - Qv Good Used Collection Of 36 Surface Printed Stamps Inc 4d Sage X 2Royal Mint 2002 Manchester The Xvii Commonwealth Games 4 X £2 Coin & Stamp Cover1840 Sg2 1d Black Plate 6 London Maltese Cross Red No 2 To Launceston (bk)Sg4 1840 2d Deep-blue Plate 2 (ne) 4 Margins Black Cross C£1100.00Gb Gv Waterlow Seahorses Sg Spec # N66(2) (sg 401var) 1913 5/- Mint Um Cat £1400Kew Gardens 250th Anniversary 2009 Royal Mint Fdc + 50p Kew Gardens Coin UncGb Qv Sg # 181 1883-84 5/- Mint Um Cat £9751840 (june) Penny Black Cover E.l. Burnley To Bolton (file Crease) (a1230)Great Britain Classic 1840 103191840 Sg2 1d Black Plate 9 On Cover Durham To Manchester Black Maltese Cross (ql)Nystamps Gb Great Britain Stamp # 1 Used $300 Plate 1bGlory Box Of G.b First Day Covers Collection 1960's Onwards - 299 CoversGb Qeii Machin Collection In Stockbooks - 19kg Dealer Stock - DuplicationGeorge Vi 1d Blue Advert Booklet Pane Unusual Printing Shift! Unmounted (a1365)Gb 1891 £1 Green Used With “aberdeen” C.d.s. And Other Cancels, Slight FaultsGb Stamps - Clearout - Albums - Fdc - Royalty Omnibus - Postmarks - Glory BoxGb Qv Sg # 183 1883-84 10/- Mint Part O.g. Cat £2250Gb Qv Sg # 178 1883-84 2/6d Mint Um Cat £600Qeii 1955 Waterlow Castle Set, Fine, Unmounted Mint. Sg.536/9. Cat £2502x First Day Cover Albums Approx 50 First Day Covers - E18Gb Gv Dlr Seahorse Sg Spec # N64(4) 1913-18 2/6d Mint Um Cat £650Two (2) Victorian 1840 Penny Black Postage Stamps Oc And Pe Used 1d Black1840 Sg2 1d Black Plate 3 On Cover London To Stockton On Tees Red Cross (ek)Lovely 1865 Cover To France Eight 1858 2d Plate 8 Tied By London "16" NumeralGb Stamps - Q Victoria - Old Hoard / Accumulation - Reds - Lilacs - JubileeGb Great Britain Qeii 1955 Waterlow Castles High Values Set Never Hinged Mint#184 Gb Qv 18.. Le & Sp Misc M/u To 5s On 9x Cards VictoriaMulti-signed Commemorative Cover - Dambusters - Barnes Wallis - 617 Sqdn Shs. 1918-19 (bradbury) 10/- Dull Grey-blue "seahorse" Sg 417O35 10d Ow Official(1)Gb 1946 Victory, Very Rare Usa Illustrated Fdc With Marple Cds Cat £40+1840 1d Black Plate 2 Red Maltese Cross 4 Enormous Margins (hg)Nystamps Gb Great Britain Stamp # 40 Mint Og H $3500South Africa Boer War 1900 Mails Looted By The Enemy Handstamp On 1d Postal CardGb Qv Pl 1 Sg # 53a 1870 1½d Mint Part O.g. Cat £8500Penny Black C L All But Four MarginsGreat Britain, Qv, 1840 Penny Black, H-k, Plate 4, Superb UsedGreat Britain 1840 Penny Black 3 Margins (n J) Very Fine-used (m095)Gb. Qv. 1d Red, Blocks Study On Page. 1840 Sg2 1d Black Red Maltese Cross Nearly 4 Tight Margins (hd) 50 Grams Gb High Value Hv Commemorative Stamps To 2017 Great Britain CommemsCkstamps: New Zealand Stamps Collection Scott#c1-c3 (3) Mint Lh Og#181 Gb Gv Mint Various On 3x Cards Control Marginals Royal Cypher Nearly Set Westminster The Great Britain Collection Album With 10 Leaves & Some StampsGb 1858 Qv One Penny Reds - Collection Of 50 Used Stamps - Not Examined