In 1661, only a year into his tenure as England’s Postmaster General, Henry Bishop declared the invention of a new stamp-mark to ensure prompt delivery of the mail. The seal would be affixed to each letter, “shewing the day of the moneth that every letter comes to this office, so that no letter Carryer may dare to detayne a letter from post to post.” This system was immediately adopted by the British Royal Mail, creating the world's first stamped-mail service. “Bishop marks,” as these early stamps are called, featured a circle shape divided in two parts, with the upper half indicating the day and the lower half the month. The marks were used in various forms up through 1787, when the British post began transitioning to stamps with more detailed information.

The postal system Bishop managed only delivered mail between the post offices of major towns; smaller localities and even specific neighborhoods in large cities were left out. In 1680, the demand for local delivery in London inspired William Dockwra to open an independent postal service. Dockra’s staff of rebel couriers, who referred to themselves as “the undertakers,” appointed hundred of houses as receivers, where letters could be left for collection every hour and then taken to larger distribution offices. The delivery fees were one penny for letters traveling within the city, and two pennies for those to the suburbs.

Like the official Bishop system, Dockwra also used a hand-stamp to verify paid postage. These stamps were triangular in shape and inscribed with the words “Penny Post Paid” and a single centered initial, which indicated the collection office. The British government’s postal monopoly shut down Dockwra’s service within two years, but continued operating a local “Penny Post” using a remarkably similar triangular stamp. Letters marked with Dockwra’s original stamps are extremely rare and highly valued today.

When Rowland Hill published his pamphlet advocating Post Office reform more than 100 years later in 1837, postage prices had gone up considerably, but the stamping system was basically unchanged. Hill's criticisms focused on these exorbitant fees, and his broadside was directed toward an official Commission of Inquiry that had been organized to investigate Royal Post Office mismanagement.

One of Hill’s proposals was prepaid postal stationery, including letter-sheets, wrappers, and envelopes, as well as smaller stamped labels, which he described as “bits of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, and covered at the back with a glutinous wash.” Hill also suggested that postage be uniformly charged by weight, rather than the existing system based on destination proximity and pages per letter.

In the summer of 1839, a Parliamentary “Penny Postage” bill was passed; by May of the following year, Britain’s first adhesive stamps were printed. These first two stamps, known as the Penny Black and Two Pence Blue, featured an engraved portrait of Queen Victoria with the word “Postage” along the top edge and the price written along the bottom. The lower two corners also included a letter code indicating the individual stamp’s placement on each printed sheet. Original stamp sheets were imperforate, and included directions for placing the postage above and to the right of the handwritten address. Adhesive stamps became compulsory for the British post in 1853.

The first canceller used for British stamps was shaped like a Maltese cross and required red ink. However, Royal Mail officers soon realized how easy these cancellation marks wer...

Notably, the words “Great Britain” weren’t included anywhere on these first adhesive stamps, essentially because England was the only country in the world issuing paper stamps at the time. The omission became standard, and has been maintained on all official British postage ever since.

Other countries were relatively slow to adopt adhesive stamps, though Great Britain encouraged each of the postal services in its colonies to release their own. One of the rarest stamps ever produced was an imitation of England’s original penny stamps issued by the island colony of Mauritius. After stamps ordered from the United Kingdom were indefinitely delayed, the Governor of Mauritius asked a local engraver to create a red one-cent and blue two-cent stamp designed after England’s Penny Black and Two Pence Blue. Five hundred of each kind were produced, and all sold out within a few days of their release in September of 1847.

Other British colonial rarities include the Lady McLeod shipping stamps from Trinidad in 1847, the plain stamps issued in Hamilton, Bermuda beginning in 1848, and Guyana’s famed one cent, black-on-magenta stamp of 1856.

Britain’s first commemorative stamps were technically produced in 1887, on the 50th anniversary, or “Golden Jubilee,” of Queen Victoria’s ascension to the throne. However, these designs were used throughout the remainder of Victoria’s reign, unlike more modern commemoratives which have a limited production run. The country’s first commemorative specially designed for a current event were created by Harold Nelson for the British Empire Exhibition in 1924. In addition to the exhibition title and requisite bust of King George V, the image also showcased a symbolic roaring lion.

Early British commemoratives always featured portraits of royalty, though designers experimented with increasingly diverse and informal imagery during the 20th century. For example, in 1948 the Silver Anniversary of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth was celebrated with stamps based on Dorothy Wilding’s photographs of the royal couple.

The first commemorative stamps without a royal figure were those honoring William Shakespeare’s Quatercentenary in 1964. During the following years, the British Royal Mail increased its output of commemorative lines, releasing several series each year on subjects ranging from historic events and national monuments to artwork and wildlife.

Notable designers for early British stamps include Bertram Mackennal and G.W. Eve, who along with engraver J.A.C. Harrison created many classic portraits and pictorial designs. Their “Sea-Horses” series of 1913 is very desirable among collectors, and depicts Britannia’s chariot pulled by a team of equine creatures and flanked by a bust of King George V. As an avid philatelist, George V specifically asked that Mackennal and Eve use the older intaglio printing process for these stamps, which was out of fashion due to the popularity of letterpress technology.

The most prolifically reproduced design in British philatelic history is the Machin series of stamps, first issued in 1967. Featuring a portrait of Queen Elizabeth originally sculpted by Arnold Machin, thousands of different versions of these stamps have since been created, and its design is still issued by the British post today.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Collect GB Stamps

Collect GB Stamps

A large and well-organized database of British stamps from 1840 to the present, browsable by year, by specific issu… [read review or visit site]

British Postal Museum and Archive

British Postal Museum and Archive

This extensive website from Britain's Postal Heritage Trust is a deep resource on all things postal. Start with the… [read review or visit site]

Alphabetilately

Alphabetilately

First shown in 2008 to celebrate the Smithsonian National Postal Museum's 15th anniversary, Alphabetilately is esse… [read review or visit site]



Clubs & Associations

Most watched eBay auctions    

Antique Victorian Era Penny Red Stamps Incl One On Envelope Dated 1868 - G28Sg 129 £1 Brown Lilac. Fine Used Numeral & Small Part Crayon At Top Right...Sg 14 2d Blue Plate 4 Lettered Fd. Fresh Mint. 4 Good To Large Margins Cat £6250(900) Repaired Used Sg128 Qv 10/- Greenish Grey Plate 1 Perfin. SpacefillerSg 185 £1 Brown Lilac. Good Used. Nice Deep Colour. Vertical Crease At Left...Gb - Fine Collection Of 1st Day Covers In Box - 500+ 1970s/2000Great Britain Victoria 3d Carmine Sg 77 Unmounted Mint (j1293)Great Britain 1840 2d Blue (sg 5) 4 Margins 'spacefiller' Quality (j1194)G.b - Collection Of Qe2 Wildings Mnh In Part Sheets(923) Very Fine Used Sg212 Qv £1 Green With 2 "guernsey" Cds PostmarksG.b - Vast Collection In Old Box - All Periods - Mint/used - Est 8/9,000 Stamps#611 Gb Qv 18.. Line Engraved Collection ½d 1d 1½d 2d & Pieces M/u/uu 6x CardsBox 1 Gb Glory Box Huge Amount Of Stamps, Pages, Covers, Phq's Kiloware EtcGb 1964 Forth Road Bridge Presentation Pack Pp 4 Very Good ConditionSg5, 2d Blue, Fine Used, 4 Margins. Cat £850. Red Mx. Sl7 X Royal Mail 1st Day Cover/pres Pack Albums + Insert Pages - Fine ConditionSg 403 £1 Green. Very Fine Used With A Guernsey Cds, Dec 24th 1913. Nice Deep...Great Britain 1911-13 £1 Deep Green (sg 320) Fine L.h.m. (f001)Gb. Qv. Sg 191, 3d Lilac. Superb Colour. Unmounted Mint.Gb 1840- 1d Black Lettered Sk - Red Maltese Cross - 4 Margins - See DescriptionSg 7 1d Red Brown From 'black Plate' 10. Fresh Mounted Mint, Full Margins...#610 Gb Qv 1840 2d Twopence Blue On Entire Black MxQv Gb 1840 1d Sg2 Penny Black Collection 34 Stamps UnsortedGreat Britain 1958 Graphite 3d 2 Lines At Left (sg 592a) Unmounted Mint (j1295)Great Britain 1840 Penny Black 4 Margins 'spacefiller' (j1287)Gb Used Abroad Valparaiso Chile, 10d Brown Sg 112 (j1205)Sg 2 1d Black Lettered I.f. Mounted Mint. 3 Margins Cat £12,5001840 1d Penny Black 4 Margin On An 1840 Cover - Rf013Great Britain Uk Gb Huge Used Collection Stock From Classic Big Stockbook - Top!Box 2 Gb Glory Box Huge Amount Of Stamps, Pages, Covers, Phq's Kiloware EtcStamp Album With Approx 300 Mint Mostly From U.k And Channel Islands - B47Gb 1880 2/- Brown (pl.1) Used, Sg#121 Cv£4200 Very Scarce StampHigh Cat Qv 1887 Jubilee Values To 1/- - All With Superb Cds (53) - Rf141Great Britain Stamps 1840 Sg 2 Penny Black Large Margins Canc VfGb 1840 1d Black Lettered Ol - Red Maltese Cross - 3 Margins - UsedGreat Britain - 1840 1d 'penny' Black (hl) 'spacefiller' - UsedAlbum Full Of First Day Covers Mostly From The 1980's - P09#622 Gb Qv 18.. Victoria Spare Cards X8 Le & Sp Misc. AccumulationGb Kgvi Sg478 - 10s Dark Blue - 1939 High Value - Very Fine Mint Mh - Sc #251Great Britain Uk Gb Large Mnh Collection / Stock In Big StockbookGb 1840 Sg2 1d Penny Black Lettered Ta 4 Margin Neat Red MxGb Queen Victoria Line Engraved 1840 2d Blue Sg5 (cat £900)Lot:18440 Gb Qv Surface Printed Sg117 1s Green Fine Used Sg119 2s Blue Fine Gb Qv 1840 1d Penny Black 4 Margin Red Mx Cancel Sg 2Old Liberty Album With Stamps From 1840 Sg2, 1d Black, Used. Cat £375. Red Mx. Hd(898) Very Good Sg126 Qv 5/- Rose Plate 1 Lightly Cancelled "liverpool" CdsGb Kgv Sg438 £1 Black Puc-fine Used But Has Been Washed #618 Gb Qv 18.. Mint Various On Card C£299+ (16)Great Britain 1840 Penny Black, 3 Margins Faults (j1325)Gb. Kgv. Sg 402, 10/- Indigo, 1913 Waterlow. Well Centred Example.G.b. - Lovely 1840 1d Black Mourning Envelope With Red Maltese Cross Gb 1940 (6th May) Stamp Centenary Scarce Red Illust Fdc Peebles Cds, Cat £50+Gb Penny Grey Black Worn Plate 1840 #3 Pl1a Sf Red Maltese Cross Imperf StampGreat Britain 1847-54 Embossed 6d Purple (sg 60) Fine-used (j1192)Gb. Qv. Sg 183, 10/- Ultramarine. Part Strand Cds. Well Centred, Superb Colour.(849) Very Fine Lightly Cancelled Sg86 Qv 9d Bistre Plate 2Great Britain 1874 Cover West Indian Mail Manchester To Vera Cruz (j1289)1902-03 O.w.official 10d (sg O40) Sold 'as Is' Used (j1168)1878 1d. Rose-red Sg 43 Plate 187 - Hand Illustrated Front To Wragby, Lincs.