In 1661, only a year into his tenure as England’s Postmaster General, Henry Bishop declared the invention of a new stamp-mark to ensure prompt delivery of the mail. The seal would be affixed to each letter, “shewing the day of the moneth that every letter comes to this office, so that no letter Carryer may dare to detayne a letter from post to post.” This system was immediately adopted by the British Royal Mail, creating the world's first stamped-mail service. “Bishop marks,” as these early stamps are called, featured a circle shape divided in two parts, with the upper half indicating the day and the lower half the month. The marks were used in various forms up through 1787, when the British post began transitioning to stamps with more detailed information.

The postal system Bishop managed only delivered mail between the post offices of major towns; smaller localities and even specific neighborhoods in large cities were left out. In 1680, the demand for local delivery in London inspired William Dockwra to open an independent postal service. Dockra’s staff of rebel couriers, who referred to themselves as “the undertakers,” appointed hundred of houses as receivers, where letters could be left for collection every hour and then taken to larger distribution offices. The delivery fees were one penny for letters traveling within the city, and two pennies for those to the suburbs.

Like the official Bishop system, Dockwra also used a hand-stamp to verify paid postage. These stamps were triangular in shape and inscribed with the words “Penny Post Paid” and a single centered initial, which indicated the collection office. The British government’s postal monopoly shut down Dockwra’s service within two years, but continued operating a local “Penny Post” using a remarkably similar triangular stamp. Letters marked with Dockwra’s original stamps are extremely rare and highly valued today.

When Rowland Hill published his pamphlet advocating Post Office reform more than 100 years later in 1837, postage prices had gone up considerably, but the stamping system was basically unchanged. Hill's criticisms focused on these exorbitant fees, and his broadside was directed toward an official Commission of Inquiry that had been organized to investigate Royal Post Office mismanagement.

One of Hill’s proposals was prepaid postal stationery, including letter-sheets, wrappers, and envelopes, as well as smaller stamped labels, which he described as “bits of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, and covered at the back with a glutinous wash.” Hill also suggested that postage be uniformly charged by weight, rather than the existing system based on destination proximity and pages per letter.

In the summer of 1839, a Parliamentary “Penny Postage” bill was passed; by May of the following year, Britain’s first adhesive stamps were printed. These first two stamps, known as the Penny Black and Two Pence Blue, featured an engraved portrait of Queen Victoria with the word “Postage” along the top edge and the price written along the bottom. The lower two corners also included a letter code indicating the individual stamp’s placement on each printed sheet. Original stamp sheets were imperforate, and included directions for placing the postage above and to the right of the handwritten address. Adhesive stamps became compulsory for the British post in 1853.

The first canceller used for British stamps was shaped like a Maltese cross and required red ink. However, Royal Mail officers soon realized how easy these cancellation marks wer...

Notably, the words “Great Britain” weren’t included anywhere on these first adhesive stamps, essentially because England was the only country in the world issuing paper stamps at the time. The omission became standard, and has been maintained on all official British postage ever since.

Other countries were relatively slow to adopt adhesive stamps, though Great Britain encouraged each of the postal services in its colonies to release their own. One of the rarest stamps ever produced was an imitation of England’s original penny stamps issued by the island colony of Mauritius. After stamps ordered from the United Kingdom were indefinitely delayed, the Governor of Mauritius asked a local engraver to create a red one-cent and blue two-cent stamp designed after England’s Penny Black and Two Pence Blue. Five hundred of each kind were produced, and all sold out within a few days of their release in September of 1847.

Other British colonial rarities include the Lady McLeod shipping stamps from Trinidad in 1847, the plain stamps issued in Hamilton, Bermuda beginning in 1848, and Guyana’s famed one cent, black-on-magenta stamp of 1856.

Britain’s first commemorative stamps were technically produced in 1887, on the 50th anniversary, or “Golden Jubilee,” of Queen Victoria’s ascension to the throne. However, these designs were used throughout the remainder of Victoria’s reign, unlike more modern commemoratives which have a limited production run. The country’s first commemorative specially designed for a current event were created by Harold Nelson for the British Empire Exhibition in 1924. In addition to the exhibition title and requisite bust of King George V, the image also showcased a symbolic roaring lion.

Early British commemoratives always featured portraits of royalty, though designers experimented with increasingly diverse and informal imagery during the 20th century. For example, in 1948 the Silver Anniversary of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth was celebrated with stamps based on Dorothy Wilding’s photographs of the royal couple.

The first commemorative stamps without a royal figure were those honoring William Shakespeare’s Quatercentenary in 1964. During the following years, the British Royal Mail increased its output of commemorative lines, releasing several series each year on subjects ranging from historic events and national monuments to artwork and wildlife.

Notable designers for early British stamps include Bertram Mackennal and G.W. Eve, who along with engraver J.A.C. Harrison created many classic portraits and pictorial designs. Their “Sea-Horses” series of 1913 is very desirable among collectors, and depicts Brittania’s chariot pulled by a team of equine creatures and flanked by a bust of King George V. As an avid philatelist, George V specifically asked that Mackennal and Eve use the older intaglio printing process for these stamps, which was out of fashion due to the popularity of letterpress technology.

The most prolifically reproduced design in British philatelic history is the Machin series of stamps, first issued in 1967. Featuring a portrait of Queen Elizabeth originally sculpted by Arnold Machin, thousands of different versions of these stamps have since been created, and its design is still issued by the British post today.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Collect GB Stamps

Collect GB Stamps

A large and well-organized database of British stamps from 1840 to the present, browsable by year, by specific issu… [read review or visit site]

British Postal Museum and Archive

British Postal Museum and Archive

This extensive website from Britain's Postal Heritage Trust is a deep resource on all things postal. Start with the… [read review or visit site]

Alphabetilately

Alphabetilately

First shown in 2008 to celebrate the Smithsonian National Postal Museum's 15th anniversary, Alphabetilately is esse… [read review or visit site]



Clubs & Associations

Most watched eBay auctions    

Gb 1840-2003 Huge Stamp Collection In Large Box, 8x Album/fdc/covers/much CompleGb 1840 Penny Black (a I) Plate 8 Four Margins, Very Fine Used (n094)8060aj Gb C1840-1951 Mint & Used Stamp Collection Incl Penny Blacks & Seahorses?Gb 1840 Penny Black (q D) Plate 3 Four Margins, Very Fine Used (n095)Gb, 1840-41 Valuable Early Classic Imperf Line Engraved Stamp CollectionGreat Britain Victoria 2s Brown Sg 121 Cat Value £4,200 Used (n043)Great Britain 1840 2d Blue (sg 5) '4' Margins Fine Black Maltese Cross (n170)Sg438, 1929, £1 Puc, Mounted Mint, King George V, Gb, Britain, Uk, KgvGreat Britain 1840 Penny Black (e H) Plate 2 '4' Margins Fine-used (n169)Gb. Qv, Sg 136, £1 Brown Lilac. Wmk: Large Anchor. Rare. Fine Used.Gb- Superb Unmounted Specialised Edvii 1902/10 Collection1913 £1 Green Seahorse (sg 403) Cat Value £3,000 Very Fine L.h.m. (n309)British Army Crimea 1856 Cover From Plymouth To Lt. Col. Royal Engineers (o1331)Sg404, £1 Dull Blue-green, Seahorse, Fine Used, George V, Gb, Britain, Uk, KgvSg185, Scarce £1 Brown-lilac, Good Used. Cat £2800. Wmk Crowns. Perfin Aa1911-13 Somerset House Printing Set Of (8) Sg 287-314 Unmounted Mint (n118)Post & Go The Nmrn-error Poppy - Missing Remembrance OverprintGb. Qv, Sg 47, 2d Deep Blue. Plate 15. Mounted Mint.Gb 1840 2d Twopenny Blue Sg5 3 Margins Black Mx Deep Colour Sg Cat £900#996 Gb Qv 1900 Jubilee 1s Umm Corner Marginal Sg214 CGreat Britain 1929 Puc £1 Black, Sg 438 Fine-used (n063)[//03] Gb 1883 Sg#135 (b-d) Used Plate 1 Cv:Sg3, 1d Grey-black, Good Used, 4 Huge Margins. Cat £500. Black Mx. SlSg5, 2d Blue, Good Used, 4 Margins. Cat £850. Red Mx. Nc1966 World Cup Gb Fdc "winners" Harrow & Wembley Pm 18/08/66 "signed Alf Ramsey"1891 £1 Green Sg212 Mint Error Double Frame Sg Cat £4,000+++Qv Entire 1840 Gb Maltese Cross On 1d Penny Black Stamp 3 Margin Plate 2 ModburyGb- Qv Two Penny Black Covers Plus Penny Red With London NumeralGreat Britain 1840 Penny Black (g A) Plate 5, Three Margins (n057) Sir Alec Guinness 'star Wars' Hand Signed Autographed First Day Cover FdcGv Puc Sg # 438 1929 £1 Um Mint Cat: £750 ($1200). Cert.Gb- Collection Qv To GviGb 1841 Mint Mounted Or Used 2d Blue 4 Margins Superb ColourSg2, 1d Black, Used. Cat £375. Red Mx. HiSg265, 10s Ultramarine, Good Used, Cds. Cat £475. Jersey[//08] Gb 1840 Qv Two Penny Blue (o-j) 4 Margins!! With Red Maltese CrossGreat Britain 1840 2d Blue (sg 5) Used (n058)[/86] Gb 1840 Qv Two Penny Blue (b-j) 4 Margins!! With Red Maltese Cross1912 Royal Cypher Definitive Set (15) Sg 351/396 (inc Sg 393a) Unmounted (o1387)Great Britain 1891 £1 Green Sg 212 Fine-used (o1327)Great Britain 1902 £1 Green Sg 266 Fine-used (n064)Lot:7242 Qv Sg54 1s Green Embossed Issue On Cover Entire Along With 1841 1d RedGb Used Abroad Malta C.d.s. 6d Chestnut Plate 12 Very Scarce (o1333)Gb 1840 Penny Black On Cover Dated 5/12/14 Red Mx 3 Margins Plate 8 Sg2 Entire8056aj Gb C1870-1989 Mint/used Collection In Good Condition Davo Album+ SlipcaseSuper Qv Line Engraved Selection Used Inc Penny Black! Penny Black 1d Stamp. 1840. R-l. *super Rare* Authenticated.1939 Sg478 10s Dark Blue Very Fine Unmounted Mint (mnh) Marginal 99p Start[/80] Gb 1840 Qv One Penny Black (o-d) 4 Margins!!with Red Maltese CrossGb Qv Sg2 Penny Black - Unplated - 4 Margins - Red Maltese Cross. Catalogue £400Great Britain Penny Black, Letters SdGb Selection Of 40 X Pre-decimal Mainly Machin Booklets(151) Superb 4 Margin Qv Penny Black (sg2) L-a Plate 9 Full Red Maltese CrossPk.830. Large Gb First Day Cover Accumulation. Pre Decimal To More Modern.Gb. Qv, Block, Sg 43, Plate 170, 1d Reds. Unmounted.1929 One Pound Black Postal Union Congress - Used - Great Britain1911 Harrison Printing Perf 15 X 14 Set Of (5) Sg 279/286 (n119)1911-13 5s Carmine Sg 318 Somerset House Printing Fine C.d.s. (n116)Qv Sg # 126 1867-83 5/- Mint Cat: £11000 ($17600). Cert.1840 (june 30) Penny Black On Wrapper Lamberhurst To Tunbridge Wells (o1329)