In 1661, only a year into his tenure as England’s Postmaster General, Henry Bishop declared the invention of a new stamp-mark to ensure prompt delivery of the mail. The seal would be affixed to each letter, “shewing the day of the moneth that every letter comes to this office, so that no letter Carryer may dare to detayne a letter from post to post.” This system was immediately adopted by the British Royal Mail, creating the world's first stamped-mail service. “Bishop marks,” as these early stamps are called, featured a circle shape divided in two parts, with the upper half indicating the day and the lower half the month. The marks were used in various forms up through 1787, when the British post began transitioning to stamps with more detailed information.

The postal system Bishop managed only delivered mail between the post offices of major towns; smaller localities and even specific neighborhoods in large cities were left out. In 1680, the demand for local delivery in London inspired William Dockwra to open an independent postal service. Dockra’s staff of rebel couriers, who referred to themselves as “the undertakers,” appointed hundred of houses as receivers, where letters could be left for collection every hour and then taken to larger distribution offices. The delivery fees were one penny for letters traveling within the city, and two pennies for those to the suburbs.

Like the official Bishop system, Dockwra also used a hand-stamp to verify paid postage. These stamps were triangular in shape and inscribed with the words “Penny Post Paid” and a single centered initial, which indicated the collection office. The British government’s postal monopoly shut down Dockwra’s service within two years, but continued operating a local “Penny Post” using a remarkably similar triangular stamp. Letters marked with Dockwra’s original stamps are extremely rare and highly valued today.

When Rowland Hill published his pamphlet advocating Post Office reform more than 100 years later in 1837, postage prices had gone up considerably, but the stamping system was basically unchanged. Hill's criticisms focused on these exorbitant fees, and his broadside was directed toward an official Commission of Inquiry that had been organized to investigate Royal Post Office mismanagement.

One of Hill’s proposals was prepaid postal stationery, including letter-sheets, wrappers, and envelopes, as well as smaller stamped labels, which he described as “bits of paper just large enough to bear the stamp, and covered at the back with a glutinous wash.” Hill also suggested that postage be uniformly charged by weight, rather than the existing system based on destination proximity and pages per letter.

In the summer of 1839, a Parliamentary “Penny Postage” bill was passed; by May of the following year, Britain’s first adhesive stamps were printed. These first two stamps, known as the Penny Black and Two Pence Blue, featured an engraved portrait of Queen Victoria with the word “Postage” along the top edge and the price written along the bottom. The lower two corners also included a letter code indicating the individual stamp’s placement on each printed sheet. Original stamp sheets were imperforate, and included directions for placing the postage above and to the right of the handwritten address. Adhesive stamps became compulsory for the British post in 1853.

The first canceller used for British stamps was shaped like a Maltese cross and required red ink. However, Royal Mail officers soon realized how easy these cancellation marks wer...

Notably, the words “Great Britain” weren’t included anywhere on these first adhesive stamps, essentially because England was the only country in the world issuing paper stamps at the time. The omission became standard, and has been maintained on all official British postage ever since.

Other countries were relatively slow to adopt adhesive stamps, though Great Britain encouraged each of the postal services in its colonies to release their own. One of the rarest stamps ever produced was an imitation of England’s original penny stamps issued by the island colony of Mauritius. After stamps ordered from the United Kingdom were indefinitely delayed, the Governor of Mauritius asked a local engraver to create a red one-cent and blue two-cent stamp designed after England’s Penny Black and Two Pence Blue. Five hundred of each kind were produced, and all sold out within a few days of their release in September of 1847.

Other British colonial rarities include the Lady McLeod shipping stamps from Trinidad in 1847, the plain stamps issued in Hamilton, Bermuda beginning in 1848, and Guyana’s famed one cent, black-on-magenta stamp of 1856.

Britain’s first commemorative stamps were technically produced in 1887, on the 50th anniversary, or “Golden Jubilee,” of Queen Victoria’s ascension to the throne. However, these designs were used throughout the remainder of Victoria’s reign, unlike more modern commemoratives which have a limited production run. The country’s first commemorative specially designed for a current event were created by Harold Nelson for the British Empire Exhibition in 1924. In addition to the exhibition title and requisite bust of King George V, the image also showcased a symbolic roaring lion.

Early British commemoratives always featured portraits of royalty, though designers experimented with increasingly diverse and informal imagery during the 20th century. For example, in 1948 the Silver Anniversary of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth was celebrated with stamps based on Dorothy Wilding’s photographs of the royal couple.

The first commemorative stamps without a royal figure were those honoring William Shakespeare’s Quatercentenary in 1964. During the following years, the British Royal Mail increased its output of commemorative lines, releasing several series each year on subjects ranging from historic events and national monuments to artwork and wildlife.

Notable designers for early British stamps include Bertram Mackennal and G.W. Eve, who along with engraver J.A.C. Harrison created many classic portraits and pictorial designs. Their “Sea-Horses” series of 1913 is very desirable among collectors, and depicts Brittania’s chariot pulled by a team of equine creatures and flanked by a bust of King George V. As an avid philatelist, George V specifically asked that Mackennal and Eve use the older intaglio printing process for these stamps, which was out of fashion due to the popularity of letterpress technology.

The most prolifically reproduced design in British philatelic history is the Machin series of stamps, first issued in 1967. Featuring a portrait of Queen Elizabeth originally sculpted by Arnold Machin, thousands of different versions of these stamps have since been created, and its design is still issued by the British post today.

About our sources | Got something to add?

▼ Expand to read the full article ▼

Best of the Web (“Hall of Fame”)

Collect GB Stamps

Collect GB Stamps

A large and well-organized database of British stamps from 1840 to the present, browsable by year, by specific issu… [read review or visit site]

British Postal Museum and Archive

British Postal Museum and Archive

This extensive website from Britain's Postal Heritage Trust is a deep resource on all things postal. Start with the… [read review or visit site]

Alphabetilately

Alphabetilately

First shown in 2008 to celebrate the Smithsonian National Postal Museum's 15th anniversary, Alphabetilately is esse… [read review or visit site]



Clubs & Associations

Most watched eBay auctions    

Sg 5 2d Blue Plate 1 Lettered Ga Superb Used With A Red Maltese Cross 4 Fine...Gb Kg V 1913 £1 Deep Green Seahorses Waterlow Sg 403 (spec.n72[2]) VfuGreat Britain Victoria £5 Orange Sg 137 Cat Value £4,750 Fine-used (s1008)Gb, Kgv-kgvi Collection Of Mint & Used Stamps On Old Album PagesSg 5 2d Blue Plate 1 Lettered K.h. Very Fine Used Red Maltese Cross...Lot:6562 Gb Qv Lilac & Green Collection Mounted Mint & Used Missing Only The Great Britain Victoria 5s Rose Plate 4 (sg 134) Liverpool Postmark (s842)Gb 1882 Used 5/- Rose Plate 4 Sg134 Cat £4200(255) Very Fine Lightly Cancelled Qv Penny Black (sg2) T-f Plate 7Great Britain 1902 Edward Vii £1 Deep Green Sg 266 Fine L.h.m. (s989)Sg 438 £1 Puc Very Fine Used, Part Cds, Well Centred, Full Perfs1840-1887 Queen Victoria Collection On A Stock Page From 1840 2d Blue, 1883 10/-1840 1d Black,black Maltese Cross,4 Margin, Sg1 Cat £525 Ni,Gb Qv Penny Black 1840 Plate 10 Hj "o" Flaw Black Maltese Cross Sg 2 As66 FlawGb. Qv, Sg 214, 1/- Green & Red. Unmounted Mint.1902 Edward Vii 10s Ultramarine Sg 265 Fine-used (s815)Qv 1840 Penny Black Plate 4 ( I C ) With Red Maltese Cross PmkGreat Britain 1913 Waterlow 10s Indigo Seahorse Sg 402 Fine L.h.m. (s988)Great Britain 1883 9d Green Sg 195 Very Fine Used (s967)Gb 1865 Used 9d Straw W/margin Sg98 Cat £550 Superb CancelGreat Britain 1883 10s Ultramarine Sg 183 Very Fine Used (s990)Gb. Kgvi, Sg 478, 10/- Dark Blue Arms Series. Lightly Hinged.Gb Kg V 1913 10 Shillings Blue Seahorses Waterlow Print Sg 402 (spec.n69) Vfu(252) Very Good Lightly Cancelled Qv Penny Black (sg2) B-k Plate 10Gb Qv 1840 Blue 2d (f-g) With Almost 4 Margins Fine Used Beautiful Centre Mx! (253) Creased Lightly Cancelled Qv Penny Black (sg2) K-b Plate 91855 Crimea War Cover, Plymouth Sideways Duplex To British Army Crimea (s1005)Gb 1870 1/2d Rose Sg 48 Plate 9 Aberdeen C.d.s. On Piece (s968)Gb 1984 Arms 16p Stamp On Nspcc Cover, Signed By Margaret Thatcher, Limited Edit1840 (aug) 1d Black (sg 3) On Cover To London, Fine Black Mx (s1000)Great Britain, #1, Penny Black Stamp, 4 Margins, In Folder, W/cert By MysticGb Qv 1867 9d. Pale Straw Plate 4 Oh Watermark Spray Sg 110 (spec J96[2]) MnhLot:6534 Gb Edvii Jubilee Style Issue 1/2d Through To 5s Red Many Dulicates SoG.b. 1840 Used 2d Blue With Red Maltese CrossSigned First Day Cover - Ian Paisley - Northern Ireland Christian Heritage Pane.1840 2d Pale Blue, Black Maltese Cross,4 Margin, Sg 6, Cat £975 SfGreat Britain 1840 2d Blue (sg 6) Red Maltese Cross, Fine-used (s987)Gb Revenues Lot T: Medicine Duty, 13 Stamps.Gb 1891 Victorian £1 Green (sg 212) Small Central Surface Rub (s814)Lot:6632 Gb Qv 1841 1d Red Brown Imperf Strip Of 8 Stamps Ma - Mb - Mc - Md Sg2, 1d Black, Used. Cat £375. Red Mx. Id7848aj Gb From Qv To Early Qeii Mainly Used Collection Incl 1d Reds & Seahorses?1885 Cover Perth Scotland To New Zealand (6d Green Sg 194) (s909)#777 E8 Abdication Cover 10th Dec 1936Pk 653. Gb Collection. Many Qeii Mnh Sets + Decimal Sets.Gb Qv Penny Black 1840 Plate 7 Fa Stage 2 "o" Flaw Black Mx Sg 2 (spec. As44 Very Rare - Sir Richard Attenborough Signed Gandhi First Day Cover1959 Phosphor-graphite Set 8v Sg 599-609 Unmounted Mint (s946)Qv Sg 62 4d Carmine Wmk Small Garter Blued Paper London Inland Pmk 28 Cat £425-Lord Nelson Duke Of Bronte Original Autograph Signed Free Front 1824 1959 Sg 599 To 609 Phosphor Graphite Issue. Superb Used. Qv Sg 2 1d Black Rare Plate 11 Four Margins Fine Used Cat £5,7501841 Sg15aa 2d Violet Blue 4 Margin Thick Lavender Tinted Paper (mb) Cat £1800Great Job Lot Of Unused Stamps, Stamp Books, Sheets & Millennium Stamps - Jc R24Gb Modern High Value Commems Including Rare 2014 Issues, 81 Different On Paper!Great Britain Victoria 4d Vermillion Sg 94 C.d.s Superb Used (s844)Lot:6659 Gb Qv Album Page Of 1865-80 4d Red Selection Nice Selection Inc PairAn Extensive Mint Gb Pre-decimal Collection Good Wildings Lots Mnh In StockbookGb 2012/14 Latest Gb Commems Low Values Used On Paper. Over 100 Copies!!#060 Gv Sea Horses 1918-19 Bw Printing Gu Values To 10s Min C