When you think about it, typing on a computer is a magical thing—just hit the keys you want, and letters magically appear on a screen in front of you. The modern typewriter, for all of its analogue components, isn’t much different, but typewriters weren’t always so easy, intuitive, or standardized.
Henry Mill filed the first patent for a typewriter in 1714, although the machine he envisioned was never built. While a few typewriters were made sporadically in Europe and America in the early 19th century, none were produced on a large scale.
In 1874, Christopher Sholes developed one that would change that; with backing from Carlos Glidden, he proposed the design for the Sholes & Glidden typewriter to E. Remington & Sons, a manufacturing plant that had formerly specialized in guns but was looking to diversify its business with the Civil War over. In that first year, E. Remington produced 1,000 Sholes & Glidden typewriters, making it the first historically important typewriter and the first to be mass-produced.
Even so, the machine was a far cry from modern typewriters. For starters, it could only print capital letters, and the type arms struck the paper from underneath; this design was called upstrike or understrike. The unhappy result was that typists could only see what they were typing by lifting the carriage, which resulted in the nickname “Blind Remington” and prevented the Sholes & Glidden typewriter from becoming very popular, in spite of its beautiful, hand-painted floral decorations.
Yet this typewriter, for all its imperfections, would come to shape history. It was the first to utilize the now familiar “QWERTY” keyboard, so named for the sequence of keys that begins its top row of letters. Sholes designed the QWERTY keyboard to solve one of the problems of type bars: if two adjacent keys were hit in quick succession, they would collide. QWERTY keyboards minimized these clashes by separating letters frequently used in sequence (like t and h) and those used most often.
Despite its purposeful inefficiency, the Sholes & Glidden typewriter was the first to be faster than handwriting and thus showed the promise of the device. Additionally, with improved carbon paper, typewriters could generate multiple copies of the same document.
In 1878, E. Remington released an updated version of the original Sholes & Glidden, the Perfect Type Writer No. 2 (later known as Standard No. 2). This typewriter could type lowe...
But typewriters were still far from perfect. In the fashion of Darwinian evolution, typewriters mutated and evolved over time in a blossoming marketplace. Gradually, the best combinations of mechanisms and designs began to emerge, although manufacturers experimented almost endlessly along the way, sometimes simply in an effort to avoid patent infringement.
The Caligraph, released in 1881, was the first major competitor to E. Remington. Unlike the Standard No. 2, the Caligraph featured a “full” keyboard, with separate keys for lower- and uppercase letters. For years, manufacturers would battle over whether keyboards should have one set of keys (with a shift button) or two sets of keys, one for uppercase and one for lowercase.
Some ignored the debate entirely. The Hammond typewriter, for example, did not utilize type bars at all. Instead, it utilized a piece of rubber called a type shuttle, which had the type letters engraved in it. A hammer hit the paper against the type shuttle. The Oliver, which was first produced in 1894, had vertical type bars, which made it a remarkably durable choice in the deserts of North Africa during World War II, since sand would simply blow through the machine, rather than clog it up.
The Daugherty Visible of 1891 was the first typewriter to feature visible writing. Its front-strike mechanism became the standard typewriter design around 1908, when Remington and Smith Premier produced their own front-strike models.
As typewriters evolved, so did the techniques typists utilized. In 1888, touch typing—typing without looking at the keyboard—spread quickly, which heralded an even more dramatic increase in typing speed. This development, combined with the increasing availability and affordability of machines, boosted the typewriter to prominence in business offices.
Consumers who wanted a typewriter for more casual use, however, were generally hard-pressed: typewriters were almost prohibitively expensive. To meet growing demand, some manufacturers in the late 19th century developed index machines, which dispensed with keyboards altogether. Instead of typing on keys, the typist turned a knob or dial to select the desired character and then pressed a button to print that character. While these machines were slower than typewriters, they were more affordable.
This period of diversity, which many typewriter collectors consider a sort of Golden Age, saw the beginning of its end in 1896 with the release of the Underwood. The Underwood had many of the features we recognize as standard in modern typewriters—four rows of keys, with a shift key and a front strike. Type bars struck the front of the platen (the rubber roller that the paper rests on). Finally, here was a typewriter that had solved the problem of visible writing in an elegant, practical way.
In the 1920s, typewriters began to be standardized more or less along the lines of the Underwood machine, and diversity in typewriter design gradually disappeared.
Collectors today can easily identify typewriters by the brand names that are generally stamped on the fronts of these machines in large letters. The exact age and year can be more difficult to determine, but serial and model numbers are useful starting points.
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Finishing TouchesMy New Orleans, March 2nd
A vintage typewriter is displayed in the corner; an image of a typewriter is burned into the espresso bar; taps – for coffee, not beer – are topped with antique tools; and most important, everything in the shop is handmade. For everything GoodWood...Read more
Theater Review: Trinity's 'Menagerie' strange and wonderfulThe Providence Journal, March 2nd
Roebuck's piano doubles as the fire escape where Tom hangs out, and there are just a handful of props, like the vintage typewriter for Tom, the aspiring poet, and the old phonograph that Laura plays. Roebuck wanders about the stage playing an array of ...Read more
COLUMN: We've come a long way from typewritersSCNow, March 1st
days of hot lead type and Linotype machines. I missed it by one year. Really. And I don't date back to the days of the telegraph, although somewhere in a box in my garage is an antique stenotype machine that my mother bought years ago at a garage sale...Read more
Trethan: Newsroom hotel tells a different storyCherry Hill Courier Post, February 28th
Poynter cited a Boston.com story which describes the hotel, set to open in the spring, this way: “The hotel nods to the glory days of the printing press with elements like an art gallery, featuring an installation of antique typewriters, a vintage...Read more
Vintage treasures pair with country accents for a springy decorChicago Daily Herald, February 27th
17. Relate to it. "A great way to really make a favorite piece shine is to pair it with a related accessory," Borsodi says, noting the simple "Hello Spring!" printout set in the vintage typewriter. 18. Tuck and cover. The burlap shade topping Steve's...Read more
Typewriter exhibit in Bend features antique typewriters, art of printmaking ...Greenfield Daily Reporter, February 8th
BEND, Oregon — Long before the advent of tablets, laptops and, heck, fax machines, the sound of clacking typewriters, with their telltale DINGs and whooshing carriage returns, filled offices across the land. Not so much anymore. However, the nearly...Read more
Typewriters are making a comeback with millennialsFredericksburg.com, February 7th
His Etsy store RUINshop features a vintage blue Smith–Corona, as well as other typewriter-themed items such as an antique ribbon box. “This is the second one I've sold [in the month since opening the shop],” he said. “They're fascinating, but hard to...Read more
Return of the typewriterBend Bulletin, February 6th
First, the visual component: The show features contemporary prints of antique typewriters by printmakers Ben Rosenberg and Carol Wax, who use centuries-old printmaking techniques to create their works. Visitors will see nine of Wax's pieces, seven of ...Read more