Founded in 1905 as Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would become Rolex has British and Swiss roots. It was established in London as an importer of Swiss Aegler wristwatch movements, which Wilsdorf and Davis inserted into cases and sold to jewelers, who would then put their store name on the dial. The word "Rolex" was trademarked in 1908 so that Wilsdorf and Davis would have a name of their own to put on some of these watches.
It is not precisely clear where the word "Rolex" came from. Most authorities say the name derives from horlogerie exquise, which is French for "exquisite watch making." Others, including wristwatch collector Jeff Hess, believe the name was simply made up.
And then there’s the story of how Hans Wilsdorf’s partner and brother-in-law, Alfred Davis, wanted his watches to have the quality of a Rolls Royce and the ubiquity of a Timex. Borrowing the beginning and end of those two venerable brands, Davis created a new one of his own, or so the legend goes.
Whatever its origins, the name stuck, but wristwatches were still a curiosity at the beginning of the 20th century. To gain the public’s trust, Aegler had its movements tested by timing laboratories in Bienne, while Wilsdorf and Davis did the same at the Kew Observatory in England. In 1914, the movement was awarded a Class A Certificate, Kew’s first chronometer rating for a wristwatch.
In 1920, Rolex relocated to Geneva, where it remains headquartered to this day. But the major event of the 1920s for the growing company was the introduction of the Rolex Oyster in 1926. This waterproof wristwatch was given a serious test (and garnered much publicity) a year later when a young stenographer named Mercedes Gleitze wore a Rolex Oyster when she became the first British woman to swim the English Channel.
The vintage Oysters from the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s are among the most collectible Rolexes on the market today. Especially rare is the original Oyster from 1926, with its classic cushion-shape case, and the first Rolex Oyster Perpetual, a self-winding wristwatch developed in 1931.
Other vintage Oysters to look for are the Piccolinos from the 1930s, the "bubble-back" models from the 1940s, the cloisonné-dial watches from the 1950s, and the commemorative Rolex Oyster Observatory Chronometer "Kew A" Certificate from 1953...
Another Rolex watch model to gain prominence in the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s was the Prince, a slender, rectangular dress watch with cases made of sterling silver and various combinations of pink, white, and yellow gold — the striped cases are particularly handsome.
After the war, in 1945, Rolex celebrated its 40th anniversary with the Datejust, the first self-winding chronometer to show the date in a window on the dial. The 1950s brought the Submariner (1953) and GMT (1954) lines, the latter a favorite of Pan Am pilots and test pilot Chuck Yeager. The Explorer also appeared in the 1950s — its most famous customer was Sir Edmund Hillary, who wore a Rolex Explorer when he summited Mt. Everest in 1953.
Finally, in 1961, Rolex introduced its Cosmograph Daytona line to mark the 24 Hours of Daytona race (Rolex was one of the race’s sponsors). The most collectible watches in this vintage Rolex line are the so-called Paul Newman Daytonas, whose sub-dials are in a contrasting color from the main dial, and whose sub-dial faces feature blocks instead of lines to mark unnumbered minutes and decorative crosshairs at their centers. Paul Newman Daytonas can be further verified by making sure they have any of the following Reference numbers: 6239, 6241, 6262, 6263, 6264, or 6265.
Key terms for Vintage Rolex Wristwatches:
Chronometer: A watch that has been certified by the Official Swiss Chronometer Testing Institute not to lose more than four seconds per day, nor to gain more than six.
Cloisonné: A technique in which filaments of metal (often gold or copper) are soldered to a surface to create compartments that are then filled with ground enamel, fired, and polished.
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The Oscars for Watches, Just Much More ComplicatedThe Epoch Times, December 8th
Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf started Tudor with the intention of its being a more affordable watch brand. With a recent relaunch of Tudor, it's no accident that the most popular styles are the ones that look like the vintage models, such as the Heritage ...Read more
What we're wearing in…SohoTime Out London, December 8th
It's a known fact that Londoners are looking pretty fashionable these days. Whether you're in Peckham or Hackney, style-savvy individuals can be spotted everywhere. Here are a few – of the many – best dressed in Soho: Maria (pictured above): Glasses, ...Read more
Dream Machines at Speed: Historic Racing Continues at SebringThe Epoch Times, December 7th
Brian Johnson, lead singer for the rock group AC/DC and a dedicated racer (he drove in the 2012 Rolex 24) and co-driver Scott Pfeil won the Vintage class in the 1600 cc Royale, and Angus Rogers finished first in the Boxster class. Next up was the ...Read more
Heineken Cup: Gloucester front up to pain in packThe Independent, December 6th
months now: Gloucester must have Sir Steve Redgrave in their scrum, because nobody else goes backwards that quickly; Kingsholm is the worst-equipped theatre in the world, because someone stole all the props; the Cherry and Whites have a Rolex back...Read more
What to Shop From Menswear's Top Brands at the Pop Up FleaRacked NY, December 6th
and a made-to-measure shirt collaboration between Gitman Bros Vintage and Hill-Side Shirts. Prices range from $5 for accessories to $85,000 for a vintage Rolex watch. The flea will be open until 8pm tonight, from 11am to 7pm tomorrow, and from 12pm...Read more
Emerald green makes a luxurious alternative to blackFinancial Times, December 6th
Television producer Carol Powell wears her favourite vintage satin emerald green cocktail dress with different colours for different effects. “For work, I wear it with a navy jacket – green makes me stand out in a grey world and makes people think a...Read more
Time Stoppers: The top five watches of racing coutureRoadandTrack.com, December 5th
ROLEX COSMOGRAPH DAYTONA BIG RED (CIRCA 1973) Wondering what to wear that says couture and car culture? Check out some great glasses and gloves from Autodromo, a company better known for its watches. While the Omega Speedmaster may ...Read more
Rolex's date with time, planned fifty years onThe New Indian Express, November 9th
Aureal Bacs, Christie's horology head has significantly contributed to Italian horologer and Daytona expert Pucci Papaleo's 600 page 'The Ultimate Vintage Rolex Daytona Book' that was released last year. The sale is also Christie's farewell gift to...Read more