Founded in 1905 as Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would become Rolex has British and Swiss roots. It was established in London as an importer of Swiss Aegler wristwatch movements, which Wilsdorf and Davis inserted into cases and sold to jewelers, who would then put their store name on the dial. The word "Rolex" was trademarked in 1908 so that Wilsdorf and Davis would have a name of their own to put on some of these watches.
It is not precisely clear where the word "Rolex" came from. Most authorities say the name derives from horlogerie exquise, which is French for "exquisite watch making." Others, including wristwatch collector Jeff Hess, believe the name was simply made up.
And then there’s the story of how Hans Wilsdorf’s partner and brother-in-law, Alfred Davis, wanted his watches to have the quality of a Rolls Royce and the ubiquity of a Timex. Borrowing the beginning and end of those two venerable brands, Davis created a new one of his own, or so the legend goes.
Whatever its origins, the name stuck, but wristwatches were still a curiosity at the beginning of the 20th century. To gain the public’s trust, Aegler had its movements tested by timing laboratories in Bienne, while Wilsdorf and Davis did the same at the Kew Observatory in England. In 1914, the movement was awarded a Class A Certificate, Kew’s first chronometer rating for a wristwatch.
In 1920, Rolex relocated to Geneva, where it remains headquartered to this day. But the major event of the 1920s for the growing company was the introduction of the Rolex Oyster in 1926. This waterproof wristwatch was given a serious test (and garnered much publicity) a year later when a young stenographer named Mercedes Gleitze wore a Rolex Oyster when she became the first British woman to swim the English Channel.
The vintage Oysters from the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s are among the most collectible Rolexes on the market today. Especially rare is the original Oyster from 1926, with its classic cushion-shape case, and the first Rolex Oyster Perpetual, a self-winding wristwatch developed in 1931.
Other vintage Oysters to look for are the Piccolinos from the 1930s, the "bubble-back" models from the 1940s, the cloisonné-dial watches from the 1950s, and the commemorative Rolex Oyster Observatory Chronometer "Kew A" Certificate from 1953...
Another Rolex watch model to gain prominence in the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s was the Prince, a slender, rectangular dress watch with cases made of sterling silver and various combinations of pink, white, and yellow gold — the striped cases are particularly handsome.
After the war, in 1945, Rolex celebrated its 40th anniversary with the Datejust, the first self-winding chronometer to show the date in a window on the dial. The 1950s brought the Submariner (1953) and GMT (1954) lines, the latter a favorite of Pan Am pilots and test pilot Chuck Yeager. The Explorer also appeared in the 1950s — its most famous customer was Sir Edmund Hillary, who wore a Rolex Explorer when he summited Mt. Everest in 1953.
Finally, in 1961, Rolex introduced its Cosmograph Daytona line to mark the 24 Hours of Daytona race (Rolex was one of the race’s sponsors). The most collectible watches in this vintage Rolex line are the so-called Paul Newman Daytonas, whose sub-dials are in a contrasting color from the main dial, and whose sub-dial faces feature blocks instead of lines to mark unnumbered minutes and decorative crosshairs at their centers. Paul Newman Daytonas can be further verified by making sure they have any of the following Reference numbers: 6239, 6241, 6262, 6263, 6264, or 6265.
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Shifting Gears: A weekly digest of news and notesFlorida Times-Union, February 12th
Special for Drive Porsches take over Daytona A Ligier-HPD Honda might've won the 54th Rolex 24 At Daytona on Jan. 31, but it was the Florida Crown Region of the ... Here's the tally so far for the Sportscar Vintage Racing Association's 2016 Amelia...Read more
Great Escape: a mobile safari in BotswanaTelegraph.co.uk, February 12th
By flying there in your own vintage plane, of course, before landing it dexterously on a dusty runway while your friends look on in admiration. This is how Ralph Bousfield, one of Africa's finest and most sought-after guides, reaches us. And though...Read more
Inside A Historic Z CarSpeedhunters (blog), February 11th
As we saw in my recent feature on the Z Car Garage x OS Giken 240Z, Z Car Garage is a shop that knows a thing or two about building a well-performing street car. But Rob and the guys can also be found at the track quite often, and one of their weapons...Read more
Swiss Watches Are Getting More AffordableFortune, February 11th
Interested in a Rolex Cosmograph Daytona in platinum? Prestigetime.com is selling one for 15% off at $70,125. “Yes, the gray market has exploded,” says one large east coast retailer who deals in both contemporary and pre-owned certified vintage ...Read more
Rolex vs. Tudor: A Tale of Two Vintage Day DatesBloomberg, February 9th
With vintage watches, it's the little details that matter: Two may look nearly identical from across a room, but a few key differences visible up close can make one of them far rarer—and perhaps an incredible value—for the astute collector. This...Read more
A Vintage Cuban Rolex Submariner Preserves A Piece of HistoryCigar Aficionado, February 4th
As Cuba emerges from isolation, poised for transformative changes, a recently discovered late-1950s Rolex Submariner is a talisman from the country's turbulent past. The watch had been smuggled out of the country in the wake of the Cuban Revolution in ...Read more
Steal Paul Newman's Classic Style with These Custom Rolex DaytonasMaxim, February 3rd
Part of a new Bamford collection devoted to the history of sports watches that also includes a black and orange Rolex Explorer, the Bamford Heritage Daytona ($26,250) replicates details of the original '60s models down to the bakelite bezel and vintage ...Read more
Vintage Eye for the Modern Guy, Part 23: Rolex SubmarinerWatchtime.com, January 24th
Since we covered the Tudor Heritage Black Bay, a watch heavily influenced by historical Tudor dive watches, last week, I thought it would be appropriate this week to take a look at Rolex's modern diver: the Submariner. This incredibly iconic watch ...Read more