Founded in 1905 as Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would become Rolex has British and Swiss roots. It was established in London as an importer of Swiss Aegler wristwatch movements, which Wilsdorf and Davis inserted into cases and sold to jewelers, who would then put their store name on the dial. The word "Rolex" was trademarked in 1908 so that Wilsdorf and Davis would have a name of their own to put on some of these watches.
It is not precisely clear where the word "Rolex" came from. Most authorities say the name derives from horlogerie exquise, which is French for "exquisite watch making." Others, including wristwatch collector Jeff Hess, believe the name was simply made up.
And then there’s the story of how Hans Wilsdorf’s partner and brother-in-law, Alfred Davis, wanted his watches to have the quality of a Rolls Royce and the ubiquity of a Timex. Borrowing the beginning and end of those two venerable brands, Davis created a new one of his own, or so the legend goes.
Whatever its origins, the name stuck, but wristwatches were still a curiosity at the beginning of the 20th century. To gain the public’s trust, Aegler had its movements tested by timing laboratories in Bienne, while Wilsdorf and Davis did the same at the Kew Observatory in England. In 1914, the movement was awarded a Class A Certificate, Kew’s first chronometer rating for a wristwatch.
In 1920, Rolex relocated to Geneva, where it remains headquartered to this day. But the major event of the 1920s for the growing company was the introduction of the Rolex Oyster in 1926. This waterproof wristwatch was given a serious test (and garnered much publicity) a year later when a young stenographer named Mercedes Gleitze wore a Rolex Oyster when she became the first British woman to swim the English Channel.
The vintage Oysters from the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s are among the most collectible Rolexes on the market today. Especially rare is the original Oyster from 1926, with its classic cushion-shape case, and the first Rolex Oyster Perpetual, a self-winding wristwatch developed in 1931.
Other vintage Oysters to look for are the Piccolinos from the 1930s, the "bubble-back" models from the 1940s, the cloisonné-dial watches from the 1950s, and the commemorative Rolex Oyster Observatory Chronometer "Kew A" Certificate from 1953...
Another Rolex watch model to gain prominence in the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s was the Prince, a slender, rectangular dress watch with cases made of sterling silver and various combinations of pink, white, and yellow gold — the striped cases are particularly handsome.
After the war, in 1945, Rolex celebrated its 40th anniversary with the Datejust, the first self-winding chronometer to show the date in a window on the dial. The 1950s brought the Submariner (1953) and GMT (1954) lines, the latter a favorite of Pan Am pilots and test pilot Chuck Yeager. The Explorer also appeared in the 1950s — its most famous customer was Sir Edmund Hillary, who wore a Rolex Explorer when he summited Mt. Everest in 1953.
Finally, in 1961, Rolex introduced its Cosmograph Daytona line to mark the 24 Hours of Daytona race (Rolex was one of the race’s sponsors). The most collectible watches in this vintage Rolex line are the so-called Paul Newman Daytonas, whose sub-dials are in a contrasting color from the main dial, and whose sub-dial faces feature blocks instead of lines to mark unnumbered minutes and decorative crosshairs at their centers. Paul Newman Daytonas can be further verified by making sure they have any of the following Reference numbers: 6239, 6241, 6262, 6263, 6264, or 6265.
Key terms for Vintage Rolex Wristwatches:
Chronometer: A watch that has been certified by the Official Swiss Chronometer Testing Institute not to lose more than four seconds per day, nor to gain more than six.
Cloisonné: A technique in which filaments of metal (often gold or copper) are soldered to a surface to create compartments that are then filled with ground enamel, fired, and polished.
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Tory Burch's New Watches Are Great, But They'll Cost YouFashionista, October 1st
The company was nice enough to send me The Buddy Classic, a vintage-inspired style with a square stainless steel case and leather strap. While I like it a lot and the quality seems decent, I was surprised to find out ... While Burch certainly isn't in...Read more
Jewelers of America Announce GEM Award NomineesRapaport, October 1st
Press Release: Jewelers of America (JA), the national trade association for businesses serving the fine jewelry marketplace, has announced the GEM Award nominees in the categories of design, marketing and communications and media excellence...Read more
What the Lilly Pulitzer Team Wears to Work (Color! Prints!)Racked National, September 30th
Mira Fain, Senior Vice President of Design, is wearing the Lilly Pulitzer Morada knit maxi dress, Lilly Pulitzer Beach Club sandals, Lilly Pulitzer Sea Treasure cuff, and a mix of gold and vintage bracelets, a diamond ring, and a Rolex watch. What's...Read more
James Earl Jones, 83, is the Beating Heart of Broadway's “You Can't Take It ...ShowBiz411.com, September 28th
Scott Ellis has taken what is a complicated piece to stage– lots of characters, split second comic movement– and made it run like a vintage Rolex. JEJ is just one factor, and what a great idea to have him play “Grandpa”–Martin vander Hoff– the...Read more
Strapped For TimeForbes, September 27th
Whether it be a contemporary Rolex Rolex GMT Master on a vivid sky blue NATO or a vintage Blancpain Fifty Fathoms on a distressed Italian leather “Top Side-Stitch,” a strap is a superb way to give any watch a fresh look. So let's take a look at the top...Read more
Dwight D. Eisenhower's Rolex Datejust Fails to Sell at Boston AuctionBloomberg, September 17th
Similarly, it's important to note that a non-sale on the Eisenhower watch is not indicative of the high-end vintage watch market at large. The final bid on this watch was still orders of magnitude larger than the price of a similar watch without the...Read more
Rolex Submariner: Lost and FoundForbes, September 8th
Spotted on the wrist of James Bond, Steve McQueen, Eric Clapton, and an innumerable list of other notable figures, the Submariner is patently Rolex's most talked-about watch. The Submariner reference 6024, the first reference in the series, was...Read more
The Romantic Appeal of Heritage TimepiecesNew York Times, September 2nd
Q. What are the watches that are currently having the fastest rise in value in the vintage watch market? A. The exotic vintage Rolex sport models, I'd say. And when I say exotic, I mean a Rolex with nuances, like an underline dial or an exclamation...Read more